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Full text of "Tyler's quarterly historical and genealogical magazine"

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GENEALOGY 
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OCT 2 6 1920 



Tyler's Quarterly Historical 



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Genealogical Magazine 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



VOLUME I. 









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RICHMOND, VA. 

WHITTET & SHEPPERSON Printers 

1920 






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Vol. I. No. 1. 



JULY, 1919 



pier's; (©uarterlp historical 

anb 




Genealogical Jfflaga^ne 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



Copy of This Number, $1.00. 



$3.00 Per Year 



©pter'g ©uarterlp historical anb 
(genealogical JHagajtne 

Address all communications to the Editor, Lyon G. Tyler, 
Holdcroft, Charles City County, Va.. 

Vol. I. JULY, 1919. No. 1. 

CONTENTS 



Richmond Light Infantry Blues 1 

The Virginia State Library 18 

Reminiscences of Kentucky and Her Early Patriots 26 

Judicial District for West Virginia 31 

Sale of Tobacco 3-5 

William Howard, the Pirate 3G 

Petition of Sarali Bland 40 

Skins and Furs 42 

The Blue Coat Boys 43 

Letters 46 

Martian. By Judge John L. Thomas 52 

Tombstones in New Kent County, Va 58 

Notes from Barton's Colonial Decisions 60 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 6S 



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6797134 

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(genealogical Jfflagajme 

Vol. I. JULY, 1919. No. 1 



EICHMOXD LIGHT INFANTRY BLUES, OF RICHMOND, 

VIRGINIA. 

(From Ruddy & Duval's "U. S. Military Magazine," Philadelphia, 
October, 1841.) 

The Richmond Light Infantry Blues is one of the oldest vol- 
unteer companies in the United States. Like the ''moss covered 
bucket revered for its age/' it is now cherished for its antiquity, 
and as the young green moss grows healthily upon the old bucket, 
so our youth, who have taken the places of the ancients of other 
da} r s, put forth their vigorous limbs, renewing the life of the old 
stock and keeping alive the spirit of former times. The date 
of the formation of the company cannot be precisely ascertained.* 
The register of the officers in the service of the State prior to the 
year 1793 has been lost, and the earliest record of the company 
has its date about the latter end of that year; but we have sufficient 
testimony to establish the fact that the company existed several 
years prior to that time. There are but two members now living 
who were in the company in 1793. These are George Watt and 
Zalma Rehine; the first, one of the oldest and most respectable 
of our citizens, and the last, a worthy resident of the city of Balti- 
more. Mr. Watt was the Secretary of the company in 1793, Mr. 



* Its first commander, however, as we have been informed by un- 
doubted testimony, was John Wilson, but whether he raised the com- 
pany by his individual exertions, or was elected after it had been 
formed by the exertions of others, — what was the date of his com- 
mission and how long he continued in command, are facts which we 
have not been able precisely to ascertain. There is no record evidence 
of these facts in existence, and the information derived from indi- 
viduals is too vague to be relied upon. 



2 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Eehine its second Corporal. From these gentlemen we learn that 
the company was in existence prior to 1793, but the exact date 
they cannot designate — that at its commencement, its uniform 
was a scarlet coat with white trimmings, but in consequence of 
the prejudice then existing to the uniform but few could be in- 
duced to become members. The "Bed Coats," the uniform of the 
British Begulars, could not be tolerated at so short a period after 
the Bevolution, and so long as this uniform was retained the com- 
pany languished and struggled to keep itself in existence. In 
April, 1793, it was reduced to about twenty men, and had not 
many spirited citizens determined to make an effort to sustain it, 
it would have been disbanded. At the instance of these citizens, 
a meeting of the company was convened, and they were prevailed 
upon to discard the scarlet coat and to adopt a blue coat trimmed 
with white in its stead. As soon as this determination was known, 
upwards of sixty of the most respectable citizens of Bichmond be- 
came members. A new election of officers was made by consent 
of the old members, and the whole corps was thoroughly re-or- 
ganized. Win. Bichardson who was then Captain was re-elected, 
and the other officers necessary to complete the organization were 
chosen. These were George Bichardson, Lieutenant; Bobert Mc- 
Cartney, Ensign; Alexander Yuille, 1st Sergeant; John Duns- 
more, 2d Sergeant; James Cronly, 3d Sergeant; Manuel Judah, 
4th Sergeant; Francis H viand, 1st Corporal; Zalma Behine, 2d 
Corporal; H. Ball, 3d Corporal; James Warden, 4th Corporal, 
and George Watt, Secretary. 

At this period the name of the Company was the "Bichmond 
Light Infantry," — but it appears that after the change of the uni- 
form from red to blue, they were designated in common parlance 
as '•'The Blues," and this name at last seems to have been added 
to the other by general consent. 

On the first of May, 1793, they paraded with sixty-two men, 
and in a short time their numbers increased to upwards of eighty. 
From the Militia Begister in the Executive department of the 
State, it appears that the officers elected in the preceding month 
were commissioned on the 10th day of May, and this being the first 
date on record when the existence of the corps was re-organized 



BicmioxD Light Ixfaxtry Blues 



by the State, the 10th of May has been selected as its anniversary. 
For many years this day has been kept as a day of festivity, when 
old friendships are renewed and strengthened — old scenes talked 
over and revived; when the old and the honorary members meet 
with the new, and keep alive that esprit du corps so essential to 
the preservation of all military companies. It is pleasant to the 
old to be reminded of joys that are passed while they participate 
in the enjoyment of those which are present. It is a source of 
happiness to the young to look into the vista of futurity for joys 
yet to come, while they are mingling the present enjoyment with 
those who are recurring to the past. It is pleasant to listen to the 
stoiy and the song, and to join in the merry laugh over the glad- 
some tales of other days. This is the day, too, when the company 
practise their target firing: on which occasion a silver medal is 
bestowed upon the member who proves himself the best shot. 
When this is completed it is their wont to retire to a shaded cool 
retreat by a delightful spring, and welcome their friends around 
the festive board with a soldier reception. 

We are indebted to Mr. Watt for the oldest of the company's 
records, — he having carefully preserved it as a precious memento 
of boyish days. From this record we derive the names of the entire 
corps at the period of its re-organization. It affords us informa- 
tion of the uniform then worn, and gives an insight into the mili- 
tary fashions of the day. It is a curious relic of the martial ap- 
pearance and particularity of our forefathers. Our modern dress 
would scarcely be recognized as a lineal descendant, and yet the 
present uniform is but the modernized regimentals of our honored 
sires. The changes have been so gradual as to be almost imper- 
ceptible, and we have glided from the old-fashioned long-tailed blue 
into the short coat of the present day, without knowing the quo 
modo of the change. 

On the 6th of May, 1794, the By-Laws of the company were 
revised, and new rules and regulations were adopted for its gov- 
ernment. From these revised by-laws we extract the following 
relative to the uniform : 

"Every member who shall fail to attend parade dressed in the 
following manner, viz. : Begimental coat and cap cleanly brushed, 



4 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

white waistcoat, short breeches and stockings, black gaiters or half 
boots, black knee bands and black stock, with their hair combed, 
powdered and turned up behind, face shaved, musket and bayonet 
bright and clean, together with cartouch box and bayonet case in 
proper order, shall forfeit and pay the sum of three pence, three 
farthings for each article deficient, or in improper condition, and 
any commissioned officer guilty of a similar offence, shall pay six 
times the sum imposed on a private." 

The Eegimental coat was the same worn by the old continental 
officers. The cap was a sugar-loafed fur hat, with a grey fox tail 
from front to rear over the top, a leopard skin around the brim 
over the fox tail, tied with a blue ribbon behind, and an .oval tin 
plate in front, having an eagle and stars painted upon it and 
the name and date of the company, with a long plume of black 
feathers tipped with white. 

About the close of the administration of the elder Adams, 
when party spirit was at its height, much discord and dissention 
prevailed in the company. The politics of the day were mingled 
with company matters, and confusion was the result. Each party 
desired to have officers of its own politics, and each desired the 
entire control of the affairs of the corps, and to such an extent 
was this feeling carried that the existence of the company was 
jeopardized. At last, however, like the patriarchs of old, they 
mutually agreed to separate in peace, and the one party said to 
the other, "Let there be no strife between me and thee,'"' 'Tf thou 
wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou 
depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left." Thus two 
companies were formed out of the one, and each gaining accessions 
from the parties of the day, both became respectable in numbers. 
The Richmond Light Infantry Blues retained the officers then 
in command, who we,re Captain Richardson, Lieutenant John 
Dunsmore and Ensign Henry S. Shore; and the other party formed 
.1 new company, which they styled "The Republican Blues," and 
elected John Dixon, Captain: Joshua West, Lieutenant, and Rich- 
ard Thompson, Ensign. The rivalry between the two companies 
only served to keep alive their military ardour. The Republican 
Blues lived for many years, but were finally disbanded, the old 



Eichmond Light Ixfaxtry Blues 5 

company continuing in its onward career. Its by-laws required a 
monthly parade, which was strictly adhered to. 

The first active service rendered to the State was in the year 
1800. On the 30th of August of that year, information was re- 
ceived by the Governor of the State, that an extensive insurrection 
of the slaves was contemplated, and that it was to take place during 
the night of that day. This information having been derived 
from two slaves who could be relied on, and the plan of opera- 
tions having been somewhat developed, the Executive took im- 
mediate steps to encounter the danger. The 19th and 33d Begi- 
ments of militia, being those in Eichmond and its immediate vi- 
cinity, were ordered to hold themselves in readiness. The volun- 
teer companies attached to the 19th Eegiment, of which the Blues 
constituted a part, immediately paraded, and in one hour after 
the order was issued reported themselves ready for service. Am- 
munition was distributed among them and they were ordered to 
patrol the city and its environs and guard the public buildings, 
in which the arms and ammunition of the State were secured and 
the State prisoners were kept. 

The plan of the insurrection had been well devised, and had it 
been executed would have produced bloodshed and destruction. 
The slaves had elected a general and other officers, had armed 
themselves temporarily with scythe blades and other similar 
weapons, and it was their design to take possession of the State 
Arsenal, and distribute arms to those who should unite in the 
cause. They contemplated assembling in the country about five 
miles from the city, and in the dead of night firing several wooden 
buildings in the lower end of the town, and when the citizens 
should have been assembled at the fire they designed taking pos- 
session of the public arms and murdering every male citizen in 
his defenceless condition as he returned from the fire or as he 
could be caught at his private house. That night, however, there 
fell the heaviest rain that had ever been known in Virginia ; and 
in a few hours the smallest streams were swollen to such an extent 
as to be wholly impassable. This Providential interposition worked 
upon their superstitious fears and induced an abandonment of 
their designs for that night, and finding afterwards from the prep- 



6 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

arations that were making in the city that their schemes had been 
detected and their general and other ringleaders in the conspiracy 
having been captured and executed, the whole plan was frustrated 
and tranquility was restored to the State. The troops were kept 
in service from the 30th of August to the 18th of October and were 
then discharged. In the message of Governor Monroe to the Legis- 
lature in the succeeding December, he uses the following compli- 
mentary language to those who had been mustered into service. 

"I cannot too much commend the conduct of the militia on 
this occasion. They were obedient to order, exact in their dis- 
cipline, and prompt in the execution of every duty that was on- 
coined on them. Their improvement was rapid and far exceeded 
anything I had ever witnessed. r\"or can it be doubted, had a 
crisis occurred, they would have proved as firm and decisive in 
action, as they were patient and persevering in the discharge of 
every other duty." 

This testimonial affords the highest evidence of the discipline 
and conduct of these troops. 

The company continued their monthly parades, ever prompt to 
render any service to the State, always well disciplined and ef- 
ficient. 

On the 22d of June, 1807, the memorable attack by the British 
ship of war Leopard, Capt. Humphreys, was made upon the U. S. 
frigate Chesapeake, commanded by Commodore Barron. The his- 
tory of this unwarrantable attack and of the surrender of the 
Chesapeake in consequence of her unprepared condition is too well 
known to be dwelt upon. The information of her capture reached 
Richmond on Saturday evening, June 27th. The whole com- 
munity were indignant at the outrage, and a meeting of the citizens 
was convened, at which the most glowing and patriotic resolutions 
were adopted. On Monday, the 29th of June, the Blues were called 
together at the Bell Tavern and the following resolutions were 
adopted : 

"The company of R. L. I. Blues have heard with sentiments 
of abhorrence and indignation the account of the late base and 
cowardly attack made by the British ship of war Leopard, of 50 
guns, upon the United States frigate Chesapeake, of 3G guns, 



Richmond Light Infantry Blues 






while iu a state of profound peace. This outrage, unparalleled in 
the history of nations, can be viewed in no other light than a de- 
claration of war, and although as citizens, the members of this 
company are highly sensible of the blessings of peace, as soldiers 
they are ever ready to avenge an insult offered to their country 
by any nation whatever. 

"Resolved, therefore, That as citizens and soldiers, the members 
of this company pledge their fortunes and their lives in support 
of such measures as the government of their country may in its 
wisdom adopt for the purpose of obtaining satisfaction. 

"Resolved, That these proceedings be signed by the Captain 
and Secretary of the company, and a copy thereof be transmitted 
to the President of the United States, and that they be inserted 
in the newspapers of the city of Richmond.'" 5 

We accordingly find them so inserted, signed by Win. Rich- 
ardson, Captain, and James Brown, Jr., Secretary. 

The following answer to these resolutions, which were duly 
forwarded to the President of the United States, was received by 
the company : 

"To Capt. W. Richardson and the company of the R. L. f. Blues: 
"The offer of )'our services, in support of the rights of your 
country, merits and meets the highest praise, and whenever the 
moment arrives, in which these rights must appeal to the public 
arm for support, the spirit from which your offer flows, that which 
animates our nation, will be their sufficient safeguard. 

'•'To the Legislature will be rendered a faithful account of the 
events which have so justly excited the sensibilities of our country, 
of the measures taken to obtain reparation, and of their result, and 
to their wisdom will belong the course to be ultimately pursued. 
In the meantime it is our duty to pursue that prescribed by the 
existing laws; towards which, should your services be requisite, 
this offer of them will be remembered. 

"I tender you, for your country, the thanks you so justly de- 
serve. 

"July 8th, 1807. Thomas Jefferson/' 

The services of the company were also tendered to the Execu- 



8 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazixe 



five of the State in case of further hostilities. The spirited pro- 
ceedings of the citizens of Norfolk and the surrounding counties, 
and their refusal to permit supplies to be furnished to the British 
fleet then in our waters, caused the British Admiral to publish a 
threat that if those supplies were not furnished as theretofore, he 
would take them hy force. This information having been communi- 
cated to the Executive of the State, a part of General Matthews' 
Brigade was immediately ordered into service; and in addition, 
most of the volunteer companies then in the city of Richmond. 
These volunteers, composed of the Cavalry commanded by Captain 
Sheppard, the Light Infantry Blues commanded by Captain Rich- 
ardson, and the Republican Blues commanded by Captain Ran- 
dolph, left Richmond on the 8th of July, 1807. They had but a 
day to make their preparations: and being unprovided with camp 
equipage they were compelled to obtain quarters wherever they 
could be afforded. They performed the march of 120 miles on 
foot in less than five days, having left Richmond on the 8th and 
arriving in Portsmouth on Sunday evening, July 12th. They 
were badly provided with provisions and every necessary of life 
and suffered severely in this expedition. In consequence of assur- 
ances from General Matthews that the Militia already called into 
service from his Brigade, aided by the Cavalry from Richmond 
and Petersburg, would be amply sufficient to repel any attack that 
could be made by any force which could be spared from the British 
squadron, the Infantry from Richmond and Petersburg were or- 
dered to be discharged, and it appears by the papers published in 
Richmond at that time that the R. L. I. Blues and the Republican 
Blues returned to the city on the 28th of July, 1807, and were 
escorted into the city by the new corps of volunteer Cavalry com- 
manded by Colonel Carrington, by the Shockoe Hill Volunteers, 
Captain Hallam; by the Artillery, Captain Street, and the dif- 
ferent military companies of the city. On their return a dinner 
was given to the companies who had been in service by those who 
bad remained at home, at which much good feeling and many 
patriotic sentiments were elicited. The company were on duty 
only twenty days, and were discharged because there was no further 
occasion for their services. By their pay-roll it appears that they 



Eichmond Light Ixfaxtey Blues 9 

numbered ninety-four; eleven commissioned and non-commissioned 
officers, and eighty-three privates. 

Captain Eichardson continued in command until his death, 
having been sixteen years and upwards the commander of the 
corps. He died, sincerely lamented by his men, who buried him 
with military honors. About the same period Lieutenant Duns- 
more resigned and Ensign Shore was promoted to the Captaincy, 
Wm. Murphy was elected Lieutenant, and David I. Burr, Ensign. 
Captain Shore's commission is dated June 24th, 1809; he retained 
it, however, but a short time, having resigned about the first of 
the succeeding February. Lieutenant Murphy was then promoted 
and was commissioned Captain on the "21st of February, 1810. 

Under Captain Murphy the company attained its highest pros- 
perity. The prospect of war with Great Britain and the subse- 
quent declaration of war kept alive the military spirit in the State, 
and the ranks of the Blues were well and efficiently filled. The 
company were continually ready for duty and tendered their ser- 
vices to the Executive whenever occasion should require. 

In 1814, intelligence reached the Executive department of the 
State, stating that the British fleet, then in Chesapeake Bay, had 
just been reinforced, and that from the demonstrations of some of 
their ships it was believed they would ascend the York Biver, 
with a view to disembark at the White House and march against 
the city of Eichmond. The Executive determined forthwith to 
dispatch a light corps of 700 or 800 men to prevent the landing 
of the enemy and to watch their motions. Colonel Thomas M. 
Eandolph was selected to command this corps. They were styled 
the first Corps D'Elite Brigade of Virginia Militia, and were mus- 
tered in the service of the United States. The Eichmond volun- 
teers composing a part of this corps constituted of a company of 
Flying Artillery, which had just been raised, commanded by the 
late lamented Wm. Wirt as first Captain and Wm. Lambert as 
second Captain ; a company of Eiflemen commanded by Captain 
Wm. H. Eichardson, and the Eichmond Light Infantry Blues. 
The Blues were mustered into service on the 25th of August, 1814, 
and consisted of one hundred and seven men, nineteen commis- 
sioned and non-commissioned officers, eighty privates and a band 



10 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



of eight musicians. The commissioned officers were "Win. Murphy, 
Captain; John G. Gamble, 1st Lieutenant; John G. Smith, 2d 
Lieutenant; John G. Blair, Ensign, and Wm. Finney, 2d Ensign. 
On the 25th of August, 1814, the company received its orders and 
on the same day the line of march was taken up with the finest 
and most enthusiastic spirit. The State was wholly unprovided 
with camp equipage, and the company went into service without a 
tent or any other necessary camp furniture. They procured for 
their own use a wagon to carry their baggage, and provisions were 
furnished by their own members, which were replenished in the 
same manner as an opportunity offered. On the third day's march 
they reached Worronigh Church, the place at which they were 
stationed. Most of the privates for want of other accommodations 
were quartered in the church; the officers and a few squads of 
the men constructed bush tents around the church, where they 
remained, encountering rain and mud, for nearly ten days. About 
this time tents and provisions were furnished by the State, but the 
autumnal rains having set in and the men being unaccustomed to 
such exposures, sleeping on the damp ground and with their clothes 
thoroughly saturated with water, contracted fevers, and in a very 
short time, in the small command of Colonel Randolph, upwards 
of one hundred men were on the sick list at once, of whom many 
were dangerously ill ; among the latter were Captain Murphy, 
Lieutenant Gamble and Ensign Blair, of the Blues. It was soon 
ascertained that the hostile fleet had made no progress up the 
river, and no other demonstrations having been made, all cause 
of alarm ceased, and the company were ordered home and returned 
to Richmond on the 4th, and were mustered out of service on the 
5th of October. Thus ended this disagreeable campaign, which 
only served to demonstrate the readiness of the men to endure 
fatigue and encounter danger. After serving through the campaign 
Ensign Blair resigned. 

A short time after the termination of the war Captain Murphy 
resigned, and Lieutenant Gamble was promoted, and received his 
commission on the 20th of April, 1815. He retained it, however, 
but a year, and was then promoted as a field officer in the 19th 
State Regiment. 



RicmioxD Light Ixfaxtey Blues 



11 



Again the command of the corps was tendered to Captain Mur- 
phy, and after much persuasion he was induced to accept it. His 
second commission is dated April 29th, 1816, but after serving 
nearly a year he again resigned, and Wm. Finney was promoted 
to the office; Lieutenant Smith having also resigned. 

Captain Finney received his commission on the 12th of April, 
1817. At this period the Blues were again placed upon the peace 
establishment, and the 2d Lieutenant and 2d Ensign were dis- 
pensed with. The Subalterns were David Judah, Lieutenant, 
and John Jones, Ensign. Captain Finney was an excellent officer, 
and the company continued to prosper, — its numbers being from 
sixty to eighty men. He was in command for five years, and con- 
templating a removal from the city resigned his commission. 

Again Captain Murphy was invoked to accept the command, 
and being as much devoted to the company, as its members were 
to him, he was prevailed upon to render his services the third 
time. His commission is dated on the 3d of September, 1822. 

About the close of the year 1823, the events that transpired in 
Greece caused great sensation throughout the United States, and 
invoked for the suffering Greeks the liveliest sympathy. The estab- 
lishment of a liberal, free and independent nation in the midst 
of the monarchies of the old world was looked for with anxious 
solicitude. The glory and renown of the ancient Greeks, caused 
every lover of liberty to hail the slightest gleam of hope for the 
re-establishment of that once mighty nation. The oppressions of 
the modern Greeks and their struggles for independence, roused 
every American to contribute his countenance and his purse to 
alleviate the one and to sustain the other. They hoped to see the 
laurels which had faded under the grip of despotism, revive and 
bloom again under the invigorating breath of liberty. This sym- 
pathetic feeling pervaded most of the northern cities, and large 
sums were collected to promote the cause of this oppressed people. 
In Virginia, the Blues first took up the subject, and subscribed 
liberally themselves and recommended to their brethren to aid in 
what they then believed to be a holy cause. A meeting of the com- 
pany was convened at the Bell Tavern, on Thursday evening, 



12 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

January loth, 1841, when the following resolutions were sub- 
mitted and unanimously adopted : 

"Resolved, That we consider the cause of the Greeks as deeply 
interesting to the freemen of these United States as well as to 
the friends of freedom throughout the world ; that the oppressions 
under which they have groaned^ command all our sympathies, and 
that the heroism which they have displayed during their arduous 
struggle, worthy of the best days of ancient Greece, is entitled to 
our warmest admiration. 

"Resolved, That the contributions of a free people towards the 
support of their struggling brethren is calculated to impart a moral 
energy to their cause, which may strengthen their hearts and nerve 
their arms in the days of persecution and peril ; that however small 
the gift, there is a virtue in it, which, like 'the widow's mite,' may 
hallow its application. 

"Resolved, That exclusively of the free principles which the 
Greeks are now defending, the establishment of an independent 
and enterprising nation in the peloponnesus is calculated to open 
new sources of commercial prosperity to our country, to stav the 
ambition of the Russian empire, to check the piratical spirit of 
the Barbary States, and under every point of view to command 
the warmest wishes of the enlightened statesman as well as the 
friend of freedom. 

"Resolved, That we admire the generous spirit which animates 
the Greek committee of England as well as of our own country- i 

men, who have already stepped forward to express their wishes 
and contribute their resources; and that animated by so noble an 
example, we, the Light Infantry Blues of the city of Richmond. 
the citizens of a State which has never hesitated to offer her heart 
and hand for the support of liberty, are willing to offer our humble 
tribute to the cause of the Greeks. 

"Resolved, That Messrs. Wm. Murphy, Wm, Finney and David 
I. Burr be a committee to forward to Charles Wilkes, Esq., Treas- 
urer of the Greek fund in the city of Xew York, whatever may be 
collected, together with a copy of these resolutions, and request 
him to transmit them to the proper authority in their behalf. 
with our warmest congratulations for the success which thev have 



Richmond Light Infantry Blues 13 

hitherto obtained, and with the fervent hope that their glorious 
struggles may speedily be terminated by the permanent establish- 
ment of a free, independent and energetic government. 

"Resolved, That the non-commissioned officers of the Blues be a 
committee to solicit from the present, and from the old and hon- 
orary members of the company, donations in furtherance of the 
foregoing resolutions. 

"Resolved, That the proceedings of the meeting be published." 

They were accordingly printed in the public papers of the day, 
and signed by Wm. Murphy, Chairman, and Robert B. Cringan, 
Secretary. The committee speedily collected upwards of three hun- 
dred dollars, the members subscribing five dollars each, which was 
forwarded to the Treasurer of the Greek fund as directed by the 
fourth resolution, and although the contest in which the Greeks 
were engaged terminated in their total overthrow, yet the feeling 
and spirit by which the company were actuated in making the 
contribution was one which should receive the warmest commen- 
dation. 

In the same year (1824), during the visit of General La Fayette 
to the United States, that distinguished philanthropist was in- 
vited by the volunteers of Virginia to meet them on the plains of 
York to commemorate the victory achieved by the combined Ameri- 
can and French forces over the British army at the close of the 
Revolution. This invitation was accepted, and the Blues attended 
on this festive occasion and received, in conjunction with their 
brother volunteers, the Nation's Guest on the 19th of October. 
This celebration is too fresh in the recollection of all to require 
any elaborate description, suffice it to say that the good old General 
was received as became Virginians, with a cordial welcome and 
with every demonstration of respect and attachment which gen- 
erous hearts know how to bestow. The whole corps of volunteers 
exhibited an enthusiasm and gallant bearing that called forth the 
warmest encomiums from the old patriot's ready and overflowing 
spirit. 

Captain Murphy remained in command until his death, and 
was buried with military honors. The company had demonstrated 
011 three several occasions their high estimation of his services as 



14 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



an officer, and his death was sincerely lamented. Lieutenant 
James M. Johnston succeeded to the command by promotion, and 
received his commission as Captain on the 25th of March, 1825. 
Captain Johnston was also an excellent officer, and under his com- 
mand the company continued to prosper. He retained his com- 
mission more than four years, the company keeping up their regu- 
lar monthly musters and preserving their discipline. The Subal- 
terns at this period were Lieutenant Thomas B. Bigger and Ensign 
George W. Munford. In July, 1829, Captain Johnston and Lieu- 
tenant Bigger both resigned their commissions, and Ensign Mun- 
ford was elected Captain. His commission bears date on the 22d 
of July, 1829. 

About this period disturbances were apprehended among the 
slaves; their condition had been much ameliorated in Virginia — 
the rigid discipline of former days had been succeeded by a mild 
and kind treatment, which allowed them frequently to assemble 
together and gave them greater liberty. This liberty was taken 
advantage of to plot the destruction of their owners; their as- 
semblages at camp meetings and funerals were frequent, and large 
bodies of men and women from several counties were not unfre- 
quently assembled under various pretexts. These circumstances 
induced the fear of insurrection, and constant rumors of disturb- 
ance agitated the public mind and alarmed the timid. The volun- 
teer companies in our cities were repeatedly called upon to patrol 
night after night. The Blues were ever ready upon such occasions 
and performed their full share of service. Their records show 
that they patrolled on the night of the first, third and fifth of 
August, 1829; and we know that on many other occasions similar 
services were performed of which no record has been kept. If any 
insurrections were intended at this time, the appearance of readi- 
ness on the part of the whites to encounter the danger had the 
effect of delaying the scheme during that year. But in the month 
of August of the succeeding year (1830), an insurrection of the 
Slaves did take place in the County of Southampton, and several 
entire families were horribly massacred. Upon the receipt of this 
intelligence the whole State was in a ferment. The extent of the 
defection of the Slaves was not known, the most exaggerated ac- 



Richmond Light Ixfaxtry Blces 



15 



counts swept over the State like a whirlwind. The Blues, with the 
rest of the volunteers in the city, were in a moment ready for 
action ; their services were tendered to the Executive to perform 
any duty that might be assigned. They, however, were instructed 
to remain in the city, while the Cavalry and Artillery were or- 
dered to Southampton. The insurrection having been speedily 
quelled by the citizens of the county in which it occurred, these 
companies soon returned to the city. Upon their return a detach- 
ment of the Blues were ordered by the Executive as a guard to 
transport arms intended for distribution among the militia in 
several of the Southern counties of the State. For this purpose 
Ensign Charles L. Pendleton and twenty men were detailed from 
the company and performed with the utmost alacrity the duty as- 
signed them. 

Again, in 1831, a rumor reached the city that the Slaves con- 
templated an insurrection near the Coal mines in the county of 
Chesterfield. A meeting of the company was called on the 26th 
of August, and spirited resolutions were adopted, again tendering 
their services to the State in case of necessity. These resolutions 
were transmitted to the Executive and the company received 
through Colonel Lambert, the colonel of the Regiment to which 
they were attached, a flattering testimonial of the manner in which 
their offer had been received by the Executive. They kept them- 
selves in readiness for a moment's warning, but all apprehensions 
of danger soon subsided, and there was no necessity for their ser- 
vices. In 1832, Captain Munford, having served nearly three 
■years, was promoted to the office of Major in the 19th Regiment. 
Fpon his promotion the company elected Thomas B. Bigger, who 
had been their first Lieutenant in 1829, as Captain, His com- 
mission is dated April 26th, 183?. Captain Bigger was one of 
the few survivors of that gallant little band of Petersburg volun- 
teers, who rendered such distinguished services at fort Meigs 
during the last war. He was then but a youth, and gallantly vol- 
unteered with the flower of "the cockade of Virginia" to fight 
the battles of his country. All who have heard of that gallant 
band know that every man was every inch a soldier and every 
strippling was in heart and soul a valiant man. Captain Bigger 



16 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



served as Captain more than seven years and was much beloved by 
the company. He was generous, liberal and hospitable, and con- 
tributed his fidl share to raise the character of the corps. He 
was promoted to the office of Lieutenant Colonel in the 19th Regi- 
ment, Colonel Munford, who at this time held that office, having 
resigned his commission. 

Upon the promotion of Captain Bigger the company again 
tendered the command to Colonel Munford, and he accepted the 
appointment. His second commission is dated August 8th, 1839, 
and he still continues in command. 

Many friendly visits have been paid at different times by the 
company to their brother volunteers in our sister towns of Peters- 
burg, Norfolk, Portsmouth and Fredericksburg, and on many occa- 
sions they have been honored in return by similar visits from them. 
These interchanges of friendly greetings and extensions of hos- 
pitable civilities have elicited much good feeling, and contributed 
much to keep true discipline and a military pride among our vol- 
unteers, and none have been more benefited than the Blues. They 
have rekindled their fires at the altars of their brethren, and a 
generous emulation has been excited which only prompts to greater 
exertions. It is their sincere desire that their brethren, the vol- 
unteers of their own city, as well as those of the whole State, may 
ever continue in a prosperous condition, and that each one may 
be able to say to the other in the words of that good old song, 

"We'll meet together at the foot, John Anderson my Joe." 

There are at present eighty regular members upon the Boll, 
besides a numerous list of honorary members: and attached to the 
company is a band of thirteen free coloured musicians, who have 
been regularly instructed in martial music by a competent teacher 
and who are properly uniformed at the expense of the company. 
The officers of the corps as at present organized are the following : 



George Wythe Munford, — Captain. 
George H. Tompkins, 1st Lieutenant. 
C. W. Macmurdo, Jr., do do 

Hugh A. Watt, St., 2d. Lieutenant. 
Edward X. Allen, Jr., do do 



Richmond Light Ixfaxtry Blues 17 



Sergeants. Corporals. 

E. H. Richards, — Orderly. 1st. — Isaac L. Cary, 

2d.— John H. Tompkins, 2d.— Richard C. Hall, 

3d.— Charles H. Powell, 3d.— David W. Fisher, 

4th. — Thomas Fitzwilson, -ith. — John F. Regnault, 

5th. — John B. Danforth. 5th. — Peter D. JFKinney, 

6th.— Robert M. Burton. 






18 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



THE YIEGIXIA 3TATE LIBBAEY. 

The beginnings of the Virginia State Library are to be sought 
in early Colonial times. In the collection to-day there are about 
fifty books belonging to the Council of colonial Virginia, having 
in them the Council's book-plate. The Council, it will be remem- 
bered, was a body performing executive, legislative, and judicial 
functions. It assisted the governor in the administration of laws; 
as the upper house of the General Assembly, it took part in the 
passage of laws; and as the highest court in the Colony, it inter- 
preted these laws. Its varied and responsible functions demanded 
that it should have the best assistance that could be obtained from 
books, and this demand was recognized in the early formation of 
a working library. At what date the collection of these books 
was begun, I am not at present able to say; nor can I tell how 
many books were secured for this library during its entire his- 
tory, or what number it contained at the time of its greatest ex- 
pansion. It is altogether probable, however, that the number se- 
cured first and last was considerable; for it must be remembered 
that the state house in "Williamsburg was burned several times, 
and that the removal of the capital from Williamsburg to Bich- 
mond must have been costly in books, to say nothing of the vicis- 
situdes to which the books have been subjected since first brought 
to the present capital of the State. Some day a special history 
of this collection of books may be, I hope, prepared. 

As soon as Virginia became a State, some of her enlightened 
citizens saw clearly the advantages that would ensue from the 
founding of a free public library, — one to be used not only by 
the members of the General Assembly, the judges of the various 
courts, and the department officials, but also by the citizens at 
large. Notably, Thomas Jefferson had this vision. He was a 
member of the committee of revisors of the laws of Virginia ap- 
pointed in 1776 to make a consistent code of the laws already 
on the statute books and to suggest additional laws suited to the 
new conditions. Thomas Jefferson's fellow members were Edmund 



The Virginia State Librap.y 19 

Pendleton, George Wythe, George Mason, and Thomas Ludwell 
Lee, the most of the work of the committee being done, however, 
by Jefferson, Pendleton, and Wythe. The report of the committee 
was ready for the action of the Assembly of 1779, and it was 
printed in full in 1784. It consisted of one hundred and twenty- 
six bills recommended by the committee for passage by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. The bills relating to public education were three 
in number, all written by Jefferson. The first had the title, "A 
Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge"; the second, 
"A Bill for Amending the Constitution of the College of William 
and Mary and Substituting More Certain Revenues for Its Sup- 
port"; and the third, "A Bill for Establishing a Public Library." 
This is not the place to describe Jefferson's comprehensive 
scheme for the furtherance of education. We shall have to confine 
our attention to his bill for the establishment of a public library. 
It provided that ten thousand dollars a year should be laid out in 
the purchase of books and maps for a public library to be estab- 
lished in the city of Richmond, and for defraying the expenses 
necessary for their care and preservation. The library was to be 
under the management of a board of visitors, consisting of three 
persons appointed by the General Assembly, who were to serve 
without pay, and who were to select a competent librarian to take 
actual charge of the institution. The library was to be a reference 
library, pure and simple, the privilege of withdrawing books for 
home use not being granted even to the librarian or to members 
of the board of visitors. But, in the language of the bill, the 
library was to be "made useful by indulging the researches of the 
learned and curious, within the said library, without fee or reward, 
and under such rules for preserving them safe and in good order 
and condition as the visitors shall constitute." Jefferson had a 
vision more penetrating than that of most men of his time, but 
even he was unable to foresee the day when books would be carried 
to the front doors of the users. The financial condition of Virginia 
at that time did not seem to the majority of her legislators to war- 
rant the expenditure of money for the purpose indicated. Con- 
sequently, the bill failed, and the State was compelled to wait 



20 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

many years for the advent of a library even distantly approxi- 
mating such a one as Jefferson had in mind. 

The first actual provision made by law for the establishment 
of the Virginia State Library is contained in the act of 1823, 
entitled "An Act for Completing the Publication of the Statutes 
at Large." This act set forth that a certain number of volumes 
of Hening's "Statutes at Large"' should be obtained from Mr. 
Hening at a certain price, and that these should be sold and the 
proceeds "appropriated for the purpose of a library, under the 
superintendence of the Executive, for the use of the Court of Ap- 
peals and General Court, and of the General Assembly during the 
sessions thereof." The object of this law was two-fold: first, to 
secure the completion of the publication of the "Statutes at Large," 
and, secondly, to found a library. The publication of the statutes 
went forward to a successful conclusion, but the sale of the copies 
which came into possession of the State lagged. It was found a 
difficult matter to dispose of them. A law was accordingly passed 
in 1826, entitled "An Act to Provide More Effectually for the 
Establishment of a Public Library," which provided that the Ex- 
ecutive (that is, the governor and his Council) should appoint an 
agent to dispose of the copies of Hening's "Statutes at Large" 
and the Supreme Court Keports, to whom there should be allowed 
such a commission as the Executive deemed necessary. As soon 
as the proceeds of the sales should be turned over to the treasury, 
the Executive were authorized to appoint three competent persons 
to make selection of the books to be purchased. Pursuant to pro- 
vision of this act, agents for the sale of the books were appointed 
and a committee for the management of the library named. In 
1828 was passed an additional act, having the title "An Act Con- 
cerning the Public Library," which authorized the Executive to 
select in the eapitol a suitable room for the location of the public 
library. 

This law of L828 named the clerk of the Executive Council 
(that is. the Council of State) as the public librarian. It also 
provided that the Council should draw up a set of rules for the 
government of the library. The rules drawn up in pursuance of 



The Virginia State Libbab* 21 

this consisted of seventeen, and are of no little interest. They 
provided for the opening of the library from nine until three on 
every day that the General Assembly was in session, Sundays ex- 
cepted, and for its opening three days in the week when the General 
Assembly was not in session. Article 5 of the rules is in part as 
follows : ''For all books issued to any person, a receipt or note 
shall be given, payable to the governor and his successors in of- 
fice, of double the value thereof, if in one volume only, but if it 
be one of a set, then double the value of the set to which it may 
belong, as nearly as the librarian can ascertain the same, con- 
ditioned to return the book undefaced, within the term above men- 
tioned, or to forfeit the amount of such note, which shall be in 
the following form. (Here follows the form of the note.) At the 
expiration of which, unless application has been made by another 
person for the same book, and the librarian requested to make a 
memorandum thereof, the said librarian, upon the book's being 
produced to him, may renew the issue for the same, for the time, 
and upon the conditions aforesaid : Provided that every receipt or 
note shall contain a further forfeiture or penalty for every day's 
detention of a book beyond the specified time — that is to say, for 
a folio, one dollar per day; for a quarto, fifty cents per day; for 
an octavo or duodecimo, twenty-five cents per day. Which for- 
feiture or penalty may, for good cause, be remitted by the Ex- 
ecutive, in whole or in part, as the case may require." When it is 
remembered that it was contemplated that only members of the 
State government were to use the library — for the library, though 
called the "public library," was not to be used by the public, but 
merely to be supported by the public — the strictness of this rule 
will be more fully appreciated. There are no data which allow 
us to say with what success the rule was operated. It continued 
to be one of the rules of the institution certainly as late as 1856, 
for it is found in the set of rules printed in the general catalogue 
of the library issued in that year. 

Eule No. 17 provided that a printed catalogue of the books, 
with the rules and regulations annexed, was to be furnished to 
each person entitled to the use of the library. Tn accordance with 



22 Tyler's Quarterly Magazixe 

this rule, the librarian some time in 1828 prepared and published 
a catalogue. From this catalogue, which is, however, merely a 
list of books in tbe various sections of the library, it is seen that 
there were in the library at that time 1,313 books, of which 392 
were law books, and many others were public documents. How- 
ever, there were in the section of history and biography 274 vol- 
umes. Two hundred and seventy-eight books were classed as 
"miscellaneous," which shows the want of skill of the classifier. 
Under this head were put the collected works of various writers, 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, works in moral philosophy, and even 
works which should have been placed under the head of history 
and biography, already provided for. 

Another catalogue (or rather list of books) was published in 
1831, at which time there were 5,548 books in the library. The 
next catalogue, published in 1849, shows 11,294; the next, pub- 
lished in 1856, shows 17,480; the next, published in 1877, shows 
about 30,000. No general list of the books in the library has been 
published since that time, though there have been published since 
1907 several lists of books in different departments of the library, 
as American history, foreign history, biography, etc. At present 
there are in the library about 120,000 books and pamphlets. Hence 
a general printed catalogue would be very voluminous and costly, 
and would take so long to print as to be nearly out of date on 
publication. 

The clerk of the Executive Council was succeeded as librarian 
by the secretary of the Commonwealth, and this official continued 
to hold the office until July 1, 1903, when, in accordance with 
laws passed pursuant to the provision of the present constitution 
on the subject of the library, the affairs of the library were given 
into the keeping of the present Library Board. Of course, for 
many years the secretary of the commonwealth had had an as- 
sistant who actually discharged the duties of State librarian. 

Even after the passage of the law of 1826, providing for the 
appointment of an agent to dispose of Hening's "Statutes at 
Large/' very little money came into the treasury for some time 
to the credit of the library fund, and, accordingly, in 1829 pro- 
vision was made by law for the loan to the library fund from the 






The Virginia State Library 23 

literary fund of $6,000 at an annual interest of six per cent., and 
the next year provision was made for the loan of four thousand 
dollars at the same rate of interest. With these two amounts 
many new books were purchased ; and this gives an explanation of 
the great increase in the number of books added to the library 
between 1838 and 1831, the catalogue of 1831 giving 5,548, an 
increase of over three hundred per cent. Provision was made in 
both these laws for the gradual repayment to the literary fund 
of the amounts borrowed when the sale of State documents (in- 
cluding Hening's "Statutes at Large'') would enable payments to 
be made. 

The selection of the books was by the law of 1829 taken out 
of the hands of the committee of the Executive Council and placed 
in the hands of a new committee constituted by this act itself, 
namely, the Joint Library Committee, that is, a committee made 
up of members of both the Senate and the House. The entire 
control of the library was given specifically to the Joint Library 
Committee b}- the act of 1830, where it remained till, according 
to provision of the present constitution, it passed into the hands 
of the Library Board. A committee on the library is still named 
by each house of the General Assembly, and to these committees, 
which frequently meet as a joint committee, are referred bills 
and resolutions affecting the library in any way, but they do not 
have the control of the library in the old sense. 

At present the State Library is controlled by a board of five 
members, serving without compensation, who are named by the 
State Board of Education, one member being appointed each year 
to serve for five years. The Library Board appoints the librarian 
and makes the rules for the government of the institution, and, 
with the secretary of the commonwealth, fixes the prices at which 
are sold the State documents, the proceeds of the sale of which 
constitute the library fund, out of which books are paid for and 
supplies for the maintenance of the library. The prices of the 
documents having been fixed by the Library Board and the secre- 
tary of the commonwealth, the secretary of the commonwealth is 
actual agent of the State in the sale of these documents, and each 
Jnonth turns into the treasury to the credit of the library fund 



24 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

the amounts collected. These amounts at present average about 
three thousand five hundred dollars a year, which is an entirely 
inadequate sum for the maintenance of the library. The salaries 
of the employees in the library and the maintenance of the travel- 
ing library department are provided for, however, by appropriation 
made by the General Assembly. . 

The constitution of 1902 provided that the law library and 
the State miscellaneous library should become separate institutions, 
the State miscellaneous library, or simply the "State Library," as 
it is usually known, to be under the control of the Library Board, 
as explained above, and the law library to be under the control of 
the Supreme Court of Appeals. The two institutions are now, 
accordingly, entirely distinct, each having its librarian and force 
of assistants. They are, however, in the same building, the law 
library being on the floor below the State library, which occupies 
the entire upper floor of the library building, which was put up 
in 1892, and of the annex to the library building, which was added 
in 1908. This proximity of the two libraries to each other is very 
advantageous to both, since the users of either have quick access 
to the other whenever they may find it convenient. 

The only connection in law now between the two is the pro- 
vision that such law books (that is, court reports, session laws, 
codes, revised statutes, etc.) as come to the Virginia State Library 
from other States in exchange for Virginia State documents sent 
to all the states and territories of the Union, under the system of 
inter-state exchange which has been in operation for many years, 
shall be sent immediately to the law library. This is exactly as 
it should be, since, as its title indicates, the law library is a special 
library, — for the use, primarily, of the Supreme Court of Appeals. 
It may be used, however, by any lawyer in the State, the lawyers 
of Richmond having a limited privilege of borrowing books for 
home use — and, in fact, by any . person whatever who conducts 
himself in an orderly manner. "Where the State had before this 
■separation took place one library, consisting of a legal collection 
and what may in distinction be called a miscellaneous collection, 
it now has two libraries, namely, the law library and what should 



The Virginia State Library 25 

be called the State Miscellaneous Library, but what is usually 
called simply the State Library. 

The executive head of the Virginia State Library, under the 
Library Board, holding office "at the pleasure of the board" — that 
is, in effect during good behavior — is the State Librarian, who has 
control of the work of the institution. It would not be proper in 
an historical sketch like the present to give a detailed account of 
this work. It may be said, however, in a general war, that the 
Virginia State Library has become, since the Library Board took 
charge of its fortunes, not only an agency for carrying on what 
is usually understood by the term '"'library work,' 1 ' but a publication 
agency of no small importance. It issues an annual report, a 
quarterly bulletin, and special publications. And if one will ex- 
amine the library work proper which is done, he will find that, 
though the library is, in the main, still a reference library for the 
use of such students as may come to the library building to ex- 
amine the institution's books and pamphlets and its almost un- 
rivaled collection of manuscripts, a great deal of information is 
given by correspondence to inquirers in all sections not only of 
Virginia, but of the whole United States as well, and that the 
library is functioning to an ever enlarging degree as a true public 
library for the people of Virginia. At present any one in the 
State, over 18 years of age, who may be recommended by some one 
connected with the State government or by the mayor of any city 
or town in the State, is allowed to become a borrower of books for 
home use. Many books are being borrowed daily. To borrowers 
living away from Richmond they are sent by mail or express. Bor- 
rowers now pay cost of carriage of books each way, but it is not 
impossible that the General Assembly may be induced to appro- 
priate a sufficient amount of money to enable the library to pav 
the cost on packages sent to borrowers. This would do away with 
much correspondence and would greatly increase the number of 
those taking advantage of the library's facilities. 



26 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



REMINISCENCES OF KENTUCKY AND HER EARLY 
PATRIOTS. 

[From Reports of Committees, 1st Sess. 29th Cong., vol. 2, 1845- 
46. Report no. 403, p. 22-25.] 

The following article is taken from "The Commonwealth," a 
paper published May 23, 1838, in Frankfort, Kentucky, and is 
copied to show the opinion of Chief Justice Marshall : 

[From the Western Presbyterian Herald.'] 

The statesmen of the present day can form but an imperfect 
idea of the anxious efforts of the early patriots of Kentucky during 
the eventful period just preceding her introduction into the family 
of sovereign States. Three deeply interesting subjects occupied 
the public mind in that critical day through the magnificent valley 
which now teems with a dense population, and with all the bless- 
ings that flow from civil and religious instructions. A consideration 
of their remote position in the wilderness annoyed by the savage 
foe, and the vital importance of the free navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi, and the necessity of a separation from Virginia, were the 
all-engrossing topics of the periods between 1784 and 1792'.* 

The annexed letters from two of the purest, wisest patriots of 
America, addressed to Judge Muter, may serve to show the deep 
interest felt on this subject. Next to Washington, the names of 
Madison and Marshall are held in greater veneration than those 



* Previous to 1738 all that part of "Virginia west of the Blue 
Ridge was included in Orange County, but at the fall session of the 
General Assembly in that year it was divided into two counties — Fred- 
erick on the north and Augusta on the south. In November, 1769, 
the southern part of Augusta County was organized into Botetourt 
County. In February, 1772, Fincastle County was created out of Bote- 
tourt, and in October, 1776, it was divided into three counties — Mont- 
gomery, Washington and Kentucky. In May, 1780, Kentucky was dl- 



Kextucky axd Her Early Patriots 27 

of any of the national benefactors. Franklin, Jefferson, Hamilton, 
and Henry, each had their pre-eminent qualities; but, in disin- 
terested patriotism, in purity of private character, in long and 
distinguished public services, and in transcendent claims to the 
character of constitutional civilians, Madison and Marshall occupy 
the second, if not the first, niche in the temple of fame. 

It is curious, after a lapse of a half century, to see the views 
entertained at that day by these eminent patriots. The idea sug- 
gested by Judge Marshall, that the communication then proposed 
to be opened between the James and Potomac rivers and the west- 
ern waters, and the project of Eumsey to propel boats by steam, 
would render the navigation of the Mississippi of little value, is 
in singular contrast with what is passing before us in this great 
valley. 

One reflection is suggested by this correspondence. The Judge 
Muter whom Madison and Marshall so much loved, and who sacri- 
ficed his all in the war of the Eevolution, spent his last days upon 
the bounty of Judge Todd. Judge Muter was the victim of that 
want of good faith on the part of Kentucky, which the illustrious 
Marshall so much deprecated in 1785. The legislature of 1806 
induced Muter to resign his office as chief justice, upon the promise 
of a pension of $200 per annum; but a subsequent legislature re- 
pealed the grant. At an advanced age, and without the imputation 
of crime, he was cast upon the charity of the world. Judge Todd 
came to his relief, and by his bounty, in part, redeemed the honor 
of the State. By a singular providence, Congress afterwards recog- 
nized Muter's revolutionary claims, which have descended to the 
heirs of his benefactor. May no second blot ever appear upon the 
escutcheon of Kentucky's fame ! 

Tided into three counties — Jefferson, Fayette and Lincoln. Two years 
later they were constituted into Kentucky district and given a court, 
independent of the General Court and Chancery Court of Virginia. The 
question of separate independence was now agitated, and contest arose 
between Virginia, who wanted her daughter State admitted at once 
into the Union, and the Northern States, who controlled Congress and 
were jealous of the growing power of the South. Because of this 
conflict Kentucky was not made a State till 1792. 



28 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Richmond, January 7, 1785. 

Dear Sir: Let me thank you for the full account you have given 
me of the situation of affairs in the western country. I begin to think 
that the time for a separation is fast approaching, and has perhaps 
actually arrived. All I am solicitous about is, that the business be 
done with wisdom and temperance. If honor and public faith should 
be distinguished features in the character of the new State, she will 
soon attract very many of the wise and virtuous from her sister 
States, and Kentucky may be the seat of happiness as well as wealth. 
It is impossible that we can, at this distance, legislate wisely for you, 
and it is proper that you should legislate for yourselves. I presume 
you heard that Mr. Innes was chosen attorney general for your district 
court. We had you nominated as judge in his place, and I am per- 
suaded you would have been appointed in preference to any other 
person who was in nomination, had not Cyrus Griffin been put on 
the list. Your friends withdrew you. There is some doubt whether 
that gentleman will serve or not. If he should decline it, you may 
depend on my applying for you to the executive, and using my best 
endeavors to procure the appointment for you. The salary is £300 
per annum. 

We have passed two bills this session of the utmost consequence, 
both to you and us. They are, to open the communication between 
the James and Potomac rivers with the western waters. Should this 
succeed, and should Mr. Rumsej;'s scheme for making boats to work 
against the stream answer the expectation of our sanguine gentlemen, 
the communication between us will be easy, and we shall have but 
little occasion to contest the navigation of the Mississippi. My father 
sets out early in the spring. Will you present my compliments to my 
acquaintances in your country, and believe me to be, dear colonel, 
with esteem and affection, yours, 

J. MARSHALL. 



Richmond, February 11th, — '87. 
My Dear Sir: How do you approve of the measures of the last 
assembly, so far as they affect your district? But before you can 
answer this, I expect to hear your sentiments, and those of your coun- 
try. A separation, I expect, either has or will be decided on. I had, 
the other day, some conversation with Col. Carrington, one of our dele- 
gates in Congress, on the subject, and he seems to entertain some doubt 
whether Congress will consent to your admission into the Union. Do 
not imagine that any difficulties will be generated by Virginia or her 
delegates. I believe I can assure you that you will experience from 
them every good office. What prospect have you of "obtaining the 



Kentucky and Her Early Patriots 29 

navigation of the Mississippi, and what are your sentiments of the 
treaty about the cession of it for a term of years? People in general 
here are decidedly against it, and yet some who are chiefly interested 
in the prosperity of the western country appear to wish for it, as being 
beneficial to you. I cannot conjecture how this opinion is to be sup- 
ported, but I assure you it is the opinion of some very rational men, 
who are, I believe, sincere friends to the prosperity of the western 
country. I suppose you have before this time collected all the comfort- 
able things of this world, except one to share them with you — how 
do you feel on that subject? Are you not beginning to think 'tis time 
to take up the consideration of this subject? 

Farewell. I am, my dear sir, with the warmest wishes for your 
happiness, yours, 

J. MARSHALL. 



Richmond, January 7, 1787. 
Dear Sir: Your favor of the 23d of September, by Mr. Fowler, 
by which I am much obliged, was duly handed to me. I regret much 
the event that has probably delayed the decision of your convention 
on the great point referred to them; and the more so, as the actual 
delay may foster the suspicion of a premeditated one. The shortness 
of the time given for the determination of Congress, was an unavoid- 
able part of the plan, which proposed to render any further inter- 
position of the assembly unnecessary, by leaving a sufficient residue of 
the year for the convention to complete the arrangements for a sepa- 
ration. It was supposed, also, that this shortness of time would be 
sufficient for Congress, as they were not called to determine that Ken- 
tucky should not become an independent member of the confederacy, 
but only that it should become so on a convenient future day, remain- 
ing in the meantime on a like footing with the proposed States beyond 
the Ohio. The act which has passed at this session will, I hope, remove 
every doubt of the legislature's desire to give effect to the former act. 
An earlier day would have been fixed for the choice of the new con- 
vention, but for the unwillingness of the assembly to violate even the 
shadow of decorum towards the old one, whose appointment will now 
expire before the new choice is to come on. Even a prolongation of 
the time, which is prayed for by the members of the convention, 
would have taken place, if it had not been conceived that such a change 
in the business transcended the authority of the assembly. The au- 
thority of the convention, though defined by the law under which they 
were chosen, was derived solely from the people by whom they were 
chosen. Any extension or new modification of the authority, there- 
fore, could only be derived from the same source. The objections 



30 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

made to the seventh article do not appear to me to be well founded. 
A concurrent jurisdiction is both practicable and equitable; the Dela- 
ware as well as the Potomac furnish examples of it; the law of na- 
tions is explicit on the subject; and taking into view the case of the 
Mississippi, Kentucky is tne last part of the world from which I should 
have expected to hear of doctrines which impeach the equal and reci- 
procal rights of the owners of opposite shores over the stream itself. 
You will learn from the representatives of your district the measures 
taken with reference to the projected treaty with Spain. Whether 
this project will go on in Congress will depend on the temper of the 
new members. I have some ground to suppose that the sentiments 
of some of the middle ones will be changed in favor of the western 
rights. Perhaps on the other side defection may take place in some 
of the southern ones. Would Kentucky purchase a free use of the 
Mississippi at the price of its exclusion for any term, however short? 
You will also learn from the same source the melancholy crisis of 
things in Massachusetts. Our latest information renders it not im- 
probable that civil blood may be shed, and leaves it somewhat un- 
certain whether the government or its adversaries will be victorious. 
There is good ground to believe that the latter are secretly stimulated 
by British influence. These events are distressing beyond measure to 
the zealous friends of the revolution, and furnish new proofs of the 
necessity of such a vigor in the general government as will be able 
to restore health to every diseased part of the federal body. An at- 
tempt to bring about such an amendment of the federal constitution 
is on the anvil. The meeting of the deputies for that purpose is to 
be held in May next in Philadelphia. 



With great respect, I remain, sir, 



• 



Your cbedient and humble servant, 

J. Madison, Jr. 



Judicial District fob Western Virginia.* 31 



JUDICIAL DISTRICT FOR WESTERN VIRGINIA.* 

At a meeting of the members of the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia from that part of the State Situated West of the summit 
of the mountains which separate the waters emptying into the 
Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River, from the waters which fall 
into the Ohio River, held at the Capitol in the City of Rich- 
mond, on Wednesday the 9th. day of December 1818 — Present — 
forty-two members. Upon Motion General Francis Preston, was 
chosen President of the meeting, and Moses M. Chapline Sec- 
retary. 

The President stated the object of the meeting to be, to take 
into consideration, a joint letter from the Honorable James Bar- 
bour and John W. Eppes Senators of the State of Virginia in 
Congress, to the Delegation in the Virginia Assembly, West of 
the Allegheny, enclosing a Bill which has passed the House of 
Representatives entitled "An Act to establish a Judicial District 
in Virginia West of the Allegheny mountains"; and a decision 
on which is suspended in the Senate : & urging their attention to 
said Act, in order that their wishes & views in relation thereto, 
might be ascertained. 

On motion of Mr. Thompson of Kenhawa the following reso- 
lution was agreed to: 

Resolved, as the opinion of this Meeting, that it is Expedient 
to establish a District Court of the United States in the Section 
of country within the Commonwealth of Virginia lying West of 
the Allegheny mountains. 

Moved by Mr. Hamilton, Senator from Botetourt; That the 
above resolution be reconsidered ; and the question for reconsid- 
eration being put, it was decided in the Negative; yeas 11, Nays 
28. On motion of Mr. Thompson of Kenhawa: Resolved, as the 



* This account was found among the capers by Gov. Thomas 
Walker Gilmer. The bill creating the District Court was passed and 
approved February 4, 1819. 



32 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

opinion of this Meeting; That the Convenience of the Inhabitants 
of the Counties of Cabell, Mason, Kenhawa, Nicholas, Giles, Green- 
brier, Monroe, Bath and Botetourt, would be promoted by the 
establishment of one other court, on the District West of the 
Allegheny Mountains, in addition to the two mentioned in the 
Bill now before the Senate of the United States, and that the 
said Court, ought to be held at Lewis Burgh in the County of 
Greenbrier. 

On motion, Resolved, that a committee of five, be appointed 
to report on tomorrow evening, a proper and respectfull answer, | 

to the letter of the Honorable Messrs Barbour and Eppes, Senators 
from the State of Virginia in Congress expressive of the necessity 
and expediency of establishing a United States Judicial District 
West of the Allegheny mountains, within the said State, conform- 
ably of the two Besolutions agreed to at this Meeting. 

Messrs. Philip B. Thompson, Andrew Hamilton, Isaac Leffler, 
Isaac Morris and I. McFarland were appointed by the President 
as the Committee on the above Eesolution. 

Besolved, That when this meeting adjourns, it will adjourn to 
Meet in the Senate Chamber tomorrow evening at 11/, past five 
oclock and then the meeting adjourned accordingly. 

Senate Chamber Thursday December 10th. 1818. 

Present forty two members. 

Mr. Thompson, of the Committee to whom was referred the 
communication from the Honorable James Barbour and John W. 
Eppes, to the Virginia Delegation West of the Allegheny, and 
who were directed to report at this time a proper and Respectfull 
answer to said Communication Made a report of the following 
Answer. ■ 

Richmond, December 10th. 1818. 
Gentlemen, 

The Delegation in the Virginia Assembly west of the Allegheny 
have had the Honor to receive the letter you were pleased to 
address them on the 4 th. of the Present Month, and conformably 
to the Recommendation suggested therein, have held a meeting at 
the Capitol, on the evening of the 9th. Instant, with a view of 






Judicial District for Western Virginia. 33 

taking into consideration the subject of your letter and the Bill 
which it enclosed; and expressing their opinion on the expediency 
of erecting a Judicial District of the United States, in that section 
of the Commonwealth which they represent. 

Considering the great extent of Territory embraced within the 
linits proposed for the New District; the growing commercial 
concerns of their Towns and Villages; the large bodies of lands 
held by non-residents, which are likely to be productive of legal 

litigation ; the encreasing population of the 

country; the Contiguity, and extensive intercourse between the 
States of North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland ; and many of the counties of the western 
parts of Virginia, bordering on these States; as well as a belief 
that the paucity of suits, from that section of the State, may have 
probably been produced, from the remote situation which they 
occupy, in relation to the District Court of the United States 
holden at "Richmond; amounting almost to a prohibition of seek- 
ing redress in cases coming within the cognisance of the Federal 
Court; have induced the members, composing this Meeting, in a 
large convention of the Senators and Delegates, from the Counties 
west of the Allegheny, to decide in favor of the Erection of the 
Judicial District contemplated in the Bill ; as you will perceive by 
a copy of their proceedings which is herewith enclosed. 

They take the liberty, at the same time. Gentlemen to solicit 
your Attemtion to another Eesolution, which you will observe in 
their Proceedings, expressive of the convenience they believe will 
arise to the inhabitants of the Counties of Cabell, Mason, Ken- 
hawa, Nicholas, Giles, Greenbrier and those parts of Bath, and 
Botetourt which lie west of the mountains from the establishment 
of an additional seat of holding the court ; which is nearly central,, 
between the Northern and Southern extremes of the proposed Dis- 
trict; to wit at Lewis Burgh, in the County of Greenbrier. 

Could an Amendment to that effect be introduced, without en- 
dangering the passage of the Bill, it would be very acceptable to 
the wishes of the Western Delegation to the Legislature of Vir- 
ginia. — 



I 



34 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

In behalf of the convention of the Senators and Delegates from 
the West of the Allegheny. 

I have the honor to be gentlemen 

With great Esteem & respect your mo bt 

Fran 3 Preston, Pres. 

And the question upon the adoption of the report being taken, 
it was decided in the affirmative. On motion of Mr. Leffler of 
Ohio it was resolved, that the report of the Committee be adopted, 
as expression of the sense of this Meeting; and that the same, to- 
gether -with all other the proceedings of this meeting be signed by 
the President, and countersigned by the Secretary; and transmitted 
without delay to the Honorable James Barbour and John W. Eppes 
our Senators in the Congress of the United States. 

On motion of Mr. Edmonson of Montgomery, Resolved that the 
Counties embracing both Western and Eastern waters, within the 
Federal Judicial District ought to be included in the said District; 
and that our Senators be requested to use their endeavors, to have 
such an Amendment introduced in the law now before the Senate 
of the United States. 

Upon motion of Mr. inumpson of Kenhawa, it was unani- 
mously, resolved, that the thanks of this meeting, be returned to 
General Francis Preston, a Senator from Washington, for the dig- 
nity, impartiality and ability, with which he has presided over the 
deliberations of this Convention. 

Mr. Leffler from Ohio then rose and stated that he believed 
the business which had called the meeting together was finished, 
he therefore moved that the meeting do now rise not to meet again 
which being seconded and carried in the affirmative, the meet- 
ing accordingly rose. 

Fran s Preston, Pres. 

Attest 

Moses M. Chapline 

Secretary. 

(Endorsed on the back) 15 Cong. 2 Sess. Yt. 

Letter and proceedings of the Delegation in the Virginia As- 
sembly West of the Alleghany, 1818. 

Referred to the committee on the Judiciary with the bill to 
establish a Judicial District in A 7 irginia, West of the Alleghany 
Mountain. 



Sale of Tobacco 35 



SALE OF TOBACCO. 

From a statement of C. & 0. Hanbury of London, to whom 
the College of William and Mary shipped in 1768 13 hds. of to- 
bacco in the Hanbury, of which James Esten was master, the to- 
bacco netted £-±90.9.5. — this after making allowance to the pur- 
chaser for damage, suttle, draft, sample, and tret. But from this 
the largest portion was taken for taxes and other charges. These 
taxes and charges were the "old Subsidy"' and the "new Subsi- 
dies," amounting to £ 358. 13; freight at £8. pr. ton amounting to 
£26; Country duties 2s. per hhd. £1.6 and cocket Is.; Primage and 
petty charges 2s. 71,4 per hhd. £1.14.1; Entry inwards, bonds, 
bill money, and Landg s Is. 6. amounting to 19s. 6; Cooperage in 
and out 2s. per hhd. £1.6; Cartage and warehouse room 3s. 6 per 
hhd. £ 2.5.6; Brokerage 2s. per hhd. £1.6; Shipping charges & de- 
benture &c. £0.6; Porterage, wharfage, lighterage £0.5; Weighing 
£0.5; Postage of letters and watching 6d. per hhd. £0.6.6; Com- 
mission charges on £1:90.9.5. at 2y 2 per ct, £14.14.3. Making in 
all £409.7.10, so that the College received but £81.17. Nearly 
all the tobacco was sold between 9y 2 "-^ 10% pence per pound, 
but two hogshead brought but 3d. and one hogshead went as low 
as 2%d. The weight of the tobacco per hhd varied from 812 pds. 
to 977 pds. 






36 



Tyleb's Quarterly Magazine 



WILLIAM HOWABD, THE PIEATE. 

William Howard was a quartermaster for Edward Teach, known 
as Blackbeard, the pirate. According to Gov. Spotswood, Howard came 
to Virginia about 1718 and lived for some time in a very disorderly 
manner in "one of our port towns," where he was suspected of con- 
spiring with some sailors to run away with some vessel and so "to 
pirate again." He was arrested, tried and condemned upon very full 
evidence of having committed various acts of piracy after the time 
limited in the King's proclamation of Sept. 5, 1717. (Letters of Gov. 
Spotswood, II, 353.) But it appears that the seasonable arrival of a 
second proclamation from the King saved Howard's life. (Letters of 
Gov. Spotsicood, II, 319.) Below is a copy of the articles exhibited 
against him at the trial and now preserved in the State library. They 
are very imperfectly rendered in The Calendar of Virginia State 
Papers, Vol. I. 



Articles exhibited before the' Hon bIe his Maj tys Comm r ap- 
pointed under the great Seal in Pursuance of an Act of Parlia- 
ment made in the Eleventh and twelfth years of the Beign of 
King William the third Entituled an Act for the more Effectual 
Suppression of Pyracy 
Against 

William Howard For Pyracy and Bobbery committed by him 
on the High Seas 

First 
That the Said W m Howard not having the Fear of God before 
7iis Eyes nor Begarding the Allegiancy due to his Majesty nor the 
Just Obedience he Ow'd to tne Laws of the Land did some time 
in the Year of our Lord 1717 Join and Associate him self with 
one Edward Tach and other Wicked and desolute Persons & with 
them did combine to fit out in Hostile manner a Certain Sloop 
or Vessel Oall'd the Eevenge to commit Pyracys and depridations 
unon the High Seas on the Subjects of our Lord the Kinsr and 
of other Prinr-ps cv State- in Amity with his Majesty trading in 
America 



WlT.TJAM HOWABD, THE PlKATE 37 

And 2' 

That in pursuance of the Said Felonious and Pyratical Combina- 
tion the said Will™ Howard did together with his Associates and 
Confederates on or about the 29 th day of Sept r in the Year Afior- 
said in an Hostile manner with force and Arms on the high Seas 
near Cape Charles in this Colony within the Jurisdiction of the 
Admiralty of this Court attack & force a Sloop Calld the Betty 
of Virginia belonging to the Subjects of our said Lord the King, 
and the said Sloop did then and there Bob and plunder of Certain 
Pipes of Medera Wine and other Goods and Merchandizes and 
thereafter the said W m Howard did Sink and destroy the said 
Sloop with the remaining Part of the CaTgo. 

3. 
That the Said W m Howard and his Associates and Confederates 
did on or about the 22 d of Octo r in the year aforesaid in the Bay 
of Delaware in America w th in the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty 
of Great Brittain & of this Court Pyratically take Seize and Bob 
the Sloop Eobert of Philadelphia and the Ship Good Intent of 
Dublin both bound for Philadelphia aforesaid and divers goods 
and Merchandize then on board the s d Ship & Sloop belonging to 
the Subjects of our Lord the King did feloneously and piratically 
take seize and carry away. 

4. 

That on or about the day of december the said W m Howard 

and other of his Associates did Pyratically take and Seize the ship 
Concord of Saint Malo commanded by Cap 4 D'Ocier belonging to 
the Subjects of the French King one of the Allyes of our Sove- 
reign Lord the King near the Island of Saint Vincent in the "West 
Indias within the Jurisdiction aforesaid and having Bob'd and 
feloniously spoiled the said Subjects of the French King of their 
Merchandize and Effects consisting of Negroes Gold dust money 
Plate, and Jewels, did Carry away the said Ship and Convert 
the Same towards the Carrying on and Prosecuting his the said 
Howards Pyratical designs. 

5. 
That whereas his Sacred Maj f - V by his Boyal Proclamation bear- 



y 



38 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

ing date at Hampton Court the 5 th day of Sept r and in the fourth 
year of his Eeign was graciously pleased to promise and declare 
that all Pyrates surrendering themselves to Any of his Maj^' 5 
Principal Sec ys of State in Great Brittain or Ireland or to any 
Governor or Deputy Gov r of his Maj tJS Plantations Beyond the 
Seas should have Maj'- vs most Gracious Pardon for such Pyracys 
by them Committed before the fifth of January then next ensuing 
nevertheless the said W m Howard not being Ignorant of his 
Map' 5 Gracious Intentions declar'd in the said Proclamation but 
Dispising his Maj : - vs Eoyal offers of Mercy did after the said fifth 
of Jan y continue to Perpetrate his wicked and Pyratical designs 
at sundry times and places more particularly he the said W m 
Howard in Company with the afforesaid Edw d Tach and other 
their Confederates and associates in the afforesaid ship called the 
Concord of S' Malo and afterwards denominated by the said 
Pyrates by the name of Queen Anns Eevenge on or about the 
month of April 1718 a sloop belonging to y e subjects of the King 
of Spain upon the high seas near the Isl d of Cuba did piratically 
take & seize y e same did detain and upon the day of May 

in year of our Lord 1718 the Brginteen of London bound on 

a Voyage from Guinea to South Carolina in and upon the high 
seas near the Post of the said province and within y e Jurisdiction 
aforesd did pyraticaly take and divers Negro Slaves & other goods 
and Merchant belonging to the Subjects of our said Lord the 
King did then and there feloniously take seize & carry away all 
which acts of Pyracy and Premisses are notoriously known to be 
true and for which the said "W m Howard ought by the Judgm* and 
Sentence of this Court to suffer such pains Penalties and For- 
feitures as by the Laws of Great Britain are inflicted upon Pyrata 
and Bobbers on the high seas 
• [Endorsed ;] Edmund Hyde of the [ ?] Sloop 

George Maynard of the Pearl Sloop 

These endorsements do not appear to be contemporary, but 
were probably made by some person subsequently handling the 
paper. The sloop of which Edmund Hyde was a member is ren- 



William Howard, the Pihate 39 

dered in the published calendar as the Lynx, but it was more prob- 
ably the Lyme, which was one of the vessels sent against the pi- 
rates. {Letters of Gen. Spotswood, II., 317.) At this time Lt. 
Henri/ Maynard is mentioned in the Hampton records, and the 
inventory of a "Captain Henry Maynard,"' of whom Alexander 
MeKenzie, of Hampton, was administrator, is record in Prince 
George Co. in January, 1726-27. Another record shows that he 
was killed by two negro slaves. (Journal House of Burgesses.) 



40 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



PETITION OF SAEAH BLAND. 

From the original paper filed in Virginia State Library, "Colonial 

Papers/' 1863. 



To his Excelency Thomas Lord Culpepper Barron of Thorsway 
his Ma ties Liv 1 and Governer Genall of Virginia. 

The humble peticon of Sarah Bland widd Eeliet & Executrix 
of. John Bland late of London Marchant deceased 
Sheweth 

That the said John Bland in his life tyme haveing adventred 
into this Country a very greate pte of his Estate intrusted in the 
hands and mannagem' of his Brother Theodricke Bland likewise 
deceased as his ffactor and agent and not haveing any accompt 
thereof from the said Theo : in his life tyme, the said John after 
the decease of the said Theo did ymploy and ynipower Gyles Bland 
his sone then his Ma ties Collector in this Country to suie and 
ymplead the Executor of the said Theo for what was due from y e 
said Theo to y e said John as aforesaid : And the said Gyles haveing 
dureing his residence in theise pts contracted divers and sundry 
debts which were p r tended to be due from him at the tyme of his 
decease to divers of the inhitants of the Country all or most of 
whome brought theire severall actions ag 1 yo r Peticoner either as 
Attorney or Ad ,n stratrix of the said John Bland and obteyned 
Judgm t3 ag' for theire severall p r tended debts amongst whome Liv' 
Co 1 Grenden and James Tubb Chirurgion obteyned two sev- 
erall Judgm ts and hath taken out severall executions thereon au- 
thentique coppies of booth which are hereunto annexed.* 

Which Executions being delivered to the sher of Charles Citty 
County he the said sher by p r tence and couler thereof (knowing 
that yo r peticoner had certaine rents due to her for a certaine 
water mill and lands thereunto belonging scituate in v e aforesaid 



* These papers not found. — 



Petition of Sarah Blaxd 41 

County whereof yo r peticoner in her owne right is seized in free 
and by her demised for tearme of years to one James Crosland 
Miller) hath in his Ma tiei name Comanded the said Crosland to 
deliver and pay unto him the said sher the some of 2'348 H of 
tobaccoe & caske pte of her rente due to yo r peticoner for y e last 
yeares rent for yo r peticoners freehold as aforesaid and hath soe 
terified the said Crosland w th y e said execution that y e said Cros- 
land dare not as he sayeth pay the same to yo r peticoner to whome 
he knowes it is iustly due. 

Now for asmuch as the peedings of the said Sher aforesaid 
are arbitrary and in many respects unwarrantable and eleagall as 
*by the said Executions & retornes thereof refference being there- 
unto had doth and may appeare 

Yo r Peticoner humbly prayeth yo 1 ' Excelencie to order said 
Sher to appeare before you to answer for his eleagall and unwar- 
rantable pceedings aforesaid and in the meane tyme to direct y e 
said Crosland to pay ye r Peticoner her rent due as aforesaid : And 
likewise to order that in case the said Sher have compelled the 
said Crosland to pay him any Pte thereof that he y e said Sher 
retorne the same to him y e said Crosland w Th out delay. 
And yo r Peticoner shall pray 
Tho: Blayton 

Attorney for y e said Sarah Bland 
[Endorsed:] Bland 
vs 
Luellin 
Ent Feb^ 
25 st 168% 
E C cl 



42 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



SKINS AND FURS. 



The following is a summary of the report* of Charles Neilson, 
of the Duties received on the exportation of Skins and Furs within 
the district of Rappahannock from the 2'5th October 1764 to the 
25th of April 1769, to the College of William and Mary. The 
vessels engaged in the trade were the Black Prince Master John 
Watson, the Carlisle Master John Sargeant, the Martin Master 
Thomas Haddon, who performed two voyages; the John & Pressley 
Master William Thompson, the Charming Suhey Master John 
Dyson, the Cunningham Master Andrew Lee, the Nancy Master 
Benjamin Cooke, the Nelson Master Eichard Harrison, the Ven- 
ture Master John Harvey for Potomack, the Cochran Master John 
Ewing, the Alice Master Arthur Sinclair, the Martin Master 
Charles Evans, the Au-ssia Merchant Master John Carnaby, the 
Matty Master William Fox, the Mayflower Master William Buchan, 
the Justitia Master Colin SummervelL the Leeds Master John An- 
derson, the Adventure Master William Buchan. 

These ships exported within the time mentioned 2250 buck- 
skins, 4497 doe skins, 69 pds of Beaver skins, 112 Otter skins, 
54 Wildcat, 120 mink, 708 fox skins, 1371 Eaccoon skins, 171 
muskrat and 15 elk. The total duty was £32. 6. 4% of which the 
naval officer Neilson took as his commission £1.18.8., leaving to 
the College under act of Assembly £30.7.8%. 






! \ 



* Found amonj 
Mary. 



some old papers at the College of William and 



The Blue Coat Boys. 43 



THE BLUE COAT BOYS. 

Christ Hospital has a history in one shape or another extend- 
ing over upwards of six centuries. Its first habitation was the 
monastery of the Grey Friars in Newgate. London, whose church- 
yard was a burial place almost as popular with royalty as West- 
minster Abbey. Before the dissolution of the religious houses, 
the monasteries with their various numerous appendages occupied, 
it is calculated, two thirds of the area of the city, and cloistered 
within their walls is supposed to have been one fifth of the whole 
population. In the clean sweep made by Henry VIII. of monastic 
property, that of the Grey Friars was included. The King gave 
the vacant buildings and property to the city of London "for the 
reliefe of the poore." The gift wa-s practically unused till the 
accession of Henry's son by Jane Seymour, the amiable, impression- 
■able and religious lad, Edward AH. In 1553 he granted a charter 
to Christ's Hospital, and four years later the institution had 
400 boys, — 2'50 children, "who were" lodged to learn "and 150 
suckling children." The boy King has ever since lived in the 
hundreds of boys who have felt his inspiration as the Founder. 

The school was at first an asylum for the very poor, but with 
the increase of the benefactions of the middle class the pauper 
children fell off, and by 1652, a century after the foundation, an 
order was made that no one should enter except the sons of free- 
men i. e. persons admitted to a voice in the affairs of the city. 
The school has, however, never lost its eleemosynary character, 
though great care is taken as to the reputation of the boys ad- 
mitted; and under its present rules (1918) none but those who are, 
in the opinion of the governors, in need of assistance, can be 
enrolled. 

It sends annually to the University of Cambridge, and supports, 
six to eight students. Its revenues, arising almost entirely from 
the gifts of the charitably inclined, amounted in 1877 to £70.000 
per annum, and it has become one of the greatest institutions of 



44 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

England. Some sixteen years ago (1902) the school was removed 
from its ancient site in London to West Horsham in Sussex County. 
■In 1918 there were 770 boys at West Horsham and 254 girls at 
Hertford. The age of entrance is from 9 to 12, and the scholars 
cannot remain longer than 17 years of age. They all receive edu- 
cation, clothing and maintenance at the cost of the Foundation. 
While the school has shared in all the modern improvements, the 
children still wear the ancient uniform of blue, by reason of which 
they are often known as "The Blue Coat Boys." It has furnished 
hundreds of distinguished men to the public service, and among 
its most eminent alumni of a literary character were Charles Lamb, 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Leigh Hunt. 

The school has an interest to Virginians in that manv of the 
scholars were sent as apprentices to the colony in the 17th century. 
There is an order by the Governor and Council of State at James- 
town, dated July 3, 1692, directing regular reports from them to 
be sent twice a year to the governors of Christ's Hospital (Wil- 
liam and Mary Quarterly, V., 189). Xone of the names of these 
boys sent over in the earliest days is known. One "Blue Coat/'* 
however, who attended Christ's Hospital in the next century 
and later acquired a considerable reputation in Virginia, was Ga- 
briel Jones, called "the Valley Lawyer." He was the son of John 
Jones, citizen and weaver of London, and Elizabeth Jones, his wife, 
and was born near Williamsburg, Va., May 17, 172L After the 
death of his father his mother returned to England, and Gabriel 
Jones was admitted, in 1732', at the age of eight, to Christ's Hos- 
pital, where he remained seven years. He afterwards studied law 
under Mr. John Haughton of Lyon's Inn, in the County of Mid- 
dlesex, Solicitor in the High Court of Chancery; and a grant was 
made to him of 5 pds, "clothes included," from the school funds, 
as appears by the Apprentice's book. He returned to Virginia, 
married Margaret Strother, widow of George Morton and dau. of 
William Strother, of King George County, Va., and, after living 
in' Winchester a short time, purchased a fine estate in Augusta 
County, where he lived from 1753 to 1777. After that time he 
was prosecuting attorney of Rockingham Co.. formed from Au- 
gusta, and died in that county in October, 1806. He was fre- 



The Blue Coat Boys. 45 

quently a member of the House of Burgesses, and in 1788 was a 
member of the State convention called to consider the Federal 
Constitution. He was a friend of George Washington, and execu- 
tor of Lord Fairfax. Mr. Bandolph Barton, of Baltimore, Attor- 
ney-at-Law, is a grandson. An interesting account of his life 
was written by A. W. Lockhart, Fellow of the Boyal Historical 
Society, and read by him before the "Amicable Society of the 
Blues" in London on November 18, 1918. Mr. Lockhart is the 
Honorable Secretary of the Society, and the Society itself, founded 
in 1629, consists of a limited number of former scholars, and of 
governors, and present or past masters and officers of the Foun- 
dation. 

Blanch, The Blue Coat Boys, or School Life in Christ's Hospital. 
London, E. W. Allen, Ave Maria Lane E. C, 1897; Christ's Hospital, 
1917-1918, Annual Report and Statements of the accounts for the year 
ending 31st of March, 1918. William, and Mary College Quart Hist. 
Magazine, V., 189. Gabriel Jones 1724-1806, by A. W. Lockhart, Lon- 
don, printed by the School Press, 5, Rupert Street, E. I., 1918; Tyler, 
Cyclopedia of Virginia Biography, Vol. I.; Grigsby, Convention of 1788, 
has an interesting sketch of Gabriel Jones. 



46 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



LETTEES. 

John Tyler to Hugh Blair Grigsby. 

Sherwood Forest, 

Jan. 16, 1855. 
My dear Sir : 

On my return from Norfolk I found your letter awaiting me 
and also a copy of your discourse* delivered before the Historical 
Society on the 15 December 1853 — I will with true pleasure an- 
swer your enquiries relative to my Father at the earliest possible 
day, and now return my sincere thanks for the pamphlet copy 
of your Discourse which I have read with deep interest — Virginia 
has cause to thank you for having drawn with so life-like a resem- 
blance the portraits of so many of her highly gifted sons, and I 
as one of their associates in the Convention of 1829-30 experience 
a pleasure which cannot well be expressed in the fact of the per- 
petuation of their features — I sincerely rejoice that your labours 
are not destined to stop here — and that other great names lustrous 
with talent and patriotism and connected with epochs antecedent 
to the convention of 1829-30 are to be rescued from that forgetful- 
ness which time is so apt to produce. A more glorious set of 
men than those who performed their parts in the great drama of 
the Revolution and who figured in the Legislative bodies and con- 
ventions consequent upon that era, the world certainly never saw — 
I shall look for the discources yon may deliver on these and kin- 
dred subjects with an anticipation of inexpressible pleasure — 

Will you pardon me My Dear Sir, for calling your attention 
to a single page in your discourse which in its perusal struck me 
as entirely new and most probably resting in mistake — In speak- 
ing of the action of the Legislature in the case of Mr. Giles at p. 
25-6 you in substance state (I do not quote your words) that in 
consequence of the differences which had prevailed among the 



* The Virginia Convention of 1829-30. A Discourse delivered be- 
fore the Virginia Historical Society at their annual meeting held in 
Richmond December 15, 1853. By Hugh Blair Grigsby. 



Letters 47 

Democratic party on questions which had arisen during the ad- 
ministration of Mr. Madison, it became necessary to have a "com- 
mon ground to stand on and a common victim to appease all dis- 
contents and to bind together a brotherhood which had been so 
much at variance — and you found on this hypothesis the inference 
that the resolutions in disapproval of the course of Mr. Giles and 
Brent (of the one for having disclaimed the right of the Legis- 
lature to instruct its senators and of the other for having voted 
in opposition to its instructions) were levelled exclusively at Mr. 
Giles and designed to victimize that distinguished man by way 
of reconsolidating a party at war among its members — r\ow My 
Dear Sir, I was a member of the General Assembly at the period 
when those resolutions were introduced and I declare to you that 
all you have said on that subject is new to me. I was not only a 
member but / introduced the first resolution in censure of the 
course of our Senators. The resolution introduced by me was 
limited to the expression of our disapproval in the briefest form 
and the fewest words possible — my object being to assert what I 
believed to be a great right — and to vindicate the claim of the 
State to exemption from attack for its opinions by its representa- 
tives in the Senate. My resolution was referred to a select Com- 
mitee of which Mr. Leigh was Chairman, who did Avhat I was not 
inclined to do myself — he presented an elaborate report in vindi- 
cation of the right of instruction by the Legislature — It was my 
first session in the Legislature and I was in my 22d. year — and 
I introduced the subject ivithout conference or consultation with 
any human being — The truth is that at the moment, I enter- 
tained for Mr. Giles the most exalted opinion — but I felt all the 
impulsive ardor of a young man who believed a fundamental 
principle to have been scoffed at by one of our Senators and vio- 
lated by the other — and I felt that it was due from the Legisla- 
ture to itself, to administer to its servants, for such I regarded 
the Senators to be, a calm and dignified reproof in the fewest words 
possible — There was in fact but little division on political ques- 
tions in the Legislature — The tertium quids were few in number, 
probably not a half dozen in "all, and differed not from 
the great majority on fundamental questions of which the Bank 



48 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



was one, and the federal party to a man, with Mercer in their 
lead, instead, as you state, of hailing the resolutions as the signal 
for the overthrow of their greatest opponent in the U. S. Senate, 
sprung promptly to his side in vindication of his course — Mercer"? 
report in vindication and support, was not less elaborate than Mr. 
Leigh's in condemnation — At the hazard of fatiguing you with 
incidents of no great importance I venture to give you a personal 
anecdote which occurred at a much later day — When the instruc- 
tions of the Legislature came up to Mr. Leigh and myself, then 
the Senators, (singular change of position on our part was it not?) 
to expunge the record of the Senate disapprobatory of the course 
of Gen'l Jackson on a well known decision, I made up my mind 
instantly to resign my place (Mr. Leigh you are aware took a 
different course) and in doing so I encountered the decided oppo- 
sition of all the opposition Senators, except Col. Preston of S. 
Carolina — Mr. Clay and Mr. Calhoun were deputed to wait on 
me to dissuade me from resigning — My reply was "Gentlemen 
"the first act of my political life was a censure of Messrs Giles 
"and Brent for opposition to instructions — the chalice presented to 
"their lips is now presented to mine, and I will drain it even to 
"the dregs'' — They replied, Mr. Calhoun being the spokenman, "if 
you make it a point of personal honour we have nothing more to 
say". I will add that having been previously nominated by Mary- 
land for the Vice Presidency, I was told by the Senators from 
that State, its Legislature being in session at the time, that my 
resignation would be immediately followed by a repeal of my 
nomination — In this they were mistaken. — 

I mention these facts merely to satisfy you that whatever 
might have been the feelings and motives of others, my own were 
entirely free from the taint of either personal ill-feeling or po- 
litical intrigue — 

Excuse me for the trouble of so long a letter on an unimportant 
subject, and also for its disfiguration by blots and interlineations — 
I have not time to copy it, and throw myself on your goodness to. 
over-look its imperfections — 

Very truly and faithfully Yrs, 
John Tyler. 
Mr. Grigsby — 



Letters 49 

Thomas L. Boyd to Thomas W. Gilmer 

Wythe Ct House Nov' 4 th 1830. 
My dear Sir, 

Yours of the 24 th inst. has been duly received. I omitted to 
say in my last to you, that Gen 1 Preston had gone to Kentucky — 
he left Abingdon about the 10 th of Oct. but will very probably 
return by the 3 rd Tuesday in this month, the Washington Ct day. 
Should Gen 1 Preston not return in time for taking his affidavit 
at the next Washington Court, I can take Cap 1 Smith's, & will 
attend to the taking of Gen 1 Preston's at any other time that should 
be appointed. Since I wrote to you from Abingdon I have heard 
but little said against the Loyal Company claims — those who pre- 
tend to know any thing about them, generally acknowledge their 
validity. Candidates are the persons that make most noise about 
.them; and that has been almost confined to the Washington Can- 
didates — Mayo was much opposed to them, & is defeated by Cowan, 
who, I undertand, acknowledged in one of his replies to Mayo, 
that he knew nothing about the claims, but that he would put 
his foot upon them if they came before the Senate & he should 
be a member of that body. It has occurred to me that it might 
be very well for you to publish the "Sketch of the Company," 
with such explanations & additions as you may think the present 
excitement requires, in the paper about to be published at Abing- 
don — JVI r Alexander would, no doubt, cheerfully insert any thing 
of the sort in his paper, free of expense to yourself or the company. 
This paper will have pretty extensive circulation in the counties 
West of this County, & will, I think, afford the best opportunity 
of giving the people a correct understanding of these claims. I 
think if the people can be made to understand these claims per- 
fectly, & shall see that any effort to abolish them in the Legisla- 
ture will fail, they will say nothing further against them but 
settle them as cheerfully as they would any other just claim. T 
have heard of no difficulty having occurred with those who have 
rec d orders from you — indeed I have not been informed that any 
of your orders have been presented. The instance that M r Brown 
named, I think, happened some time back. I have not been able 



50 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



to hear what Hector is doing — I have met with no one that could 
give me any information about his proceedings. 

I see in the paper by this morning mail, that J. Barbour is 
beaten. I am sorry to see it, altho' I am opposed to his politicks. 
Barbour's legal & general information could do much service in 
the next Legislature. 

Present me respectfully to M rs Gilmer. Remember me to 
your father & brothers, to M r Southall, M r "Wood, & M r Saun- 
ders, and to any other friend that may enquire after me. 
With great esteem & regard 
I am 

Your friend & obt. St. 

Th: L. Boyd 



(Addressed) 
Tho s "W 



Gilmer — esqre 
Attorney at Law 

Charlottesville 
Yirga 



J. L. Edwards to Wm. L. Gog gin. 



Pension Office 
Feb- T 5 th 1849 
(Dear Sir) 

(The letter) of M rs Susan Campbell, recently referred by 
you to this Office (was) returned, and in reference to the claims 

of M rs Campbell, for ( ) bounty land and "Commutation 

Pay," in right of her deceased husband William Campbell, who 
was a Captain the 1 st Reg* of the Virginia State line, com- 
manded by Col Geo. Gibson, (which Regiment was, on the 12 th 
January 1830, decided by the Secretary of War, to have been a 
Continental Regiment, from October 1777) I have the honor to 
inform you that, on the 24 th December, 1832, land Warrant N° 
1903 for 300 acres, issued in favor of Susan Campbell, Widow, 
and others, as the Devisees of the aforesaid Capt n William Camp- 
bell, dec d , which "Warrant was sent to the Hon 1 Ja s Barbour, 
Barboursville Virginia — This Warrant for 300 acres, being the full 






Lettees 5 i 

quantity of land promised by the U. States to Captains of the 
Continental lines of the Army, it follows that, there is nothing 
further clue, in bounty land, on the part of the U. States, to the 
representatives of Capt" W ,n Campbell, dec d . 

It appears from an authentic document in this Office, that 
there was paid to Cap 1 William Campbell, of the 1 st Virg a State 
line Regiment, $2,556.40 — being commutation (principal and in- 
terest), pursuant to an Act of the Virginia Assembly, passed in 
February, 1820. The heirs of that Officer, have therefore no Valid 
claim for "Commutation Pay" from the IT. States. 

I have the honor to be 
Very Resp- V Y r Obt Sert 
(Addressed) J. L. Edwards 

Hon 1 W m L. Goggin 

Ho of Representatives. 

(Endorsed) 

Mrs. Campbell you will see from the enclosed letter that 
your case has again been decided by the Com 1 " of Pensions 
against the claims. I have however presented your petition to 
Congress — Respy. 

W. L. Goggin. 



52 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

MAETIATT. 

By Judge Joiix L. Thomas, Waco, Texas. 

Nicholas Martian probably came to A'irginia in 1623 and be- 
came the progenitor of George "Washington, Thomas Nelson and 
scores of other distinguished Americans, but his name has been 
spelled in so many ways by historians and others, that for 250 
years it was not positively known what his real name was, and 
especially how he wrote it himself. In 1621 the Virginia Company 
directed Gov. Wyatt to cause a census of Virginia to be taken 
every year. This was the first movement for census taking in that 
Colony. Hotten was named to take the enumeration of the people, 
and the first time he did this was for the year 1623. In that 
census Hotten recorded the name "Nicholas Marteaw." In his 
next census, that for 1624-25, he recorded the name "Captain Nich- 
olas Marine.'"'* In a land grant to this man, issued by Gov. Harvey, 
March 14, ] 639-40, the name is repeated seven times and every 
time it is spelled "Martien." Gov. Harvey, in his controversy with 
the House of Burgesses and the Council in 1635, called this gentle- 
man "Martue"; and in his commission as justice of the Court of 
Kiskiack Borough (now York County), in 1633, and all records 
of that court for over twenty years, the name is spelled "Martian." 

He was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from 
Elizabeth City Borough in 1624 and from Kiskiack Borough in 
1632 and 1633, and in these his name is reported in 1624 as "Mar- 
ten" and in 1632-33 as "Martian." Even in his will in 1656, 
as recorded, the original not having been preserved, the name is 
"Martian." 

According to a record made by the General Court in 1657 and 
recorded in Accomac County and another record made by the 
County Court of York County in 1662, "Nicholas Martin" was 
naturalized in England, but when is not stated, and so far as I 
have been able to discover, these two records are the only evidence 
in existence of Martiau bavin? been there naturalized. I will add. 



Maetiau c$ 

these records, though mis-spelling the name, it is generally con- 
ceded, and I concede, refer to Nicholas Martiau. The historians 
of Virginia discovered that Capt. Martiau, no matter what the 
spelling of his name was, was the ancestor of Gen. Washington, 
who commanded the Continental Army, and Gen. Nelson, who 
commanded the Virginia forces at the siege of Yorktown, and 
that that siege was on the home plantation of this same man, 
and then they became intensely interested in his name, nationality, 
etc. ; and they have tried to come to some conclusion about these 
and various theories have been advanced. 

Brown's theory of Martiau's name and nationality: 
When the religious war, known as "The Thirty Years War," 
commenced in 1619, fifty-five families, consisting of fifty-five men, 
forty-one women and one hundred and twenty-nine children, be- 
longing to the class of French Walloon Huguenots, residing in 
the Valley of the Meuse, Belgium, fled to Holland for safety, and 
the last part of 1621, finding, like the "Pilgrim Fathers." that 
Holland was not a safe place for Protestants during such a war 
as that, determined to go to America, and they applied to "The 
London Company" for permission to settle in Virginia, which per- 
mission the Company granted on condition the Colony would not 
consist of more than three hundred, and that the emigrants should 
agree to conform to the laws and the rites and practice of the 
Established Church of England. The Company also added it 
could not furnish shipping for them. Holland offering them more 
favorable terms than these, they went to the Hudson Eiver and 
settled at a point they called Amsterdam, on that river, under 
Dutch auspices and protection. Among those emigrants who signed 
the above application in "'round robin form," asking for permission 
to settle in Virginia, we find this name : "iSTycholas de le Marlier, 
dyer, wife and two children," and Dr. Alexander Brown, in his 
"The First Republic," suggested this man was the one who figures 
in Virginia history from 1623 to 1657 under the various names 
above given. He thought "de le Marlier" and a few others of 
these Walloons refused to go to the Hudson Biver, but went to 
England, where they were naturalized, and then to Virginia. If 
Dr. Brown is correct, Martiau was a French Walloon, a descendant 



54 



Ttlee's Quarterly Magazine 



of one of the families inhabiting the Meuse Valley when Julius 
Caesar invaded Gaul in the last century B. C. Historians and 
other writers have generally accepted Dr. Brown's theory as reason- 
able and have acquiesced in it. At first, I fell into this current 
and accepted Brown's theory. I was very anxious to connect this 
man, whom I found to be my ancestor, too, with the crucial assem- 
bly of the Colony in 1624, which made such a gallant, tho unsuc- 
cessful, fight for their charter, but when I found Hening, in 
1808, in his compilation of the Statutes of Virginia from the be- 
ginning did not mention any one under any of the above names, 
but did name "Nicholas Marten" as a member, I began to doubt 
whether my ancestor was a member of that body or not, and I 
scrutinized the extant records more closely than I had previously 
.done, and I came to the conclusion Brown and all the rest had 
not found the true spelling of the name. Hotten gave the name 
of Martue in the census of 1625 and Gov. Harvey called this im- 
migrant "Martue" in 1635, which satisfied me they spelled it as 
it was popularly pronounced, and if a French name (which it un- 
doubtedly is), it was Martiau, which would be pronounced Martue, 
and not Martian, which could not be pronounced that way. 

I wrote Dr. Tyler, President of William and Mary College, 
giving him my theory, and he thought so much of it he went to 
York County and carefully re-examined all the records there to 
see if the copyists had not made an "n" out of the final letter of 
the name instead of a "u," but he reported he found every record 
had an "n" for the final letter. So it seemed I was at the end of 
my rope in seeking a confirmation of my view. 

I did not, however, change my view, and when I wrote up the 
Ancestry of Frank Trumbull I wrote the name "Martieu," as 
will be seen by an examination of that booklet which has been 
printed. I found de le Marlier's calling of '"dyer" was, so far as 
we know, inconsistent with Martiau's work from the time he 
landed at Old Point Comfort till his death in 1657, a period of 
over thirty years. We hear no more of "de le Marlier" after the 
signing of the "round robin." Hotten in his census lists of Vir- 
ginia of 1623, his first, and 1624, named no "de le Marlier" with 
or without wife and children, but in 1623 he listed "Nicholas 



Maetiau 55 

Marteaw" in "Basse's Choice/"' which was opposite Newport News 
in Elizabeth City Borough, and in 162'4-'25 he listed "Nicholas 
Martiie" in Elizabeth City and calls him "Captain.*' having a 
"muster."* I could not believe and did not believe that de le 
Marlier could go to England and be naturalized, then go to Vir- 
ginia, drop "de le" from his name: change "Tier" in his name to 
"tiaw, tue or tian," abandon his business of dyer, become able to 
write his name and speak the English language well enough to 
justify an English constituency in electing him a burgess of the 
Grand Assembly, as a colleague of such a man as "William Tucker, 
and that his wife and two children died inside of two years. I 
feel sure de le Marlier went to New York in 1623 with the other 
French Walloons. It occurred to me that if the seven historic 
papers, numbered from A to G, which the members of the As- 
sembly of 1624 adopted, signed and sent to London, protesting 
against the revocation of their charter, were still extant and legi- 
ble, the mystery about this name might be cleared up, and I wrote 
my nephew, Mr. Frank Trumbull, of 61 Broadway, New York, 
requesting him to make an effort to find those papers, and, if found, 
to have a tracing of the name, as the man himself wrote it, made. 
Mr. Trumbull wrote his friend, W. M. Acworth, of London, ask- 
ing him to engage a competent person to look for these papers, 
and, if found, make a tracing of this name. Mr. Acworth engaged 
Miss L. Diver (17 Primrose Hill Road, London), who found some 
of those papers in the British Public Pecord Office, all signed by 
Gov. Wyatt, and all of the members of the Council and House of 
Burgesses, and she made four tracings from separate papers of a 
name on them and they are all alike. 

These tracings unquestionably make it plain this immigrant 
wrote his own name "Nicolas Martian," and what is still more 
important, it proves, beyond the peradventure of a doubt, that the 
great-great grandfather of Generals Washington and Nelson was 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1621 and took 



* Hotten, among the immigrants to the Colony, also gives, p. 176, 
Nicholas Martin as living in the Maine, Elizabeth City Borough, in 
February, 162 3. 



56 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



part in laying the foundations of our Eepublic on an enduring 
basis. Another correspondent in London of Mr. Trumbull's dis- 
covered three of the seven papers above mentioned had been re- 
moved out of the reach of the German airplane bombs, and that 
since this tracing was made, the other four have been removed, so 
it is fortunate we got tracings of the autography of Martiau when 
we did, or we might not have obtained it for a long time, if ever. 

Five of the papers mentioned above were addressed to the King 
or some of his cabinet in answer to papers of Smith, Johnson and 
Butler criticising the then government of the Colony; one was 
addressed to the Committee the King sent out at that time to ex- 
amine into and report the true condition of affairs, and the other 
was a copy of the laws passed by that session of the Grand As- 
sembly. The Assembly sent these papers to London by John 
Poyntz, who delivered them to the proper parties, and they were 
deposited in the British Public Becord Office, Department of the 
Colonies, and they can all be found printed in Sainsbury's Calendar 
of State Papers under date, 1624. 

I may be asked what my theory is about this gentleman's na- 
tionality and when we went to Virginia if he was not de le Marlier ? 
I will answer that I feel sure he was a Frenchman, but I have no 
means of knowing whether he lived before coming here in France 
or Belgium. We have no evidence whatever when he migrated to 
Virginia. In Hotten's census of 1623 there is nothing showing 
how he reached Virginia, but in the census of 1624 he is reported 
to have come over in the Bona Ventura and was thirty-three years 
old. As stated above, it is probable he came over in 1623, but he 
may have come earlier than that. John,Berkeley in 1620 brought 
to Virginia several Frenchmen to plant mulberry trees and raise 
worms for the production of silk, and it may be Martiau was one 
of these. Then, again, Martiau may have gone to England some 
years prior to 1623 and when he desired to embark for Virginia 
the King granted him naturalization papers, that being within the 
province of the sovereign. In either one of these contingencies, 
he would have had time and opportunity to learn to speak the 
English language with sufficient distinctness to justify an English 
constituency in electing him to an English Assembly in 1621. It 



Martiau 



57 



may be added Martiau married John Berkeley's widow in 1625, 
Berkeley having lost his life in the Indian massacre of 1622. 



Note: la support of the spelling de Le Marlier, which appears in 
Hotten, is a grant, dated 22 Oct., 1651, to George Reade, (who married 
Elizabeth, Martiau's daughter), recorded in the Land Office for 600 
acres in the County of Lancaster. Among the headrights are Capt. 
Nicho. Marleaw, Mrs. Jane Marleaw and Eliza Marleaw. One fact 
going to prove that the "French Walloon" de le Marlier and Martiau 
were not the same is not adverted to by Judge Thomas. The French 
"Walloon made his mark to the papers presented to the English Am- 
bassador, whereas Capt. Nicholas Martaiu signed his own name to the 
papers of 1624, proceeding from the House of Burgesses. It should 
be remembered, however, that the letters "1" and "t" were written 
very much alike in those days and could be readily mistaken for 
one another. And then Hotten may have erred in attaching a mark 
to de le Marlier's name as printed.. This doubt might be readily 
solved by a view of the "Round Robin." 



58 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazixe 



TOMBSTONES IX NEW KENT COUNTY. 

Inscriptions on old tombstone slabs in a familj graveyard in New 
Kent County, between Black's Store and Quinton, on tbe Southern 
R. R., about 20 miles from Richmond, on land deeded on March 28, 
1780, by Major Thomas* Massie to Nathaniel Littleton Savage. 

Communicated by Eugexe C. Massie. 

"M. S. 

Here lyeth interred the Body of 

Mr. "William Massie 

Son of Thomas Massie 

Of the County of New Kent, Gentn 

He married Martha A Daughter 

of William Maeon* 

of the said county Esq. 

By whom He had two Sons 

William and Thomas 

Both surviving him who under 

a just & dutiful sence of their Father 

and Mother's tender affection 

and Eegard have caused this 

and the adjacent Stone to be laid 

over the place of their interment 

as grateful memorial of them 

He departed this life June the 15th 1751 

in the 38th rear of His Age" 



"M. S. 

Here lyeth interred the Body of 

Mrs. Martha Bland 

Daughter of William Macon 

of the County of New Kent, Esq. 

She was first wife of 

Mr. William Massie to whom 



Tcoibstoxes in New Kent County 59 

She was married November ye 20th 1740 
after whose decease She was married 

to Kichard Bland * 
of the Couty of Prince George, Esq. 

January the 1st 1759 

She departed this life Aug. ye 8th f 

in the 37th year of Her Age." 



* This furnishes sufficient confirmation of the statement in Quar- 
terly, XIII, 197, that William Massie married Martha Macon, daugh- 
ter of Col. "William Macon. 

f This tombstone confirms the tradition that Martha Macon, after 
the death of William Massie, married a Bland, only it was Richard 
Bland and not Theodorick. Col. Richard Bland, b. May 6, 1710— 
d. October 28, 1776, married (1) Anne, d. Peter Poythress (2) in 1759, 
Martha Macon, widow of William Massie, (3) Elizabeth Blair, 
dau. of John Blair, President of the Council. 



60 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazixe 



NOTES FROM BARTON'S COLONIAL DECISIONS.* 

Vol. I. Sir John Randolph's Reports. Cases decided between 
1728 and 1743. 

Page 10. Booth vs. Dudley. Ejectment: 

Peter Ransom (Ransone) died leaving three sons James, George 
and William. George died and left an only child Elizabeth, who 
married (Major) Robert Dudley, who died Oct. 20, 1701. They 
had a son Robert Dudley, born 1691. lessor of the plaintiff Booth. 
After Major Dudley's death, his widow Elizabeth married 2dly. 
another Robert Dudley, who died in 1710, when she married 3rdly. 
Thomas Elliott, who died in November, 1716. 

James Ransom (Ransone) died and left three sons George, 
Robert and Peter. Declaration in the suit was filed October 5, 
1726. (See Ransone Family, Quarterly X., 263; XIV. 129.) 

Page 15. Meekins & Taden vs. Burwell and Holdcroft, Ejectment: 
Thomas Meekins made his will March 7, 1669, and left 4 chil- 
dren: Thomas, who died March 2, 1721, leaving issue Meekins, 

his son and heir, one of the lessors; William, who died before 1682 
without issue; Roger, who died March 2, 1723; Mary, who married 

Yaden and died around 1723, leaving a son one of the lessors. 

Burwell, one of the defendants was Bacon Burwell a descendant 
(son) of James Burwell, who was son of Lewis Burwell. Hold- 
croft, the other defendant, married the widow of Alexander Walker, 
living in 1691. 

Page 22. Burgess admx vs. Chichester admr. In Chancery: 

William Fox died, willing his estate to his wife, during her 
natural life, and in case of her death the property should ero to his 



* The object is not to set out the legal aspect of the cases, but 
the family connections. 



INotes From Barton's Colonial Decisions 61 

nephew David Fox and his heirs, but if it should so happen that 
he should not be alive nor have any heirs at the time of the decease 
of his said wife, he gave his estate to Mrs. Burgess, and all the 
daughters of G. H., who should be living at that time. David Fox 
is dead, and Mrs. Burgess is his only sister and admx. Mrs. 
Chichester died during the suit, and it was revived by George 
Heale, in behalf of all his daughters, several of whom were born 
after the testator's death. (For Fox pedigree see Quarterly 
XVIIL, 59-64; for Heale pedigree, see Ibid, 202-204. William 
Fox married Anne Chinn, who married 2dly. Bichard Chichester. 
George Heale married her sister Catherine Chinn and left four 
daughters. Mrs. Burgess, was Frances Fox, daughter of Samuel 
Fox and wife of Charles Burgess. Her brother David Fox is 
omitted from the pedigree.) 

Page 30. Thornton vs. Buckner. In Chancery: 

Thomas Pannell and John Prosser received from Sir William 
Berkeley, Xovember 4, 1673, a patent for 2500 acres of land. John 
Prosser died leaving 1 John, eldest son and heir, who left sur- 
viving a son Samuel Prosser; 2 Eoger, who died s. p. and 3 An- 
thony, who left son Anthony. These sons Samuel and Anthony 
sold their interest Jany 21, 1717 to Francis and Anthony Thorn- 
ton the plaintiffs. Thomas Pannell died leaving issue a son and 
two daughters : 1 William, 2 Mary, who married Francis Stone, 
•3 Isabella, who married Bichard Phillips, and died after her father 
and left a daughter Catherine who married John Knight. John 
Knight and Catherine, his wife, made a deed 24 March, 1705 to 
Francis and Anthony Thornton. 

John Buckner devised land to Thomas Buckner, one of the 
defendants, and Bichard Buckner was the other defendant. 

Page 35. April, 1730. Marston vs Parrish. Detinue: 

John Williams made his will 22d April, 1713, and left a wife 
and 3 children. The widow married John Marston, who made 
his will December 1, 1719, and then she married 3rdly. Par- 
rish the defendant in the suit. Xone of Williams' children are 
of age. 



62 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Page 36. Edmonds vs Hughes. Detinue: 

Richard Alderson made his will, 16 Sept. 1695, leaving a son 
Richard Alderson and a widow Margaret, who after her husband's 
death married the plaintiff Edmonds. 

. > i 
Page 39. Legan & Yanse vs Latany. Ejectment: 

John Penn willed the plantation he lived on to Ann Sharp, 
daughter of John Sharp, and, if she should died issueless, then 
to his friend Thomas Harman. Anne Sharp married Vincent 
Vanse & had issue John Yanse, who is the lessor of the plaintiff. 
But Yanse and his wife by deed dated Feb 20th, 1692, devised the 
lands to Edward Thompson in fee who devised them to the Parish 
of South Earnham, Richmond Co., of which Latany (Latane) is 
now parson. 



Page 50. Denn vs Smith. Ejectment: April, 1731. 

Powell died and left the lands in question to Mary wife of 
Ephraim Thomas. Thomas and wife conveyed the land to Owen 
Davis. Mary Thomas died upwards of 50 years ago leaving two 
daughters Elizabeth and Mary both very young. The husband 
survived the wife ten years and died in 1690. Elizabeth Thomas, 
two years old when the mother died, married at 18 Giles Dew- 
berry, of Elizabeth City Co. Both Dewberry and his wife died 
in Dec. 1716, leaving issue 2 sons Giles and Thomas. Giles died 
sine prole in 1719, having reached 21, and Thomas is one of the 
lessors of the plaintiff being about 22 years of age. 

Mary, the other daughter, married at 17 Anthony Simmons, 
who died 2 years after the marriage. His widow in 1703 married 
John Roberts. He died 1711 and she died 1719. leaving issue John 
Roberts, the other lessor of the plaintiff. So Thomas Dewberry 
and John Roberts, the grandsons of Mary Thomas, entered and 
made the lease to the plaintiff January 1, 1728. 

Page 57. April, 1731. Berryman & Ux vs Cooper & TJx. In 
Chancery : 
John Bushrod's widow married Willoughby Allerton, and on 
his death she married Cooper. By John Bushrod she had 



j^otes Feom Barton's Coloxial Decisions 



63 



two younger children Sarah, who married Berryman, and another 
daughter. 

Page 61. October, 1731. Waddy & ux vs. Sturman & als. In 
Chancery : 
John Jordan by his will dated Febr. 6, 1693, gave several 
legacies to his sons-in-law (stepsons) John Spence and Thomas 
Spence. Dorcas Jordan his wife. Thomas Spence d. s. p., and 
John died, leaving a daughter born, 1698, Jane, wife of Waddj', 
the complainant, and the widow of John Spence married Laurence 
Pope. John Sturman was one of the executors of John Spence 
and surviving executor of Dorcas Jordan. 

Page 63. Thruston vs Pratt. Appeal from a judgment in West- 
moreland Court: 
Eobert Howson was seized in fee of 450 acres and died leaving 
3 daus: — Ann married Eice Hooe, Mary married Charles Calvert 
and Frances, who died unmarried. 8 January 1699 these 3 sisters 
made partition of the land, and soon after Frances d. s. p. Calvert 
and his wife entered upon the land and died leaving two daugh- 
ters, who January 27, 1718, conveyed their estate to John Pratt, 
father of the defendant. Ann Hooe's son, the lessor of the plain- 
tiff, was 33 years old in February, 1729. 

Page 65. Goodrisrht Lessee of Daniel Middleton vs. Ann Batson. 
Appeal from Xorthampton Co. in Ejectment: 
William Satchell made his will June 7, 1619, (1699?) leaving 
a son John Satchell and daughters Grace, who married John 
Batson, and Ellen who married Daniel Middleton. John Batson 
devised land to his two sons, Francis and William Batson, and 
by deed 30 December, 1705, his wife Grace made a transfer. 
Francis made his will Feb. 22, 1725, and names his wife Ann. 
The lessor of the plaintiff is the son and heir of Ellen Middleton, 
who died in 1711. 

Page 68. Lawson vs Connor. Ejectment: 

Anthony Lawson, who had Thomas by one venter, and by a 



64 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



second venter Anthony, Margaret, wife of Charles Sawyer, and 
Elizabeth, late wife of the defendant Connor. Anthony died in 
the lifetime of his father without issue. The father died in the 
year 1701. Thomas entered and held the land with John Fnlcher, 
and died leaving his wife enseint of a son, the lessor of the pltf. 

Page 76. Waughop vs Tate & uxor. 

John Coutanceau, an infant, by deed December 17, 1718, con- 
veyed several negroes to Biehard Ball for the use of his half- 
brother Peter Coutanceau. Tate's wife is Peter's heir. 

The heir at law of John Coutanceau claims under Wauhop. 
(See Coutanceau and Wauhop families Quarterly 271-273.) 

Page 80. Goddin vs Morris & Uxor. In Chancery : 

Goddin died in October, 1710, leaving a son, who is the plain- 
tiff. Stannup marries Goddin's widow, and Keiling obtains a 
judgment against them June 14, 1711. 

Page 84. Lightfoot vs Lightfoot. In Chancery: 

Francis Lightfoot, the plaintiff's father, left a great estate 
and a son and daughter. The son died in May 1730, 2 yrs & 5 
months after the death of his father: and defendant Philip Light- 
foot, brother of the testator, entered in possession, and was sued 
by the daughter of Francis Lightfoot. Court decided for the de- 
fendant. 

Page 97. Armistead vs Swiney & his wife, exors of N. Curie. 
Nicholas Curie, possessed of a considerable estate, died leaving 
a wife Jane and several children. The widow Jane married James 
Eicketts and after his death she married the defendant Swinev. 
(Sweeney). 



sur- 



Page 102. Doctor Nicholas & his wife vs. Lewis Burwell, 
viving exor &c. of Nathaniel Burwell. In Chancery: 
The testator (Nathaniel Burwell) possessor of a great estate 
and by his will dated August 20, 1721, divided his estate between 
his wife, three sons and daughter. The widow had a child after 



Notes From Barton's Colonial Decision; 



65 



his death, that lived 2 months. Subsequently the widow married 
Dr. Nicholas. , ■ 

i •• 

Page 109. Swiney vs. Dandridge. In Chancery: 

Wilson Eoscow made his will 26 August, 1713, and gave his 
wife his personal estate and to his god-son Pasco Curie, 100 pds 
at 21, and to be brought up in England 2 years at his charge. 
The wife married the defendant Dandridge. Pasco Curie died be- 
fore 21. 

Page 109. Jones vs Langhorne. Detinue for negroes : 

Mary Goddin made her will leaving her estate to her daughter 
Mary Eice and after her death to her heirs. She married Myres 
and mortgaged certain negroes to Jones the plaintiff & had issue 
by Myres 4 children, and she is now married to the defendant 
Langhorne and lias 4 children by him. 
Page 112. MeCarty vs. Fitzhugh. In Chancery: 

The defendant married McCarty's daughter. MeCarty by his 
will gave all his debts in Stafford to his son Dennis and the re- 
mainder of his estate to his two other sons. 

Vol. II. BarradalVs Reports. 

Page 13. Case of Mr. Green, of Gloucester Co : 

Ealph Green patented 1100 acres of land in Gloucester Co. 10 
February, 1662. He made his will 5 March, 1685-6. He had two 
sons Ealph and Eobert, the first of whom had a son Thomas and 
the second (Eobert) had one son Ealph, who died in the life time 
of his father, and two daughters Elizabeth and Mary. Eobert 
Green married about 1679, Mary Pritchett, daughter of Mrs. Vi- 
caris. Thomas Green, the son of Ealph, the eldest son, brought 
suit about 14 years ago. 

.Page 21. Case of Mr. Williamson, merchant: 

James Williamson, merchant, by deeds of lease and release 
mortgaged November 20, 1655, an estate which he then had in 
England, in fee to Thomas Cox for 320 lbs. Sterling. Mr. Wil- 
liam Ball was grandson and heir of the mortgagor. 



66 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazixe 



Page 22. Case of Perry vs. Eandolph : 

The petition of appeal of Sarah Perry, widow and ex'ix of 
Eichard Perry, merchant, dec'd, and of Sarah Perry, Micajah 
Perry & Philip Perry, merchants of London, ex'ors of Micajah 
Perry, merchant, deceased. They had extensive dealings with 
William Eandolph, and considerable balances were due to said 
Perrys, of which balances said Col. Eandolph, and Marv Ean- 
dolph, widow, William and Thomas Eandolph the said Col. Ean- 
dolph's ex'tors after his death, made several consignments. 

Page 26. John Hallows, "late of Eachedale, County Palatine 
of Lancaster," was seized of 2400 acres in Virginia & died so seized, 
leaving issue Eestitute, his daughter, who entered and married 
with one Whiston, & by him had Eestitute, her daughter and heir, 
who intermarried with one Thomas Steele, and had issue Thomas 
Steele, eldest son & heir, and afterwards married with one Manly, 
and had issue two sons John and William Manly. Being a widow, 
the said Eestitute made her will January 30, 1687, leaving her 
estate to her three sons, to remain in the hands of her ex'tor till 
the children arrived at the age of 16. Thomas Steele died when 
he had almost attained the age of 21 & without issue, after whose 
death John Manly entered into possession leaving issue the de- 
fendant. The lessor of the pltf is Samuel Hallows, son and heir 
of Matthew Hallows, who was eldest brother of said John Hal- 
lows. This case was sent from Virginia in 1722 and Sir Eobert 
Eaymond rendered an opinion upon it. 

Page 31. Case of Thomas Allaman, on which Edward Barradall 
rendered an opinion in 1741: 

Thomas Allaman, seized in fee of 700 acres of land, died in- 
testate, leaving issue by his wife, Judith, a daughter, and by his 
second wife three sons John, Thomas and William. John and 
Thomas died infants without issue. William lived to be of age 
and died intestate in 1732, leaving wife, son Thomas, who died 
soon after his father, and daughter Sara, who died lately, bein°- 
about IS vears old. Her mother is now living. 






Notes From Barton's Colonial Decisions 67 

Cases adjudged in the General Court of Virginia between April 
1733 and October 1741. 

Page 34. McCarty vs McCarty's ex'tors. In Chancery: 
Daniel McCarty had three sons D., B., and J. 
John Fitzhugh married his eldest daughter. 

Page 35. Nicholas & his wife vs. Burwell's ex'tors. In Chancery: 
Burwell devised to the child his wife was enseint with. After 
the testator's death the relict was delivered of a daughter, who 
died before 21. 

Page 40. Lightfoot vs. Lightfoot : 

Francis Lightfoot by his will devised Hie remainder of his es- 
tate to his son Francis & the heirs male of his body and if he die 
without such issue, or if there be any failure hereafter in the male 
line to his brother P. Lightfoot & his heirs. Son lived 2 or 3 
years after his father, & now a bill is brought by the daughter 
against the brother Philip. 

Page 42. Berryman ag't Booth: 

Plaintiff's father made his will and left his estate to his wife. 
The plaintiff was born later, and afterwards brought his bill against 
the defendant, who married the widow. 

Page 68. Godwin vs. Kinchen's Ex'rs. In Chancery. April 

Court, 1737: 

Matthew Kinchen made his will and after several legacies left 

all the rest of his goods and chattels to his brother William 

Kinchen and his three sisters Eliza, Martha, and Patience, and 

James Godwin's "three children" James, Martha and Matthew. 

(To be continued.) 



68 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazixe 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 



Thomas Haynes' Will. The will of Thomas Haynes, of War- 
wick County, Va., is recorded in London. It was made in Sep- 
tember, 1742, and administration was granted September 27, 1746. 
It names wife, Martha, and nine children: Anthony, Thomas, Vir- 
ginia, Richard, Andrew, Herbert, Elizabeth (Cary), Martha and 
Mary Haynes; granddaughter, Martha, daughter of son, Herbert 
Haynes. (Richmond Critic, August 13, 1888.) The son, Herbert 
Haynes, married Sarah Wynn, who married 2dly Col. John Thrus- 
ton, of Gloucester County, Va. (William axd Mary College 
Quarterly., IV., 182.) The daughter, Elizabeth, probably mar- 
ried Edward Cary, of Abingdon parish, Gloucester county. (Ibid., 
47.) 

Kent Island. This island is situated about 150 miles up 
Chesapeake Bay from Jamestown. William Claiborne had a trading 
station there, which was a considerable establishment. Together 
with York at the mouth of Wormeley's Creek, it was represented 
in 1632 by a delegate in the House of Burgesses. In the con- 
troversy with Lord Baltimore, the Virginia Council insisted that, 
notwithstanding the abrogation of the charter to the Colony, it was 
as much a part of Virginia as Jamestown itself. After the ex- 
pulsion of Claiborne, the island was the residence of Capt. Giles 
Brent, who was made commander. A visitor to Kent Island in 
1852 thus wrote: 

"I have just returned from a very interesting excursion, in- 
cluding a visit to Kent Point, the southern extremity of Kent 
Island — the point upon which the first touch of Anglo-Saxon civ- 
ilization (within the limits of Maryland) was kindled; where the 
first mil! was erected; the first fort (Fort Kent) was constructed, 
and the Manor House (so long in the family of the Brents) was 
also situated. From a careful survey of the whole ground, and a 
consultation with the oldest inhabitant, I succeeded, without doubt, 
in determining upon the site of the Manor House. There is still a 



HlSTOEICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES 69 

rich spot upon a gentle elevation of the field, and, mingled with 
the soil are many pieces of broken earthen and ironware, and 
other indications, which cannot be mistaken." 

Claiborne. There is. at Spanishtown, Jamaica, a power of 
attorney from Thomas Claiborne (second son of Secretary "Wil- 
liam Claiborne) to his brother, Leonard Claiborne. 

Mourning Breastpin. Eichard Adams was a prominent citi- 
zen of Eiehmond. A mourning breastpin was preserved by his 
great-granddaughter in Richmond. The breastpin was oval-shaped, 
measuring 1% x 2]/ 8 inches; the mounting is of the copper alloyed 
gold of the period; the setting, a painting on ivory, delicately 
and artistically rendered, represents a tomb bearing the inscrip- 
tions: "R. Adams ob, 2 August, 1800, M 74," and, "E, Adams ob. 
23 December, 1800, M 64," surmounted with two urns inscribed 
severally "R. A." and "E. A." Upon the tomb leans a graceful 
female figure with bowed head, weeping. Over the whole droops a 
weeping willow. In the back of the pin, beneath a glass, is pre- 
served the hair of the deceased. Colonel Richard Adams is re- 
membered as one of the most useful and enterprising citizens of 
Richmond. His accomplished and benevolent wife was a sister of 
Judge Cyrus Griffin, president of the old Congress in 1788. 

Needler. Benjamin Needier, son of Thomas Needier, of 
Lanum, Middlesex, England, entered St. John's College, Oxford, 
in 1642, aged eighteen, and was afterwards a fellow of the College ; 
was a minister in London until the Restoration, when being an 
ardent Puritan, he was ejected, and retired to North Wamborough, 
Hampshire, where he continued privately to conduct religious ser- 
vices; was the author of sermons, Notes on Genesis, &c. He mar- 
ried a sister of Richard Calverwell, minister of Gundersburgh, and 
died May or June, 1682, leaving issue: 1, Benjamin; 2, Calverwell, 
clerk assistant of the House of Commons, who had a son, Benjamin, 
who was bred to the bar, and emigrated to Virginia, where he was 
clerk of the House of Burgesses, and afterwards of the Council, 
and vestryman of Stratton Mayor Parish, King and Queen; mar- 
ried Alice Corbin, and had known issue, a daughter ; married 
Benjamin Robinson. 



70 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



There was a John Needier, who is referred to in a power of 
attorney to William Harwood, dated in 1717 and recorded in York 
County, Virginia, from "Needier "Webb, scrivener of London, and 
nephew and devisee of my late uncle John Needier, late of James 
Eiver in Virginia, deceased.' ; Another of the name was Thomas 
Needier, Esq., whose will was recorded in York County, Virginia, 
November 13, 1678. He mentions his wife Eleanor, his son 
Thomas Needier, his brother John Shales of London, Esq., and 
his brother Eobert Shales, and their wives, Henry and William 
Shales, and Brother and Sister Ingrum. Captain Philip Lightfoot 
and "cozen John Needier" were made "trustees of this my will." 

Farley. James Parke Farley, of Antigua, came to Virginia 
as a student of William and Mary College, but he settled here; 
married, 1771, Elizabeth Hill, daughter of Colonel William Byrd, 
of Westover, and had issue : 1, Elizabeth married John Banister ; 
second, Doctor Thomas L. Shippen, of Philadelphia; third, Gen- 
eral George Izard, of South Carolina; 2, Maria married Champe 
Carter ; 3, Eebecca Parke married Major Eichard Corbin, of Lane- 
vilie; 4, Eleanor married George Tucker. 



Campbell. Dr. Archibald Campbell, of Bermuda, made his 
will, which was attested by Henry Tucker Esquire, Secretary of 
the Bermuda Islands 26 Aug 4 1799. He left a large estate, and 
names his son Donald Campbell of Norfolk, Virginia, daughter 
Frances Hinson, and her husband Tudor Hinson ; grandchildren : 
Elizabeth Gilchrist, Jane Campbell Tudor Hinson, Mary Tudor 
Hinson, Thomas Edgar Gilchrist, Frances Fitt and John Gilchrist ; 
brother John Campbell of Oraneig in Argyleshire, North Britain, 
to whom he had advanced 160 £ ster., for which his bond was lodged 
in the hands of Donald Campbell Esq., of Oraneig ( ?), the same to 
go to his son James Campbell of Paraclito, Grenada. He made 
Donald Campbell executor of affairs in Virginia, Frances Hinson 
and her husband Tudor Hinson, executors of affairs in Bermuda, 
and brother Alexander Campbell, James Campbell, and Bridget 
Goodrich, executors of affairs in Great Britain. 

AVas Alexander Campbell, of Williamsburg, Virginia, whose 



Historical axd Genealogical Notes 71 

well-known drawing of Washington on horseback is said to have 
been the first taken, the brother of Dr. Archibald Campbell? This 
engraving has inscribed — "Done from an Original Drawn from 
life by Alexander Campbell of Williamsburg in Virginia. Pub- 
lished as the Act Directs 1775 by C. Shepherd." 

Donald Campbell, the son of Dr. Archibald Campbell, settled 
in Norfolk and died in 1795. By his will he gave 300 pds. to 
Henry Tucker, eldest son of St. George Tucker, who was son of 
Henry Tucker, Secretary of State of the Bermuda Islands; names 
nephew John Gilchrist, sister Frances Hinson & her 3 children 
Fanny, Elizabeth and John Gilchrist; sons Alexander Campbell 
and John Oraneig (?) Campbell by Rebecca Stammers; gave 200 
pds to Archibald Campbell "who has lived in my family several 
years." The will of John Gilchrist, who was a physician in Nor- 
folk, was proved there July 27, 1801, and after leaving all his medi- 
cal books to Dr. Philip Barraud and ten pds for a ring, he gave 
all the rest of his property to his sisters Elizabeth Kelly and 
Frances Fitt, "now in Bermuda" ; mentions that his mother has 
children by a last marriage; makes his friend and relative St. 
George Tucker of Williamsburg executor. 

Gary, of Gloucester County, Virginia. James and Sarah 
Cary had (1) Edward bapt. Oct. 2, 1689. John baptised Decem- 
ber 7, 1690. Edward Cary and Mary Cary his wife had (1) James 
born Nov. 5, 1726, (2) John baptized Feb. 9, 1728, (3) Edward 
baptized Augt. 31, 1737. Mr. Edward Cary departed this life Nov. 
1, 1750. (Abingdon Parish Register, Gloucester Co., Va.) 

State Archives: (a) "The indexing of the Confederate Rec- 
ords has reached a point, where we have some fifty-two thousand 
cards written and filed, — this being an increase of some ten thou- 
sand cards since our last report; 

(b) The class of "archival apprentices" totaled twenty-one this 
session, as against twelve last session and two the session before, 
and they have made a good beginning towards getting the various 
classification of papers flatfiled, — especially the Executive Papers." 
—Morgan P. Robinson, State Archivist, May 29, 1919. 



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Vol. I. No. 2. 



OCTOBER, 1919 



friar's; ©uarterlp ^fetorical 

attb 




Genealogical Jfflaga^ne 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



Copy of This Number, $1.00 



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{Kpler'g (©uarterlp ^toxical antr 
(genealogical j$laga?me 

Address all communications to the Editor, Lyon G. Tyler, 
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Vol. I. OCTOBER, 1919. No. 2. 



NOTICE. 

On my retirement from the presidency of William and Mary College I 
deemed it proper to change the name of the William and Mary Quarterly 
Historical Magazine and begin a new series under the name of Tyler's Quar- 
terly Historical and Genealogical Magazine. The new issue will have the 
same subjects, number of pages and price ($3.00 per year) as the old. The 
old magazine expired with the April number, 1919, and the new began with the 
July magazine, 1919. Unless notice is' given to the contrary subscribers to 
the William and Mary Quarterly will be transferred to the new magazine. 

An index to the last volume of the William and Mary Quarterly (twenty- 
seventh volume) is in course of preparation. 

LYON G. TYLER, Editor. 



CONTENTS 



Retrocession of Alexandria to Virginia 73 

Correspondence of Col. William Aylett, Commissary General 

of Virginia 87 

Mr. Anderson's Uncle Ill 

Joseph I. Doran — A Tribute 112 

Notes from Barton's Colonial Decisions 115 

Some Descendants of Richard Wright, Gentleman, of London, 

England, and Northumberland, Virginia, lGo.") 127 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 14-3' 



t 



■- — rr*-*. . 




JOSEPH I. DORAN 

(SEE PAGE 112) 



filer's; ©uarterlp ?|t£toricaI anb 
(genealogical j$laga?me* 

Vol. 1 ~ " OCTOBEE, 1919. • No. 2. 

29th Congress, Rep. No. 325. Ho. of Eeps. 

1st Session. 

RETROCESSION OF ALEXANDRIA TO VIRC4INIA. 

(To accompany bill H. R. No. 259.) 



February 25, 1846. 



Mr. Hunter, from the Committee for the District of Columbia, 
made the following 

REPORT : 

The committee to whom was referred the petition of many 
citizens of the town and county of Alexandria, for the retrocession 
of the portion of the District of Columbia south of the Potomac, 
have consider the same, and report : 

That they have come to the conclusion that there is much in 
the petition to commend itself to the favor of Congress. 

The portion of the District of Columbia south of the Potomac 
constitutes about one-third of its area, and up to this time has 
not been used for the public buildings or grounds necessary for 
the seat of government. 

The experience of more than forty years seems to have demon- 
strated that the cession of the county and town of Alexandria 



74 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

was unnecessary for any of the purposes of a seat of government, 
mischievous to the interest of the District at large, and especially 
injurious to the people of that portion which was ceded by Vir- 
ginia. One of the great objects in removing the seat of govern- 
ment to a district under the exclusive legislation of Congress was 
to secure the person and deliberations of the members of the gen- 
eral government from open violence or lawless intrusions. Your 
committee can see no reason why this object may not be as well 
secured by confining the District to two-thirds of its present ex- 
tent, as by embracing the whole within its area. Within the por- 
tion of the District on the north side of the Potomac river, there 
is much more than space enough for all the public grounds and 
buildings ever likely to be necessary for the seat of government. 
Beyond this quantity, every addition of territory to be embraced 
within the exclusive legislation of Congress is not only unneces- 
sary, but makes a useless diversion of its time and attention from 
the great objects of general legislation, to the discharge of the 
duties of a petty local legislation, for which it is unfitted. In 
the District itself, this union of the counties of Washington and 
Alexandria has been the source of much mischief. 

At the time of the cession of this District, the counties of 
Washington and Alexandria were left under the operation of the 
laws of the States of Maryland and Virginia, respectively, except 
so far as they might be altered by the subsequent legislation of 
Congress. Within the limits of the ten miles square we have thus 
had two people separated by a broad river, and under the opera- 
tion of different codes of laws. It has been so difficult to har- 
monize the legislation of Congress with these two different codes, 
and that body has had so little time to bestow on this work, that 
but little has been done towards amending their codes, or towards 
placing the District under one general system of laws. The dif- 
ficulty of harmonizing its legislation with both codes has hitherto 
prevented Congress from making many most necessary alterations 
in either. It is not to be conceded that these and other circum- 
stances have always produced a degree of sectional feeling, even 
in this small district, which would scarcely have been expected by 
those who had not examined into the causes of their dissensions. 



Retrocession of Alexandria to Virginia 75 

It would be possible, perhaps, with much more of time and labor 
than Congress will ever have to bestow on this subject, to sub- 
stitute a general code for the different systems of law, but the 
difficulties in the way of this work would be far greater than 
would attend the amendment of either one of the systems con- 
sidered separately. Nor is it likely that Congress will ever have 
the time to bestow on a work of so much labor. 

But if this were accomplished, there is a still more permanent 
cause of jealousy subsisting between the two parties of the District 
of Columbia. 

All the disbursements growing out of the location of the seat 
of government are made within the county of Washington, and 
of necessity must continue to be so made. 

This has been, and will continue to be, a source of jealousy 
and division between the two counties of the District. Had the 
District submitted to the exclusive legislation of Congress been 
confined to either county, it is probable that Congress would have 
been able to have discharged to a far greater extent the duties 
of a local legislature, and with a far less expenditure of time 
and money that has been wasted on the hitherto vain attempt to 
attain that object. The present condition of the laws in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia is such as should excite a strong sympathy for 
its people, and would reflect some discredit on our legislation, if 
it were not obvious that the difference in the systems and the 
local jealousies of the two counties have interposed difficulties 
which it required more time to surmount than Congress have ever 
had to bestow upon the subject. The people of the county and 
town of Alexandria have been subjected not only to their full share 
of those evils which affect the District generally, but they have 
enjoyed none of those benefits which serve to mitigate their dis- 
advantages in the county of Washington. The advantages which 
flow from the location of the seat of government are almost en- 
tirely confined to the latter county, whose people, as far as your 
committee are advised, are entirely content to remain under the 
exclusive legislation of Congress. But the people of the county 
and town of Alexandria, who enjoy few of those advantages, are 
(as your committee believe) justly impatient of a state of things 



76 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

which subjects them not only to all the evils of inefficient legis- 
lation, but also to political disfranchisement. To enlarge on the 
immense value of the elective franchise would be unnecessary be- 
fore an American Congress, or in the present state of public 
opinion. The condition of thousands of our fellow-citizens who, 
without any equivalent (if equivalent there could be), are thus 
denied a vote in the local or general legislation by which they 
are governed, who, to a great extent, are under the operation of 
old English and Virginia statutes, long since repealed in the coun- 
ties where they were originated, and whose sons are cut off from 
many of the most highly valued privileges of life, except upon 
the condition of leaving the soil of their birth, is such as most 
deeply move the sympathies of those who enjoy those rights them- 
selves, and regard them as inestimable. Your committee believe 
that it would be difficult to measure the full extent of the de- 
pressing effect which these circumstances have had upon the 
growth and prosperity of the people of the town and county of 
Alexandria. When we compare their present condition with that 
which their natural advantages would seem to have promised, we 
are constrained to believe that there is something in their political 
state which must have marred the beneficent design of nature. 

Upon a full view of all these considerations, your committee 
are of opinion that the interest of the general government, of 
the whole District of Columbia, and particularly of the people of 
the county and town of Alexandria, would be promoted by a retro- 
cession of that county to the State of Virginia, whose general 
assembly have signified their assent to the act by a law passed 
with the unanimous vote of both houses. 

It has been alleged, it is true, that Congress has no power to 
pass such an act — upon grounds which your committee have ex- 
amined, and believe to be entirely insufficient. This objection 
rests mainly upon the assumption that the power in relation to the 
location of the seat of government, and the extent of the district 
given in the seventeenth clause of the eighth section and first 
article of the constitution, has been executed and exhausted : a con- 
struction not warranted, as we believe, by the history or context of 
the clause in question, nor by the general spirit of the instrument 



/ 



Retrocession of Alexandria to Virginia 77 

in which it is contained. There is no more reason to believe that 
the power in this case, when once exercised and executed, is ex- 
hausted, than in any other of the long list of enumerated powers 
to which it belongs, and which it is provided that Congress "shall 
have." The phraseology of the grant is the same, and as much 
reason seems to exist for the continuance of the right to exercise 
this power as in most of those contained in the list to which we 
have referred. If this construction be true, when Congress had 
once fixed the seat of government, it could no more be removed, 
although it should prove to be unsafe, from foreign invasion, or 
so unhealthy as to endanger the lives of the members of the gov- 
ernment, or so located as to be inconsistent with a due regard to 
the facilities of access to our whole population, or to their con- 
venience; and yet it is manifest that some of these considera- 
tions might make the removal of the seat of government a matter 
of necessity. To have excluded the conclusion that the framers 
of the constitution had regarded considerations so manifest and 
reasonable, there must have been terms so precise and accurate 
as to have left no doubt of their intention to make the act irre- 
vocable when the power was once exercised. As some proof that 
the framers of the constitution did not overlook these considera- 
tions, we may advert to the fact that Mr. Madison moved to strike 
out the word "permanent" from the act establishing the seat of 
government, because the constitution did not contain it. Nor is 
this the only difficulty involved by this construction; the same 
section gives a like power relative to forts and arsenals; and, con- 
trary to reason and the usage of Congress, this power, when once 
exercised, would be thus considered as executed and exhausted. 

The true construction of this clause of the constitution would 
seem to be that Congress may retain and exercise exclusive juris- 
diction over a district not exceeding ten miles square; and whether 
those limits may enlarge or diminish that district, or change the 
site, upon considerations relating to the seat of government, and 
connected with the wants for that purpose, the limitation upon 
their power in this respect is, that they shall not hold more than 
ten miles square for this purpose; and the end is, to attain what 
is desirable in relation to the seat of government. This construe- 



i 
\ 



78 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

tion is consistent with the phraseology of the constitution, with 
the reasons for granting such a power, and not inconsistent with 
the reserved powers of the States. It saves the government, too, 
from great and manifold inconveniences to which it would be ex- 
posed upon any other interpretation of the clause in question. Con- 
gress might, under this clause, have taken a district less than ten 
miles square; and if this had been found insufficient, there can 
be no doubt but that it might have added as much more by cession 
from a State as was necessary for the purposes of a seat of gov- 
ernment. If it had taken more originally than was necessary for 
those purposes, there would seem to be as little doubt but that 
they might relinquish the surplus. If it may remove the site of 
its exclusive legislation from the Potomac to the Mississippi, it 
would seem to be clear that they might remove that site from the 
boundaries of Alexandria county to the north bank of the Poto- 
mac. But, it has been asked, by what clause of the constitution 
could Congress transfer the. district thus abandoned, to the legis- 
lation of any State? and if there be none, is it not a fatal objec- 
tion to the construction given by us to the clause in dispute — 
that the people of the district thus relinquished would be left with- 
out any government whatever? Different minds, attending to the 
system of constitutional construction to which they inclined, have 
derived this power from different clauses of the constitution. Some 
think that the power of the general government to cede in such a 
case is to be derived from the power of "exclusive legislation" given 
by the constitution. Some, too, derive this power from that "to 
dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations respecting 
the territory or other property belonging to the United States." 
Others again hold that the right to exercise exclusive legislation 
in this case is a qualified right, and determines when the seat of 
government is removed. Those who hold this opinion maintain, 
that when this right determines, the jurisdiction reverts to the 
ceding State, who, by the very terms of the constitution, could 
only have ceded the right of exclusive legislation to the District 
whilst it remained the seat of government. Your committee think 
there is much of truth in this last opinion. For it is only by this 
construction that the seat of government can be removed by the 



Retrocession of Alexandria to Virginia 79 

federal authorities, without not only the assent of the States who 
cede the new site, but also of those who have given the old. This 
would enable either the State of Maryland or Virginia to prevent 
the removal of the seat of government, although demanded by every 
other State in the Union. For even those who derive the power 
from the two sources first named could not maintain that, con- 
sistently with good faith, we could cede away to other States ter- 
ritory not contiguous to them, but contiguous to Virginia and 
Maryland, and ceded by them for a consideration, which failed 
the moment that the seat of government was removed. 

Upon the last construction as to the relative rights of the par- 
ties, no such inconvenience could be experienced. We might re- 
move the seat of government without the consent of Virginia and 
Maryland, if a majority of the people and States desired it, with- 
out leaving the abandoned District beyond the pale of ail govern- 
ment, and without violating the provision of the constitution which 
limits the right of Congress to exclusive legislation to ten miles 
square. Under this view of the clause in question, the jurisdic- 
tion over the county of Alexandria would revert to Virginia upon 
the withdrawal of the right of exclusive legislation over it, by 
confining the seat of government to the portion of the District 
north of the Potomac river. But, in any view of the case, an act 
of retrocession would be proper, as it would be conferring a right 
on Virginia which would be necessary in the opinion of some, or 
else acknowledging a right already existing, after the withdrawal 
of our jurisdiction, in the opinion of others. The grant would be 
necessary according to the one opinion, and the acknowledgment 
of right would be salutary even upon the grounds assumed by 
others. One other objection to the act of retrocession remains to 
be considered. The act of Congress establishing the present seat 
of government characterized it as permanent. It has been main- 
tained that its site could not be removed or changed without the 
assent of both Virginia and Maryland, except by a breach of faith 
towards these States. It might be replied, that this word "perma- 
nent" meant only an indefinite period; that it was designed merely 
to require the removal to be made by law, and not by resolution 
of the two Houses; or it might be well said that Congress could 



80 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



not, by contract, part with a power reposed in them by the con- 
stitution for wise purposes; but in point of fact, the history of the 
transaction does not sustain this view of the contract. Neither 
Virginia nor Maryland, by their acts of cession, made the perma- 
nence of the seat of government a condition of the grant. Xor 
is there anything in the acts of cession, or the circumstances at- 
tending them, to sanction the idea which has been expressed, that 
it was a contract between the United States and the States of 
Virginia and Maryland jointly, and thus that good faith would 
require the assent of both States to a retrocession to either. A 
reference to these acts will show that each State contracted, for 
itself only, with the general government, and did not contemplate 
the action of any other State as necessarily connected with its own. 
This is conclusively proved by the fact that each State offered to 
cede the whole of the ten miles square, and thus clearly contem- 
plated the contract. The acts of Virginia and Maryland were 
passed at different times, and without the least reference to each 
other. Upon all these views as to the propriety and right of retro- 
ceding to Virginia all that portion of the District of Columbia 
originally ceded by her to the United States, your committee 
have been induced to report a bill, which is respectfully submitted. 

Memorial of the Committee of the Town of Alexandria for 

Retrocession. 



The committee appointed by the common council of Alex- 
andria to attend to the interests of the town before Congress, and 
especially to urge upon that body the subject of retrocession, beg 
leave respectfully to submit to the honorable chairman and mem- 
bers of the District committee of the House of Representatives 
some of the considerations which impel them greatly to desire to 
return to the State of Virginia, from which, in an evil hour, they 
were separated. We maintain that all government (politically 
considered) but self-government is bad, and that without some 
radical change, time, instead of making a bad government better, 
will make it worse ; that whatever power is exercised independently 
of the will of the people, expressed individually or through their 



Retrocession of Alexa:st>:r.ia to Virginia 81 

representatives, is a despotism. When we remind the committee 
that we are a disfranchised people, deprived of all those political 
rights and privileges so dear to an American citizen, and the pos- 
session of which is so well calculated to elevate and dignify the 
human character; that the exclusive jurisdiction which Congress 
possesses over us, however wisely and moderately exercised, is a 
despotism, we are almost inclined to say nothing more, as we can- 
not doubt but that our feelings, under such circumstances, will 
meet with the ready sympathy of every member of Congress. Be- 
gardless of these evils, we should be willing to continue in this 
state of vassalage, and sacrifice ourselves for the good of our 
country, could we perceive any substantial benefit resulting there- 
from to the rest of the Union. The citizens of Alexandria are as 
strongly influenced as the citizens of any of the States (we say 
not fellow-citizens, for, in our degraded condition, the term would 
be inapplicable) by emotions of pure and elevated patriotism. 
We are convinced, however, that, so far from being of advantage, 
we are a useless, and even a burdensome appendage to the general 
government. The appropriations for the support of the judicial 
system of the District of Columbia has been a subject of serious 
complaint, amounting, we believe, to as much as fifty thousand 
dollars per annum. By retroceding the town and county of Alex- 
andria, this amount would be greatly diminished, and there would 
be a considerable saving in the diminished time that Congress 
would feel it incumbent on them to bestow on the affairs of the 
District. Our condition is essentially different from, and far worse 
than, that of our neighbors on the northern side of the Potomac. 
They are citizens of the metropolis of a great and noble republic, 
and, wherever they go, there cluster about them all those glorious 
associations connected with the progress and fame of their coun- 
try. They are in some measure compensated for the loss of their 
political rights by benefits resulting from the large expenditure 
of public money among them, and by daily intercourse and as- 
sociation with the various officers of the government, and par- 
ticularly with the members of Congress. How is it with the citi- 
zens of Alexandria ? When they go abroad, or their sons are 
sent to the various literary institutions in the States, from a sense 



82 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



of their degraded political condition they are induced to pass 
themselves as citizens of Virginia. 

Permit us here expressly to state, that in nothing we have 
said, or may say, do we design to cast any censure upon Con- 
gress. Their good will we do not for a moment doubt, but are 
confident that the evils under which we labor cannot be remedied 
otherwise than by retrocession. While every State in the Union 
has been amending and improving its civil and penal codes, and 
none more so than Virginia, but few changes, and still fewer im- 
provements, have been made in our laws. The laws of Virginia, 
as they existed on the 27th of February, 1801, with some few 
unimportant changes, are still in force with us. We are yet gov- 
erned by antiquated English statutes — repealed, even there, half a 
century ago. Efforts have, at different periods since the cession 
of the District, been made by Congress to establish for us a code 
of laws; but each effort has proven abortive, and we doubt not 
that future efforts will, if made, share a similar fate. With a 
due regard to the interests of the constituents of each member of 
your honorable body, it is not reasonable to expect Congress to give 
the time necessary to modify and reform these laws in such a 
manner as is necessary. So mongrel and complicated is our pres- 
ent system, so patch work in its nature, that, to ascertain what 
the law is, we are, in many cases, compelled to resort to the re- 
vised code of Virginia of the last century (now nearly out o)f 
print), to the laws of Maryland, and acts of Congress; and when 
we have undergone this labor, find it difficult to eviscerate from 
the chaotic mass the true meaning of the law. Can a people, among 
whom the march of the human mind is thus impeded in relation 
to the highest objects on which it can be exercised, be expected to 
prosper; when, too, we are surrounded by States to whose citizens 
every passing year brings the fruits of an improved judgment 
and a more intelligent understanding? By decisions of the Su- 
preme Court, the inhabitants of this District are not constitution- 
ally entitled to many of the civil rights of citizens of the States, 
as guaranteed to them, merely because their rights are secured 
to them as being citizens of a State; and whilst an alien, a Brit- 
ish subject, may sue in the federal courts of the Union, we are 



Retrocession of Alexandria to Virginia 83 

denied the privilege. In order to obtain this right, individual in- 
stances have occurred in which our citizens have been compelled to 
remove to one of the States. We are deprived of the elective fran- 
chise, a privilege so dear and sacred that we would present its 
deprivation in the strongest light before your honorable body. 
Side by side with the trial by jury, and the writ of habeas corpus, 
may be placed the rights of the ballot-box. It is not unworthy 
of remark, that whilst the principles of free government are 
3~early extending with the rapid march of civilization, and thrones 
and dynasties are yielding to their influence, here alone, in the 
ten miles square, in and about the capitol of this great country, 
is there no improvement, no advance in popular rights. A for- 
eigner, on reaching some distant portion of our territory, might 
well expect, on approaching the seat of government, to find its 
inhabitants enjoying in at least an equal degree the free institu- 
tions of the country. In ascertaining our true condition, how un- 
accountable must it appear that we alone are denied them. 

However clear ourselves as to the constitutional right of Con- 
gress to carry out the measure we propose, as some doubts — not, 
we think, of a serious character — have been suggested, it is per- 
haps proper that we should advert to the subject. By the 17th sec- 
tion of the 8th article of the constitution of the United States, 
the power is delegated to Congress to exercise exclusive juris- 
diction in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceeding 
ten miles square) as might, by the cession of particular States, 
and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government. 
In limiting the extent of territory thus to be ceded to ten miles 
square, it is evident that Congress was not tied down to that par- 
ticular quantity, nor prohibited from accepting any less quantity; 
and had it thus acted, the requirements of the constitution would 
have been fully answered. The avowed object of the framers of 
the constitution, in giving Congress exclusive jurisdiction over a 
space of country surrounding the seat of government, was to pro- 
tect its deliberations from disturbance, and to secure its action 
from the influence of popular outbreaks. It was left, however, 
for Congress to determine the extent of territory, not exceeding 
or within the limits of ten miles square, over which it might be 



84 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

proper to exercise exclusive legislation. For causes satisfactory 
to Congress, they thought proper to accept the maximum quantity 
allowed by the constitution; and the question now is, whether 
they have not the clear and undoubted right of withdrawing their 
jurisdiction from so much thereof as to them may appear unneces- 
sary and useless for the purposes of the original cession. The 
right to abandon would seem necessarily to follow the right to 
acquire. Virginia, in her act of cession, passed to the general 
government the exclusive jurisdiction alone of that part of the 
District of Columbia south of the river Potomac. The right of 
property in the soil is expressly reserved to the individual pro- 
prietors. Has this jurisdiction become so vested that it cannot 
be divested, even by the consent of the contracting parties, with- 
out an amendment of the constitution? Were this true, it would, 
when carried out, establish that when Congress shall have once 
undertaken to exercise any of the other delegated powers, the 
right again to exercise such power would be forever extinguished. 
Although the jurisdiction over the Territory of Columbia was 
ceded jointly by the States of Maryland and Virginia, yet the 
assent of the former can surely not be necessary to authorize the 
general government to recede to the State of Virginia the juris- 
diction over that part of the territory originally ceded by that 
State. 

In parting with the jurisdiction over the town and county of 
Alexandria, A r irginia appended no condition or limitation in her 
act of cession other than the protection of the individual rights 
of the inhabitants. The only implied restriction to the control of 
Congress in relinquishing such jurisdiction would be, that the 
object of the original grant should not be thereby defeated. In 
this view the question becomes one of mere expediency for Con- 
gress to determine whether the other portion of Columbia (to 
some of which the United States have the absolute right in the 
soil) would not be amply sufficient for all the purposes of a seat 
of government. The absolute power of Congress to dispose of the 
public lands cannot be doubted. An express authority for this 
may be found in the 2d section of the 3d article of the amended 
constitution. It provides that "Congress shall have power to dis- 



/ 



Retrocession of Alexandria to Virginia 



85 






pose of, and make all needful rules and regulations respecting 
the territory or other property of the United States." From the 
latter part of the 17th section, above referred to, it is evident 
that the power secured to Congress, by giving it exclusive legis- 
lation over the District of Columbia, is exactly the same, and 
none other than it is authorized to exercise over any other prop- 
erty of the United States; and that land granted for the erection 
of forts, for arsenals, and other purposes, is not more liable to 
its control than the territory, or jurisdiction over the territory, 
of Columbia. If the title to property be absolute, the mode of its 
acquisition is unimportant. Whether it be by gift, purchase, or 
conquest, it is still but a complete title. Congress, by a long and 
uniform series of legislation, has given a practical construction to 
that part of the constitution by which it is authorized to dispose 
of the public property. Lands owned by the United States have, 
regardless of the mere manner of acquisition, been placed under 
.the exclusive legislation of Congress, and appropriated for the 
erection of forts, arsenals, and for other public uses. When thev 
ceased to be necessary or useful to the government for the objects 
of the original appropriation, they have been sold and disposed 
of according to the will of Congress. The entire power of the 
general government over the immense body of public domain ac- 
quired by the cession of Florida and Louisiana has never been 
doubted, and that obtained by the recent annexation of Texas 
must occupy a similar footing. In the exercise of this power, 
private rights are, of course, respected. 

If, then, Congress has the power of disposing of territory 
ceded by a foreign government, can it not relinquish a jurisdic- 
tion acquired from one of the sovereign States of this Union? An 
abandonment of the right of exclusive legislation by Congress 
has been exhibited, as the new States formed out of parts of the 
Northwest Territory (also ceded by Virginia) have one by one 
entered the confederacy. If the government cannot withdraw, o' 
agree not to exercise, the right of exclusive legislation over a ter- 
ritory, because such right has become vested, and has for a time 
been legally exercised, it might place it beyond the reach of Con- 
gress, under whatever emergency, to establish boundaries between 



\ 



86 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

our territory and that of other nations having contiguous pos- 
sessions. The recent location of the northeastern boundary by 
the Ashburton treaty, with others of a similar nature, shows that 
Congress may, by treaty, waive and forever abandon the right 
of exclusive legislation, though previously possessed and exercised. 

Other instances have occurred, in the legislation of Congress, 
of an actual transfer of jurisdiction (see 1st vol. Laws U. S., 
page 574). We conceive that the legislature of Virginia, by its 
act of cession, virtually said to the United States, you may hence 
forward exercise exclusive legislation over the town and county of 
Alexandria, and that Congress, having accepted the cession, and 
finding from long experience that the exercise of such jurisdiction 
was wholly useless to the general government, and productive of 
many evils to the inhabitants, may well determine, with the con- 
sent of Virginia, to restore the power thus granted. 

In view, then, not only of a sound construction of the con- 
stitution, but also of the repeated and well-established usage of 
the government, it would seem, at this day, to be far too late to 
raise any doubts about the power of Congress to recede to the 
State of Virginia the jurisdiction over that portion of the Ter- 
ritory of Columbia which lies south of the river Potomac. 

For these reasons, and believing that the many grievances to 
which our people are subject can only be remedied by retroceding 
to the State of Virginia, we humbly petition the adoption of the 
necessary report, and legislation proper to effectuate this end. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Francis L. Smith, 
Robert Brockett, 
Charles T. Stuart, 
Committee of the town of Alexandria. 



Correspondence of Col. William Aylett 



87 



CORRESPONDENCE OF COL. WILLIAM AYLETT, 
COMMISSARY GENEKAL OF VIRGINIA. 

Wm. Aylett was the son of Philip and Martha (Dandridge) Aylett 
of 'Fairfield." King- William county. The journal of the continental 
congress shows that he was appointed "deputy commissary general 
for supplying the troops of Virginia with rations" April 27, 1776 On 
the reorganization of the department of the Commissary of purchases 
he was on the 18th of June, 1777. appointed one of the four deputy 
commissary generals under commissary general Joseph Trumbull. In 
the report of the committee on revolutionary claims (house report 204 
27th congress, second session. Feb. 9. 1842) upon the petition of the 
representatives of William Aylett it is stated that James Jones, in an 
affidavit dated March 19, 1839, said "that he was well acquainted with 
the late Colonel William Aylett, and that he died in the service, as a 
commissary general, about the year 1780. and that he left a widow, 
who died, he believed, about the year 1787." Elizabeth Aylett, in an 
affidavit, says that Col. Wm. Aylett died in service at Yorktown, and 
that Mary Aylett. his wife, remained a widow for two years If not 
longer, and then married Mr. Callohill Minnis. Mr. W. G. Stanard in 
a note (Virginia Magazine of History, v. 25, p. 275) refers to Heitman's 
statement that he served to July 24, 1782, and that a published genealogy 
of the family mentions his death in service at Yorktown in 1781. 

Wm. Aylett served in the House of Burgesses as a member from 
King William Ccunty in the sessions of 1772, 1773, 1774 and 1775. He 
was a member of the convention •which adopted the first constitution 
of Virginia, which met in May, June and July. 1776. In 1809 the heirs 
of Wm. Aylett received from Virginia 6,666 acres of land for his ser- 
vices. In the state archives, among the papers filed -with the claim for 
this land is an interesting letter of John Hopkins, dated Oct. 20, 1808, 
and addressed to the son of William Aylett. He says that as a lad he 
worked in the public store at Williamsburg, which was under the 
superintendence and management of Wm. Aylett, who was also acting 
under a commission of the congress of the U- S. He resigned the office 
of commissary of stores which he held under an appointment from the 
state, but continued to act and kept on an office as commissary general 
of purchases for the U. S. in Williamsburg. The council journal shows 
that he resigned as agent for carrying of the trade of the state and 
director of the store on Dec. 3, 1777. He was succeeded on the same date 
by Thomas Smith. — Earl G. Swem, Assistant State Librarian. 

Gunston Hall, Octor 2, 1775. 
Dear Sir: 

Your Favour of the 2'9th Ulto from Dumfries, did not come 
to Hand 'til last night. I had upon the Committee of Safety's 
first meeting at Hanover Town, transmitted to the president an 
Acct. of such articles for the use of the Troops, as cou'd be pro- 
cured in this part of the Country, with the Terms of Sale etc, 
and desired to know whether the Committee wou'd have any, and 
what part of them purchased; but have not yet reed any answer. 
I imagine the Gentm were at a loss what Directions to give re- 
specting them, until they cou'd have an Acct. of the Articles you 
had previously contracted for; as soon as they are inform'd of 
those, I presume they will give orders for purchasing such Arti- 



88 



Tylee's Quarterly Magazine 



cles as may Still be wanted in the Invoyce I sent them. I ob- 
serve You mention among the Articles not yet procured, coarse 
white Linnens; I am afraid it will be very difficult to get them, 
as I know of none to be had upon any Terms in this part of the 
Country, except about fifteen or sixteen ps of 7/8 Garlin, im- 
ported by the Ohio Comp'y several years ago, which I forgot to 
mention to the Committee; they have always been kept dry, and 
close packed up in a chest; so that I believe they are not dam- 
aged: they cost from 31s. to 44s. Ster; per ps and I think might 
answer for Soldier's Shirts. Every thing else which I have been 
able to find out fit for the Troops, to be purchased in this neigh- 
borhood, the Committee have been already fully inform'd of. 
I am Dr Sir Your most Hble Servt, 

G. Mason. 

P. S. — I have been very ill lately, and am now barely able to 
walk about the House. 

To 

Colo William Aylett, 

King William County. 

Baltimore 14 May 1776 
Colo William Aylet 
Dear Sir, 

We received your favour of the 17th ulto by Mr. Hopkins and 
should have been glad to render him, or any Friend of yours whom 
you recommend, all the Service in our power — The only thing in 
the Commercial way Mr. Hopkins requested of us was a Letter 
of Credit to a Gentleman in Piscataway for about 100£'s worth 
of Sadlery, whch we have given him. 

Your account with us, stands as stated below, by which, you'l 
see, the Balance £13" 19" 11 in your favour which we have pd 
Mr. Hopkins. 

We have numberless flying reports in Town about the arrival 
of the Commissioners, etc, of which Mr. Hopkins will inform you. 
We remain with best Compliments 
Dr Sir 
Yr obedient hble Servt, 

Lux & Bowly. 









£825" 



Correspondence of Col. William Aylett 89 

Colo Wm Aylett To L & B Dr 
1776 

Jany 1 To amount of Goods per Invoice 
To Meredith & Clymer for selling 

a Bill of Exch 
To Cash advanced on Express 
April 4 To the Comm Note on the Treasury 
pd you £11.8.0 Virginia 



5" 0" 
V 15" 



14 



n ?» 







846" 0" 1 
13" 19" 11 

£860" 0" 



May 14 Balance pd Mr Hopkins 

£500 stg a 72 per £860,0,0. 
Colo William Avlett. 



I am uncertain whether this is Hipkins or Hopkins — probably 
Hopkins. 

King William Aug. 1, 1776. 
Dr Sir. 

The hurry I was in and the anxiety I was under to get away 
the evening I left "Williamsburg occasion'd me to forget some mat- 
ters that was necessary to mention to you. In the first place the 
Council desir'd I would furnish them with a Copy of our acct. 
of expences of the Army and as I wish to keep a Copy in the 
store to make out a state by in future I wish you to copy it. and 
to enter at large the articles had of Ingles therein charg'd in a 
lump and all others the like circumstanced and know of Mr. Fin- 
nie what drums etc, he has deliver'd the provincial Forces which 
make a note of at bottom of the acct. it will be proper also to 
mention the articles as the Kettles and Canteens dd. the 3rd Pedi- 
ment and the articles reed of Mr. Lux last winter and deliver 
the acct. to the board. Pray have an eye to Childers and direct 
him to make all the biscuit he bakes as Rich as he can, he has 



90 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



plenty of Condemn'd flour and midlings to make the whole ex- 
ceeding good, and you must remember to charge him with about a 
hundred weight biscuit he spoil'd in baking. I immagine Mr. 
John Eoane will apply for all the Biscuit that the Vessells in 
York Eiver will want if it is good, indeed I shall be oblige to you 
to see that none that is indifferent is deliver' d to them. I have 
subscrib'd Twenty barrels flour and Twenty barrels bread to go 
in the Vessell that Mr. John Carter is concern'd in, please to have 
the bread got ready and if you do not get a qty of flour that I 
have yet to send down in time borrow Twenty barrels, the best 
Mr. Hawkins has which shall be replac'd by the first Vessell that 
comes down, let Mr. Carter know this, and send the bread and 
flour to James Town when ever he desires you or higher up the 
Eiver if an opty certainly offers, I would have you to put off all 
the business you can in the Corny General's way until I return, 
but not so as to give offence to any, if Mr. Eonald calls on you 
for money, you may supply him even if he does not come pre- 
par'd with his acct. to settle as a disappointment to him, cut off 
as he is from us by the bay, may be attended with bad conse- 
quences, and I wish you to send me by Nelson when he comes t 
Philadelphia a state of the Corny Genls acct. that is a state of the 
acct. against the united Colonies and a list of the sums we arc 
in advance for the respective Commissaries etc. which will show 
the full amount of the of Cash we have received, give my Compts 
to Mr. Eeid and inform him that I received this day a letter from 
Mr. Braxton informing me that linnens and all other goods have 
rais'd at least fifty per Ct. since ours were purchas'd, so that he 
need not be afraid of selling his at the prices he has put upon 
them, I dispair from this acct. of doing any thing with his money 
worth while pray speak to the respective Captains whenever you 
have an opty in a genteel way to settle their accts. and pay up, 
and that it is expected of me to insist on it, more especially those 
that have been of long standing, there can be no doubt but they 
have settled with their men ere this, if Mr. Hawkins should be 
of opinion that any of the Damag'd flour ought to be my loss, 
desire him to have it brought up in the return waggons from 
Hampton, also Colo Pendletons which take on acct. of and de- 



Correspondence of Coe. William Aylett 91 

liver to Childers to bake. I would not have any sole Leather 
until I return only enough for the upper Leather which you will 
send to Doctor Eiddick when he sends the Shoes he has made. 
Give my Compliments to Mr. Hawkins and desire him without fail 
if I should not return before his time is up to employ a proper 
person to Act til I return and I hope he will engage a proper 
stock of provisions for that purpose and of these an any person 
wanted to attend detachments I hope he will provide them, what 
ever he does in that way shall be binding on me and indeed I 
have considered it as a matter that belongs properly to him as 
to such forces as have been in his department. I know he will 
also assist you in any thing in which you may be at a loss in set- 
tling any accounts that may come before I return. I am with 
Compt to all friends. 

Yours affiy 

W. Aylett. 
To 
Mr. William Armstead. 

Phila Aug 20, 1776. 
Dear Sir 

I was in hopes of seting out on my return Tomorrow having done 
every thing that I can do here, but I can not get a Vessell before 
Saturday next to take down my goods, therefore shall in the in- 
terim make a short tour to new York. I wrote you by the last 
post that I should go last week, but finding I could not do much, 
here and hoping to have got what I had away early this week I 
declind my first intention, I have got 10 Hhds fine Old Bum, not 
one drop of which but what has been in this City more than two 
years. I wish you would let the Tavern keepers know this. The 
price will be from 10s to 12s6 per Gal. I have also about five 
thousand weight bro sugar which I expect I shall be able to sell 
at five pounds per Ct. you may let this be known that those who 
want may provide the Cash, these articles with 3 doz fine hatts 
20 or 30 doz Skins, some locks and very few other trifling articles 
are all that I got here on my own acct. 

I hope by this Mr. Reid is got home with our goods from Port 



92 



Tyler's Quarterly' Magazine 



Tobacco. I wish instead of sending them to Wmburg I had 
brought them here, as I am convinced I would have made a thou- 
sand pounds by selling them at vendue, to such an amazeing pitch 
has goods got here, my Comps. to Mr. Eeid and all other freinds, 
particularly my worthy freind Hble. B. D. let him know I have 
got a Guitar for Miss Nancy but the other articles she disired are 
either not to be had or so extreamly high that I shall not get 
them adieu. 

Yours affly, 

W. Aylett. 
I shall if no accident happens be at) 
Williamsburg by the 10th nest month) 

To 

Mr. William Armstead 

at Public Store 



Williamsburg. 



[Endorsed:] 

Eec d Sep 4 2 nd 



Sept 17 1776. 
Dear Sirs, 

I had intended a visit of Business to Wmsburg this Week 
but really that of a more important Nature detains me at Home. 
It would give me great Pleasure to see you but as matters are 
circumstanced must postpone it & with it every thing relative 
to several affairs you mentioned to me wh I will discuss with 
freedom when we meet. 

At present permit me to engage a little of your time upon 
some matters I wish to be executed in Wmsburg & for which 
purpose have Mr. Norris to go down. The Country has abt two 
hundred Barrells of Pork at Cumberland & perhaps might be 
induced to sell some to me for my vessells upon your application. 
Will you do me the Favr to apply to the proper Board & get an 
order for a few Barrells it to be sold and send it to me. Can 
you engage me 500 Ws bakers buscuits and Forty Ws candles by 
the last of this week when Capt Meridith shall have orders to call 
on you for them. Must I get a Permit for the departure of my 



Correspondence of Ccl. William Aylett 93 

Yessell & from what Board & under what Form or regulations. 
I hope it may be done without my Presence. If there are any 
Captains of Vessells or Mates to be hired or Yessells chartered 
to the West Indies pray recommend them to me & if none within 
your knowledge advertised for Vessells from the burthen of fifty 
Tons to a hundd ready found & fitt for sea & Captain & let them 
apply to the Printer & leave my Name with him. 

You said you were in Expectation of gettg the Money for my 
Tallow, that for the Beef & some more from Bland than what was 
due to Sequary, any or all of it will be very acceptable untill I 
can receive a supply from Mr Morris of Philaa, for whom in part 
I act, or if you want any order then I will give you one for a 
few [illegible] or in any other way you may want a remittance. I 
want now to make a Purchase of a Yessell & Tobacco & cannot 
do it for want of the Money all of mine being expended in that 
way. 

Mr Webb saw my credentials & will satisfy you or any other 
Person of my authority to act. 

The affair of the Wheat really amazes me when I reflect on 
it. In my memo I mention giving you an order for 5854 Bushells 
of Wheat & in my Pockett Book I have sett down the same quan- 
to turn over & sett down his 190 & my 375 both of which added 
tity. I fancy the mistake must have happened in this way. On 
one side of my Book is the exact Number of Bushells for which 
at West Point and Coll Brooke, & the Error must have been not 
you have an acct, on the other leaf is the quantity delivd by me 
to yours makes the total 5854. 

Will you do us the Favr if you see the Gentleman to try to 
get the Money for us or to take his assumsit. I will prove the 
acct to be just. 

The Country has a Brig at Cumberland wh was bought for 
service but afterwards laid by, what will the Council take for 
her & her sails pray ask them & if I approve the Price perhaps 
I may take her. 

Will the Yessells that Mr Geo Webb sent me an acct of be 
certainly sold, particularly those on Potowmack the 24 of this 
instant, I wish to know because I purpose to send a man over, 



94 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

and let me know if ready Money is expected or if my Note would 
nor do for a month or two. What is Rum & Sugar worth & what 
may I ask for it if a load should arrive to me. Your Answer to 
these several particulars will much oblige your affect friend 

Carter Braxton. 

Write me your News & let Mr Norvell be up on Friday at 
farthest. C. B. 

What will you give for my crop of Wheat C. B. 

You have advertised for a Smith to hire. Mr. J. Pemberton 
of this County has a good Smith, Striker, Bellows & Tools to 
hire by the Year, his Price is 60 pounds a Year. 

C. Braxton. 
To 
Coll William Aylett. 

Philadelphia 11th Novr 1776 
Dear Sir, 

I have but a minute to write you and therefore you will not 
be surprised if I am not so full as you could wish. Your letter 
received at 3 oClock today and the post going out in the morning 
has afforded no opportunity of consulting the board of war who 
are this evening in consultation with the Council of Safety about 
the means of defending this City against a visit from the enemy, 
who after finding their efforts against Gen. Washingtons army 
vain, have precipitately in the night returned towards N. York. 
There we are well informed, they have ordered Transports to be 
got in immediate readiness to receive 16,000 men — This City is 
supposed to be their object, where indeed we are very defenceless, 
yet they will be opposed in their attempt. I have inclosed you a 
true copy of the Continental ration from the Journal which still 
remains the same. As the number of Batallions asked from Vir- 
ginia are 15, it is clearly my opinion that you cannot err in laying 
up provisions for 15 complete Batallions, taking care your en- 
gagements are so made that if all these regiments are not stationed 
in Virginia the provisions may w'tht increase of price be removed 
to where they may be wanted. And this precaution will be the 
more necessary if you should contract by the ration. Salt is not 



Correspondence of Col. William Aylett 



95 



to be had here, and so you must do the best you can where you 
are. jSTo doubt can be entertained but that you may advance pru- 
dently to Contractors taking bond with proper Security. 

It is now a week since more than 100,000 dollars were sent off 
to the Paymaster in Virginia. 

I am, with sincere esteem, dear Sir affectionately yours 

Eichard Henry Lee. 

P. S. I shall lay your Accounts before the Board of Treasury 
and will inform you by next post when they desire your attendance 
with Vouchers — Gen Carleton has returned to Canada with his 
whole force. 

This comes by a Express just arrived. 

Alexandria Dec r 11, 1776. 
Sir 

Mr Harvine the bearer comes with some letters to Collo Mason 
particularly with one from Com r Boucher and he requests of me 
to desire you, should the Collo. have left Williamsburgh that you 
will be pleased open the letter and do the needfull, for him 
equally. — . 

Davis this morning came to me and complained at his want 
of a negro fellow he put into my hands, as Security as the bill 
Sale Still Continues in equal force, and he depositing £34. more 
into my hands. I let him have him I beleive he intends payment 
as quick as possible and is in hope you will get the value in Ace* 
sent down to you by post in Which Case his payments will be over 
in a [manuscript defaced] 

If Collo Mason has not left you, I have requested him to pay 
in the Amount reed. £77. — . as I am in hopes of his having Money 
for me; you will not neglect if it is not Already done, send a 
proved Act. for Davis Affair — by Mr Harvine will be a good Op- 
portunity I am with regard 

Sir your mo Hble Servt, 

John Dalton. 

To 

Collo William Aylett 

at the Public Store 

Williamsburgh 



96 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



Alexandria Janry 25 1777 
Sir 

I received Yr Excellencys favour of the 16th Ulto with Direc- 
tions for the distribution of the Salt, sent up by Capt Henson 
wch shall be complyed with also yours of the 23d by Collo Mason, 
with £1860. 16.8 say Eigteen hundred and Sixty pounds Sixteen 
Shillings and eight pence — 

The Quantity Salt did not turn out so much as the Capt Ex- 
pected, 26337 a bushel and freight amounts to £1689.16.7. only— 
therefore after deducting the Charges landing there will be a 
ballance in my hands. 

The Tobacco upon hand of what was bought for the Speed- 
wells Cargo, if you do not think of Shiping it this season, would 
Advise the Selling it, 25s per Ct is now giving and under the 
present Law it lays exposed and people are apt to Pillage. I men- 
tion it on that Account — if it is thought best to keep it would 
propose putting it under lock, and Shall wait your instructions — 
Capt Wm Payne desires me mention he wants only eighteen of 
his Complimts And he is in want of Money to Advance his recruits, 
wch Requires Security — if the Board will Accept of me, I will 
Readily be it and Sign a Bond for the Purpose. 

I am with due Regard 

Sir your Mo Hble Servt 

John Dalton. 

To His Excellency Patrick Henry Esqr 
Governour etc Virginia 

Richmd Hill 21st Mar 1777 



Dear Sir 

I find your Favor of the 14th this Instant, in Regard to the 
2000 Barrls. Flour I was order'd to Purchase by the Governor and 
Council. Immediately on my Return Home I engage at Mr. Over- 
ton's Mill in this Town 500 Barrels good Common Flour at 12's6 
per Ct. as soon as it Can be manufactur'd, but am doubtful whether 



CoEEESPOXDEXCE OF CoE. TVlELIAM AyLETT 97 

the Whole will be Beady 'til the last of next month for want of 
seasoned Barrels, there are 30 Barrels of Super fine now Ready 
in the Mill wch I have agreed to take at 15s per Ct and there is 
as much Common Beady as will make up that Quantity upwards 
of 100 Barrels wch is all I have at Bresent I have Visited several 
Mills on the north side James River, but find very little Beady at 
any, and they the Owners of the Mills will not engage at any 
Certain price their Expectations are Baised too high, though they 
are preparing to make all they Can, I shall Broceed up Jas River 
on the South Side this Week and will procure the Quantity I am 
Ofder'd to Burchase as soon as Bossible, when I will advise you 
of it, pray let me know the prices you think I may Venture to 
give, I do not propose to Burchase any but what is made of Sound 
Wheat, the prices of all Our Commoditys seems to be Rising 
here fast, Barticularly Hemp and Tob°; large Sums of money 
being I am informed Lodged on the different parts of this Biver 
for that purpose I thought proper to give you this hint, that if 
you should want to Burchase largely you may do it in Time I 
Bemain 

Sr Yr mo. Obdt 

hum Serv' 

Bicn d Adams. 

To 
William Aylett Esqr 

Alexandria Febry. 9, 1777. 
Sir 

As Davis has entered Special Bail to your Action I presume 
it will be necessary that you send that mans note at hand that 
lives in your City, as he urges you took it as pay the soon you 
send it the better — I was in hopes of getting it done and finished 
without trouble, finding it otherwise put the Management of it 
under the Care of Mr. Ellzey and delivered him the papers for 
information. — I have received no more money than I have paid 



98 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



in to you — when I do, shall acquaint that you may draw fer it 
accordingly. I am with due regard 

Sir your most Hble Servt 

John Dalto^. 
To 
Col Willam Aylett 

Merch* 
Williamsburgh 

Fred", 6 Feby. 1777 
Sir 

Since mine of 3d Inst. I reed a Reply from my Correspondent 
at Alexandria, he says "Yours 21th Jany. is to hand and agreable 
to your Eequest have applyed to Mr. John Dalton, the Answer 
is, that he had ordered Colo Mason, to pay at Wmsbg. to Mr. 
Aylett to the amount of £70. — . — the remainder he stands Suit 
and has entered special Bail, in Consequence of which I reinclose 
you etc etc. 

I therefore take this earliest Opportunity of returning your 
Draft and enclose the Ballance due you, presuming the Governour 
has granted Warrant for major Blands order 

reced $ mine of 3d Inst £156. 4. 7^ 

Bland on Treasury 136.19.6 

Ballance now enclosed £ 19. b.l 1 /^ 



I am hourly in Expectation of the Arrival of Two Yessells and 
under an Uneasiness that many in my Situation at present feel 
from the men of War. As you are much connected with those in 
Power, I should think it a great Favour done the Public if you 
could contrive to have a few men stationed at Cape Henry, (close 
in with which all Vessells come), and have Two masts erected, 
with two large Flags, one Eed, the other white — at night Two 
Lanthorns — should the Enemy be in, hoist the Eed by day, one 
Lanthorn at night — the Coast being clear, Vice Versa — as this can- 
not be attended with great Expence, and the Service it would 
yeild our Trade, I do not see but we might be indulged, even with 



Correspondence of Col. William Atlett 99 

a Guard of Two Hundred and a little Fort to keep off Boats — The 
apprehension of Danger first taught us to provide against it, 1 
should be happy to find out the most frugal mode and I think 
the Trade will willingly pay whatever Expence such Guard may 
cost. I have a great Aversion to all Projectors, but really think 
it excusable in the present Case, where I do not discover the least 
Ray of objection. 

I am respectfully 
Sir 

Your obed, Sent. 
James Hunter Junr. 
To 
Col. William Aylett, 
Williamsburg. 
[Endorsed :] 

rec d of W Page 
12 th Feb. 

3* Eustatia 2d April 177? 
Colonl Will : Aylett Esqr. 
Sir 

Your several favors by Capt Pastures, Polls & Ivey came safe 
to hand, all of which we shall Note and pay due regard to — Capt 
Pastures arrived at St. Martins which is the only reason of his 
being here yet for I executed your order so far as makeing the 
purchase the same Day that I received it by Pastures — He is now 
putting his Boat in good order and will sail I expect tomorrow 
Night with as many Arms as he thinks Prudent to take on board — 
Capt Ivey likewise arrived at St Martins where his Vessell is yet — 
I Have ordered his Vessell and Cargoe over here and as soon as he 
can gett his Vessell in order, shall dispatch him with a Cargoe 
agreeable to your orders and as much of it as the outside Limmits 
of your Letters will Admit off. I like the man from my small 
Acquaintance with him and he says his Vessell is a good rique. 
As to Pastures and his Boat they are boath Clever, I wish the same 
cou'd be said of Capt Rolls and his Crew. He arrived here after 
a Passage of about 20 days with a Woman Passenger — I was at 



100 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



first determined to load him agreeable to your Instructions the 
same as if he had been to Charles Town and performed his Voy- 
age, but was the same day Prevented from it by him and his Crew 
makeing publick there Errant. As such Buisiness must be done 
with great caution and Secrecy here — Its too much to Insert all 
the remarks I could not help making on that Ships crew, Let it 
suffice to say that they appeared to be Only calculated to spend 
time and Money — I supplied him with £97,16,4 and received 48 
bbls Flour and Advised him to Proceed to Charles Town with his 
Letters and Perform his A'oyage and if he is taken before he gets 
the Indigoe in, It will be Lucky I expect — Should he return you 
may depend I shall act agreeable to your orders, (I would not be 
Understood that I think the Man a Tory — Xo kind of Produce 
from the Continent will command Cash but Tobacco which is 
worth 75s per Cent and 1000 Hhds wou'd Command the Cash — 
Indigoe is Dull from 4s6 to 5s6 and three and four Months credit, 
Flour will not sell at any Price — Pastures Indigoe and Polls Flour ; 
I have stored and shall make the most of It you may Pest assured. 
Well Sir in your letter I observe all you say about the ways 
and means you have Adopted to furnish us with Capital to Pur- 
chase the Sundry [illegible] you order (I will return in your own 
Stile Fearnot), Your Boats and Vessells shall have the very Car- 
goes you order by them nor shall they be detained One Hour for 
it, and as soon as they are ready to take it on Board they shall 
have it and Sail Immediately. Now Sir give me leave to Observe 
to you that you are Unacquainted with my Situation and Prin- 
ciples, or you cou'd not be Capable of Pointing to me as being or 
making Ungenerous and Extortionate Charges, First the goods 
charged to your State by Mr. Dixson, I was prevailed on by him 
to advance on accot of your State and for their Use, The whole of 
the Goods was bought agreeable to Mr. Dixson's desire, they never 
was in my Custody in no Shape whatsome ever, Mr. Dixson received 
them of the people they were Purchased from and Shipp'd them 
him self with the Assistance of Capt Southcombe and I paid the 
Shipping expence agreeable to the Contracts with the Porters and 
Boat Men — Many of those Goods to my knowledge was Packed 
up in Chests with goods of Mr. Dixson's Particularly what was 



Correspondence of Col. William Aylett 101 

bought of Mr Jennings, All of which Mr Dixson had the Bills off 
from the different Shops and signed a Receipt in my Books for all 
the goods delivered to him three or four Days before he Sail'd — 
The goods left by him that I sent by Capt Wells would certainly 
have been lost had they been purchased in many other Shops here — - 
By accident I found them — I was assisting Capt Wells in pur- 
chasing Goods and in Priceing them we were told they were Sold 
and paid for some weeks before, On examineing found they were 
the same Goods delivered to Mr Dixson, I imiadiately Shipped 
them by Wells as you are since acquainted with — As to the 10 per 
Ct charged on the Advance of the sum, Mr Dixson knew very well 
its common to pay that and at times more for the Use of Money 
for one Month here, But I wish'd for no advantage nor have I 
reaped any from it, I cou'd with truth and Justice figure to you 
the other side of the Question — 

Well Sir you say that £50 is an extravagant Charge for my 
Commissions and trouble of > T egotiateing that Affair of the Pow- 
der, any other Mercht in the West Indies would have charged 5 
per Ct. on its whole Value here for doing not one hundredeth Part 
of what I did, besides running risques that you are a Stranger to 
and had it not been for my steady Perseverance in that Buisiness 
the whole wou'd have been lost to your State, the accot of it is all 
in French I had them settled in the best manner in my Power 
and have them by me and will get them Copied and send you very 
shortly, from its Arrival here at Gaudaloup every Advantage and 
Imposition was made Use of Untill I got it here, Them Charges 
and Commissions are still unreasonable tho' from my desputing 
and contending w'th them I curtailed the accots 50 per Ct, All 
those last accots and Receipts I likewise have [illegible] which 
)'ou shall see as soon as an Opportunity will Permit. It really 
surprized me when I read in your letter not one Ounce of that 
Powder was delivered to your State — I have Mr William Lux's 
letter advising me of his receiving Sixteen thousand three hundred 
of it and delivering it to the Commanding Officer on the Eastern 
Shore — -But I had before great reason to suspect that I saw abuses 
carried on much against the Publicks Interest and very Injurious 
to myself — Your State is Credited with the sum of £1015 on ac- 






102 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



count of Mess Lux & Bowley and I am extremely sorry I suf- 
fered myself to be prevail'd on to make that Entry, I suppose Mr 
Lux intended it in place of the Bill for £500 Sterling Mr Eichard 
Hansons draft that has before been Mentioned to me by your 
Honble Councill, That Bill I never saw; I have Negotiated two 
Bills of Lux & Bowley's draft since I have been out here which 
were boath Beturned to me Protested and Months since and was 
the first and Only means of hurting my Credit here, and here they 
are yet — I Have often Wrote to Mr Lux that I must alter that 
Credit of £1015 — Much cou'd be said on this Subject and wou'"d 
serve to shew you a Part of my Sufferings out here — Many letters 
of mine is now in Mr Lux's possession that ought to be laid before 
you which I beg you to inform him off and if Opportunity serves 
lett him Peruse this — We ordered Mr Dixson truly to receive the 
Balance of our accots with your State in order to fall on every 
Speedy method to get property out here to stop the Mouths of our 
Hungry Creditors, This Boat Molly carried the letters and Orders 
and we had agreed for her and give Mr Dixson positive orders to 
Buy her and a Number more and send out Imeadiately, He had 
likewise an Unlimited Order for Cash on my House in Baltimore, 
but Alas how are we further disappointed, Not a Sentence have 
we ever heard from Mr Dixson since we wrote that letter by Pas- 
tures, We wrote many to him Imeadiately after that forbiding 
him to take up that Money but to Apply to my House in Balti- 
more for a sufficiency to execute our orders — 

However we have Credited the State with the sum paid Mr 
Dixson — I stand charged with an Unpardonable fault for not 
sending the goods that were ordered per Capt Saunders, the Nett 
Proceeds of his Cargoe after his disbursements wou'd not lay in 
the Goods Mr Grahame shipp'd in her — but beleive me Dear Sif, 
that it was not in my Power to Ship a Shillings worth of goods 
for we were even then Head and and Heels in debt, and was Obliged 
to give an accot of all we did and of all we expected in order to 
prevent our Creditors from Obtaining Permission to Arrest and 
Seize all American Property and dispose of it untill the Publick's 
debts were paid — I have been for Months without a a dollar to 
pay my board with and under other disagreeable Circumstances 



CORRESPONDENCE OF COL. WlLLIAM AyLETT 103 

which lately only have been bettered by the Arrival of Considerable 
Private Property of my own House and other Friends in Balti- 
more all of which both Vessells and Cargoes I have been Obliged 
to dispose of to very great disadvantage to pay a part of the State 
of Marylands debts and our Private Interests offers more than I 
wish to say — and may all fall on my shoulders. It gives me pain 
to be under the disagreeable Necessity of Informing yoa of these 
facts and it is evident to all my Acquaintances, I have suffered in 
every sence of the word from my Station here, However I allways 
Considered myself in my duty and worked with Pleasure but must 
Confess I am heartily tired of my Station and Only wish to be 
able to wind up that I might return Home, Tho' I have been so 
happy as never to have a Complaint Alledged agt me from my 
Country (Ye Self accepted) and I am determined that we shall 
not contend about it for I wou'd find my self and work for noth- 
ing first, It was not with the View of Makeing a Fortune that 
Induced me to come out and have a Comfortable and Plentifull 
Home — It was from the desire and Intentions I had to render 
every Service and to facilitate my Country in the Most Esential 
manner I was equal to — My Judgment and Abilities if I knew 
myself excelled in this way and I have done as much or more 
than I at first expected — I Have for the Honor of my Country 
every Week had to support and Assist the Distressed of it and at 
no other Cost but my own. I Supported myself as an Agent and 
my Countrys Dignity and its flag with all my little Abilities and 
under as many inconveniences (I really believe) as was all most 
Possible to happen. 

You will pardon me Sir for intruding on your Patience in 
the manner I Have; tho' I cou'd have wished to have been even 
more Explicit on every subject in order to have Answered your 
several favors. 

I am with all due Eespect 

Your most Obedient humble Servnt 

Van Bibber & Harrisson. 

The Sunderry bills Mentioned in ye letters I Eeceived and am 
taking the Most Prudent Steps I can think of to Collect them, but 



104 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

from Many Keports am Doutfull of them being paid — nothing 
Shall be wanting on my Part. 

Yrs 
Abu Van Bibber. 

Gunston Hall June 8th 1777 
Dear Sir. 

Your favour of the 31st May, with the Sum of fifteen hundred 
pounds A'irga Money, on acct. of the Tobo purchase, came Safe 
to Hand per Mr Payne, to Whom I gave a Pect. for the same: 
the sd. Purchase is now compleated, & great Part of the Tobo on 
board: that is I have purchased the Quantity Daniel Carroll Esqr 
(Mr Pliarne's Agent here) inform'd me wou'd be wanting to fill 
up the Ship ; Mr. Pliarne having previously ingaged to take in a 
good deal of Tobo upon Freight for some Gentm at Philadelphia : 
He afterwards wrote to Mr Carroll, from Wmsburg, that he was 
desirous of taking in about 400 Hhds for this Commonwealth, & 
leaving out 200 Hhds of that He had engaged for in Philadelphia; 
but Mr Carroll told me he understood these Gentm had ordered 
Insurance, & that he cou'd not avoid the Contracts made with 
them ; upon which we made a Calculation of what I shou'd pur- 
chase to fill up the Ship ; which I have done accordingly, at the 
price of 25s to 32's per hun; besides paying 5s for Caske & 3s for 
Inspection, the greater part at 25s. — Yesterday I reed a Letter 
from Mr Carroll, advising me that He was apprehensive of being 
disappointed in 100 Hhds from one -of the Philadelphia Gentle- 
men's Agents on Rappahannock; which He cou'd not be certain 
about 'til mext Wednesday's post, & desiring, in that Event, to 
know if it wou'd be convenient to me to purchase so much more 
for the Ship on the Commonwealth's acct. had I known this 
sooner, I wou'd chearfully have done it; but being now recover'd 
from the Small pox, I think myself obliged to attend my public 
Duty, & my eldest Son being just Setting off out for the Augusta 
Springs, on Acct. of his Health, I wrote Mr Carroll I cou'd not 
undertake it, unless a Quantity cou'd be at once bought of two or 
three people ; which I had little prospect of, & even if I had Leis- 
ure to attend to it, I am of Opinion that Quantity cou'd not Speed- 



Correspondence of Col. "William Aylett 105 

ily be purchased now except of some of the Merchts at a very 
high Price, I believe not under 40s; but that I shou'd in the 
meantime endeavour to pick up what I cou'd, least He Shou'd be 
disappointed in the above mentioned 100 Hhds from Rappahan- 
nock. You will do me the favour to lay this matter before the 
Governor & Council, & if they think fit to order me (in Case 
of Mr Carroll's Disappointment) to purchase the Quantity wanted 
at the before mentioned high price, it shall be done; but my orders 
shou'd be expeditious, & Money sent for the purpose. I have 
been so particular in mentioning this matter, that the Board may 
See there has been no Neglect in Me. The Tobo I have purchased 
will be all on board before the private Freighter's Tobo so that 
the Ship will not be delayed an Hour on the public Acct. I was 
once thinking (if Mr. Carroll is disappointed) the Ship might 
run down to York or James Eiver for the Tobo wanted; but on 
considering that she is a large Ship, & cam't go into shallow 
water, this seems to be attended with nearly as great Risque as 
getting out of the Capes. — 

Mr Herbert is much at a Loss in the Execution of Yr last Im- 
structions of the 30th of May, & sent down one of the New Eng- 
land Capts to me today about it — Capt Sparkes, in a Small 
Schooner, is just arrived, & his Men upon coming up to Alex- 
andria, & hearing there was a Number of Soldiers there in the 
Small pox, threaten'd instantly to leave the Vessell, unless they 
were imediately inoculated, as all the rest of their Country 
men, who arrived lately, had been ; these Fellows follow one an- 
other like Sheep, & the Capt & all his crew were of course inocu- 
lated on Friday Evening last; in this Situation it wou'd [rest of 
letter illegible]. 

G. Mason. 
To 
Colo William Aylett. 

Fort Orange St Eustatius July 2, 1777. 
Colonel "William Aylett Esqr 

Sir (Copy Original per Capt Pastuer) 

I have by repeated opportunities given you as full an Account 

of my disagreeable situation as the Nature of my Confinement 



106 Tyeek's Quakterly Magazine 

would admit; for while I continue enclosed within these "Walls I 
cannot give a full scope to my Pen, nor disclose my sentiments 
in the manner I could fain wish, without imminent risque. — Let 
it suffice then to inform you; that through wantonness of Ralls, 
who madly proposed, & resolutely adher'd to Schemes inconsistent 
with Reason, his bad Conduct in carrying them into execution, 
and lastly his Base, false, & timid disposition after his misfortune : 
has plunged me into a Sea of troubles, and occasioned my experi- 
encing Ills I dream't not off. 

Your favor per Capt Pasture have received and Note its Con- 
tents notwithstanding what you have there offer'd I can assure 
you Sir, I was truly earnest in all I inform'd you & have been 
doing as much as lay in my power, to fulfil your orders. — The 
Goods you so severely complain of not being forwarded, conform- 
able to your desire, are already chiefly Shipped from hence, and 
Martinique (by our E H) which together with a Quantity I shall 
now deliver to Mr Ball, will nearly complete your order. — 

Your strictures on the Goods Shipped belonging to the State 
of Maryland I observed — We apprehended them Goods would be 
very necessary, & employed in the Common Cause; nay from the 
tenor of the Letters accompanying them, we deem'd them is some 
shape yours, though we did not proceed to Name the Price for in 
Justice to our Creditors here, as well as ourselves, we ought to 
have sold you the Effects that we Ship't by the Liberty, & Van 
Tromp, which of course We should have drawn a Commission on 
from both States : but this We waved, & by no means wished for — 
but thought from the Picture We drew of our Circumstances 
that you would have kept them Goods, with consent of the State 
of Maryland with whom the Price might have been adjusted, for 
to speak Plain we have ever been so much involved on Accot of 
that State, that we thought it absolutely necessary to put some 
such mode of Proceeding in Practice, to do Justice to the People 
who have entrusted Us in this Quarter. — The embarassments, and 
difficulties, we have encountered in the executing our trust, has 
been much greater than our friends conceive, or duely attend to, 
and are of too complicated a Nature to be fully explain'd at this 
distance — I will only intimate that our Characters have at times 



Correspondence oe Col. Willlaxe Aylett 



107 



suffer'd by extending. & stretching our Credit to the utmost 
length to serve the Common Cause of our Country. — 

I am fully sensible your accounts with Us from this Place 
has not been so regularly furnished as I could have wished, but 
when I tell you its necessary for a Person acting in my capacity 
to observe the unmost Caution & do every thing as it ware by 
Stealth nay at times afraid to hold my Books in possession (which 
has been repeatedly the case) I say let these reasons plead an apol- 
ogy. — Mr John Ball the Gentleman who you have appointed to 
succeed me (& who I think highly worthy of your confidence) has 
been so condescending as to shew me your Letter for that pur- 
pose — You may depend I shall settle with a ad explain your Af- 
fairs to him properly — nay shall accede to your disavowal of the 
10 per Cent on Amot. of Goods by Dixon conformable to his agree- 
ment with me, tho' I must offer one or two reasons to support the 
Justice of my Claim — The first was the little probability I had of 
recovering the Money from J Vandams estate which was litigated 
at the time I advanced the Goods attended to above (& for which 
I received the thanks of your State) Secondly how considerably I 
shall suffer by Jno Dixons imprudently taking of the Sum of 
£902.6.7 a Balla, apparintly then due me, without ever remitting 
me a Shilling & which I only requested him to do provided he 
would execute a Scheme I then recommended to him which was 
impracticable — as to the difference of currency merely which you 
allude to; it was nothing in comparison to the advantages I could 
have reaped by having that Sum paid me here. But I do not 
enumerate these things as a plea to procrastinate a settlement by 
any means — No Sir, I came out here with Clean hands, and an 
unblemish't Character, & be my sufferings what they may, none 
shall have cause to Complain, or impeach my Integrity — Id rather 
give up my Shirt first if required; nor will I differ, tho' on mat- 
ters that are justly my right. Its well known, and I can prove it 
by incontestible evidence, that my zeal for the Cause of my Coun- 
try, has made me strain every Nerve, has been attended with 
numerous difficulties, & at length has been the eauee of my being 
deprived of Liberty, & may for ought I know bring me to an ig- 
noble Death, or what is worse Corporal punishment — Thus then 
has that wretch Kails, and my well known Principles & attachment 



108 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

to my Country, together with my aiding & Assisting it to the 
utmost of my slender Abilities on every occasion that presented : — 
plunged me into my present detestable situation — a Lybarinth of 
troubles which I know not hew to extricate myself from. — rather 
would I face my Enemy in the field, or that Grim messenger 
Death, a thousand times than remain where I am to bear the 
indignant treatment of a Pusillanimous few.- — -As soon as I do 
regain my Liberty (if I ever should) am determin'd to return to 
my Native Soil, and never again accept of any Publick employ- 
ment however honourable, or Lucrative. — then Sir I shall expect 
to see you, & as you observe clear up to your satisfaction any 
matters of my transacting, that may not appear so to you at this 
Crisis. — I will now Conclude praying that no Passage in my Let- 
ter may be construed as an offence or be thought intended as a 
Eeflection on either yourself or the State who you have the Honour 
of acting for — I have only stated my Grievances and have no 
design to give umbrage to any one — but am with sincere wishes 
for the Publick Welfare of America and due Eespect for Self 
Sir 
Your most Huml Servant 

for Van Bibber & Harrison 

Abm Van Bibber 
Colonel William Aylett 

P. S. As I am confined here on accot. of the Imprudence of 
Kails who belonged to your State — hope they will take it into 
Consideration — 

[Address :] 

Colonel William Aylett Esqr 

Agent for the State of 

Virginia 
favoured by 
Capt. Hunter 

[Endorsed:] reed. 5th Sep r 

Smithfield Sept 2nd 1777 
Sir 

I wrote you by Mr. Standley abo' 3 days ago informing you 



Correspondence of Col, William Aylett 109 

that I was to have Bacon of Mr Eobertson @ y 2 my agreemt. with 
him was such, that if I could get it cheaper and more convenienter 
to this place, I srould not take his, since then I have found it so. 
I went from there to Mr. Jordons where I bot 2068 lb @ I s for I 
could not get it less — from there I went over into Southampton 
and bot 4000 lb @ 10y 2 d which compleated the numbr. I was di- 
rected to purchase I have sent you half the Bacon, (with the Pork 
to Wmsbg) by Skipper Wm. Piland agreeable to your directions — 
I have had all the flour unstored at this place to look into the State 
of it that from Cap. Lowe I looked at % which I could not find a 
barrel amongst it that was good, the flour from Capt. Trask, we 
could not take out of the store, but I overhald it and lookd at all 
the top tiear, and some of the middle and bottom which proved 
all to be bad several Gentln was present when I had the flour un- 
stored said it was not worth my while for I might depend upon its 
all being bad but as it was your orders I was determind to do it, 
Mr. Mackie saw some of the flour says it will make exceeding 
good bread, if it can be baked up in time, he said he would answer 
your letter but he would not agree to bake more than 3 or 400 ba s 
of it — the rest had better be baked up as soon as possible for if 
this is a wet Month it will ruin the whole of it, for it it is all 
stored in Cellers which is not fit for flour at any rate. The Leitch- 
fields Cargo all proves to be good except some that was Stored in 
a Cellar, which begins to be Souer and Mustey I could not find 
more than forty barrels in that way. — Mr Barrawd being Indis- 
pos'd at this time with the Gout he was not able to assist in any 
of this business, which kept me longer here then you might imag- 
ine — he sent 60 barrels flour to Portsmouth las week, but could 
not get it carried for less than ls6 per barrel. I cannot get a 
vessel here to carry the Pork and Bacon to Portsmouth, but I 
shall set out for that place to day. where I shall probably meet 
with one. I shall write you from there, how I shall proceed in 
the purch 8 of Beef etc. 

I am, Sir your Obt. Serv 

Powell Reins. 
To 
William Aylett Esq, 
Williamsburg. 



110 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



Suffolk Sept r 4th 1777 
Dr Sir, 

Inclos'd you have Capt Speaks' Eeceipt for 52 Casks Powder 
which hope will come safe to hand the Waggons set out imme- 
diately to Williamsburg I inform'd you per Capt Dames that Capt 
Chesser had agreed to go out in the Boat he agreed with me before 
he consulted Capt Wilson, who would not agree he should go with- 
out first obtaining leave from the Navel Board, it will be some 
time before he could hear front them and if they agreed he should 
go it would take him two or three Weeks to get his family mov'd, 
I wrote a second time to Mr Gerton of Smithfield who has just 
arrived here and has agreed to proceed Directly to Statia in the 
Boat which will be ready for him to depart in a few days. 

I am Sir 

Your Obt Sevt 

Archd Eichardson 



) ! 



Eecd of Archd Eichardson 52 Casks Powder belonging to the 
Common Wealth of Virginia to be deliver'd to Colo William 
Aylett in Williamsburg. September 4th 1777 

Jos. Speakes 
To 
William Aylett Esqr 



(To be continued) 



Mr. Anderson's Uncle 111 



MR. ANDERSON'S UNCLE. 

"Thursday, Feb. 14, 1754.— Dined with Mr. Anderson of the South 
Sea House, a friendly, polite gentleman, and a secretary of the cor- 
respondents here with the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge 
in Scotland. I find his uncle was the grandfather of the Andersons 
in Hanover." 

This is very interesting — an item from the Journal of Samuel 
Davies, at the time a householder in Hanover County, but absent 
in London, getting subscriptions for the erection at Princeton of 
the first substantial Nassau Hall. It should not be overlooked 
that Samuel Davies, great man, was very much a Virginian. His 
home was in Virginia for eleven years, all of his active life, but a 
year and a half. Davies died early in 1761, well under forty. His 
home was about twelve miles from Richmond, in Hanover County. 
To read his Sermons, although the Editor plainly sets down that 
many of them were written and preached for Hanover County, one 
might suppose that the region was a sort of barbarous country 
with which Davies had had very little to do. But Hanover County 
has every right to raise a monument to Davies. 

During 1753 and 1754 Samuel Davies very unwillingly left his 
work, continuing in Hanover County, and went to England and 
Scotland to get the money that put Princeton on the map, as we 
say. Mr. Anderson, with whom he dined in February, 1754, was 
Adam Anderson [1692-1765], for forty years clerk in the South 
Sea House, a native of Aberdeen, and author of the History of 
Commerce to 1763. Who that knows Anderson, in that amazing 
treasury of fact and deduction, would not wish to know something 
of the descendants of his uncle? 

A. J. Mobhison. 

The Andersons of Hanover were said to be descended from two 
brothers, David and Robert Anderson, who came to Virginia about 
1700. Among the Ambler MSS. in the Library of Congress is a deed 
of David Anderson, son of Robert Anderson of King William Ccunty; 
with a handsome seal attached. — Editor. 



112 TYLERS QuA£TEKX,Y MAGAZINE 



JOSEPH I. DORAN— A TRIBUTE. 
By Robt. M. Hughes. 

This is not intended as a biography, with the usual array of 
dates and details, but simply as an effort to honor the memory of 
a modest, unassuming and chivalrous man whose services to Vir- 
ginia were incalculable at one of the most critical periods of her 
industrial history, and yet are little understood from the very lack 
of ostentation with which they were rendered. 

As a young practitioner I well remember the terror which 
followed the announcement that the Clark-Kimball interests had 
purchased the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad in 1881. 
The fear that the Pennsylvania Railroad would acquire it and 
make of Virginia a mere highway by way of the Valley or Pied- 
mont for the development of Northern cities, thus discarding 
that part of the railroad east of Lynchburg and throttling our sea- 
coast towns, had been a bugbear from the close of the Civil War. 
So, when the Philadelphia owners of the new Shenandoah Valley 
line bought the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio, our doom was 
thought to be sealed. The State was then in the throes of the 
Readjustment agitation, the reasons for which could not be ap- 
preciated outside; and capital was not disposed to seek it as a 
field for investment. 

The foreclosure suit in which the sale had been decreed was 
pending in the United States Circuit Court at Norfolk, and it 
was my good fortune, as one of the local counsel for the Receivers, 
to be brought into contact with the lawyers representing the dif- 
ferent interests. They were among the most eminent practitioners 
of the time, such as Joseph H. Choate, W. W. McFarland, and 
Judge William D. Shipman of New York, and Col. W. W. Gor- 
don and Judge William J. Robertson of this State. Here I first 
met a small, quiet man, who had little to say in court, but whose 
grasp of the details necessary to consummate the transaction and 
start the new company along the proper lines was masterful. I 



Joseph I. Doran — A Tribute 113 



■ 



was specially impressed by his force in conference, and the defer- 
ence and attention which he commanded from the representatives 
of the other interests. Every decree and order after the sale bears 
the impress of his personality. This was my first introduction 
to Joseph I. Doran, and the beginning of personal and profes- 
sional relations of intimacy and friendship only terminated by his 
recent death. 

We were soon made to realize that the public apprehension 
as to the diversion of our trade was groundless. The good will 
of Norfolk was promptly gained by making it a part of the cor- 
porate title of the new through line to the West. Mr. Doran had 
the facts as to the coal and iron industry at his fingers' ends, 
and was full of plans for developing the mineral wealth of the 
State. Whether he or his clients were entitled to the main credit, 
I can not say, as I was not sufficiently in their confidence. But I 
can say that he had it nearest his heart, and labored at it un- 
ceasingly. His enthusiasm was boundless and contagious. The 
road was completed to the coal fields, branch lines stretched out 
in every direction towards the iron and timber, until the road 
had as many arms as Briareus of old. Furnaces, foundries and 
factories rapidly sprang up along the line in consequence of this 
policy, the Lambert's Point terminals were acquired and expanded ; 
and sunshine followed gloom throughout the Commonwealth. 

Though the technical principal office of the new company was 
in Boanoke, the principal business of the company was at first 
handled from Philadelphia, and he was at once placed at the head 
of the legal department. The retention of this department in 
Philadelphia, even after the transfer of practically everything 
else to Boanoke, was probably due in the first instance to the im- 
possibility of dispensing with his services until he had had full 
opportunity of training his young assistants who were eventually 
to take up his burdens. 

As head of the legal department of the Norfolk and Western, 
his relations towards its members were a model of kindness and 
consideration. He treated them, not as subordinates, but asso- 
ciates. He was never too busy to assist them in every way possible, 
and his correspondence was replete with apt authorities and help- 



114 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 






ful suggestions. In conference, he was simply wonderful. His 
first expressions of opinion as to the law bearing on a given subject 
were almost invariably confirmed by later investigation. His judg- 
ment on questions of policy was as unerring as his position on 
issues of right and wrong was unwavering. 

But he was tenacious of his opinions only on matters of prin- 
ciple. He allowed the fullest discretion to local counsel in cofi- 
ducting their cases and accorded them full mead of praise for 
success, but never reproached them for an unfortunate result. 
There was no "I told you so" in his nature. He rarely questioned 
their accounts, but when he felt compelled to do so, it was done 
by way of suggestion and not of criticism. 

I believe his affection for Virginia was only second to that 
for his own State. I have often heard him express the greatest 
interest in her prosperity. I claim for Virginia a part of the credit 
for his courtliness and courtesy; for he had Virginia blood in his 
veins, and was proud of the fact. On his mother's side he was 
descended from Governor Yeardley, and from the original emi- 
grant of the Custis family. He was imbued with Virginia senti- 
ments and traditions, and his efforts toward the upbuilding of 
her waste places and development of her latent wealth were not 
alone the effort of the professional man, but a labor of love as well. 
The pillars of fire by night and of smoke by day that rise all 
along the line and have guided us into the promised land of plenty 
are testimonials to his memory. 

He was born January 17, 1844, and died July 21, 1919. His 
life work was his service with the Norfolk and Western, to which 
he was faithful unto death. He had no public ambitions, but 
only strove to do his duty in the station to which God had called 
him. Of such a life there is little to relate beyond the statement 
that he did his duty to the utmost; for it can truly be said of 
men as of nations — "Happy those who have no history." 



I 



NoTES FEOM BaETO^'s COLONIAL DECISIONS 115 



NOTES FEOM BABTON'S COLONIAL DECISIONS. 

(Continued from July number.) 

Page 71. Andrew Giles ■£ Mary, his ?viie, & Mary Mailicote pits 
vs. Morey Mailicote, deft: 
Thomas Mailicote devised to his son John a negro man named 
Quashey, and to his son Thomas a negro woman named Betty, 
and gives slaves to his other children. The testator's sons John 
and Thomas are dead and would not be 21, if living. The plain- 
tiff Mary, the wife of Giles, is the testator's widow, and the plain- 
tiff Mailicote is one of the testator's daughters. The defendant 
is the testator's eldest son, and heir to his brothers John and 
Thomas and is more than 21 years old. 

Eage 78. Faldo for Seymour Eowell and Ann, his wife, ag't 

Thurmer. In Ejectment: 

Argol Eansha seized of 300 acres of land died intestate, leaving 

two daughters Ann and Sarah to whom the same descended. Ann 

married George Jackson, and had issue by him Eansha, George, 

Sarah, and Ann. Eansha died without issue, Sarah, married Eob- 

ert Thurmer and had an only child George, but both are dead, 

and George, who died in 1723, left no issue. George Jackson (the 

'son) is dead without issue, Ann the other daughter of George and 

Ann Jackson is one of the lessors, and the deft is the heir of Bob- 

ert Thurmer. (In 1632 Thomas Bamshaw represented Warwick 

Eiver in the House of Burgesses. — Editor.) 

Eage 85. Tinison agst Eobertson: 

Samuel Timson by his will devised the premises in question to 
his son John, who lived to be 21 and by his will devised to Wil- 
liam Timson and died without issue. William died without issue 
in 1726 23 year's old. Lessor is his heir. 

Eage 93. Jones &c. vs Forter. In Chancery. April Court, 1740: 

William Forter and Jane, his wife, sold 99 acres in Middlesex 

Co., in 1703, to Thomas Jones, father of plaintiff John Jones & 



116 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



400 acres to plaintiff Roger Jones in 1704. Porter died in 1705, 
and Jane his wife in 1709, leaving issue : Francis Porter, her eldest 
son, and Thomas Jones died many years ago leaving issue plaintiff 
John, his eldest son. The pltfs. continued in quiet possession till 
1732, when Francis Porter, son and heir of said Jane, brought an 
ejectment for recovery. He died pending ejectment, and the de- 
fendants are his heirs acting through their guardian. 

Page 100. Tucker &c. vs. Tucker's Exors. In Chancery: 
The question was upon these words in the testator Tucker's will: 
"I give all my ready money and outstanding debts to be equally 
divided between Eobert Tucker, John Tucker, John Cooke, Eobert 
Cooke, & Mr. Jacob Walker's children. And in case of any of 
Mr. Walker's children die before they come of age that their parts 
go to the surviving children." Whether Walker's children who are 
four in number shall have each of them an equal shave with the 
Cooks & Tuckers ? Boush, one of the defts, apprehended the mean- 
ing to be to give only 1/5 to Walker's children. The Cooks and 
Tuckers were the testator's nephews; Mr. Walker's children, his 
niece's children; & their mother is dead. 

Page 111. Brock vs. Lyne : October Court, 1740. 

Susanna Orrill made a gift to her son and heir in tail. She 
dies leaving issue this son and a daughter by a first husband and 
a son by a second husband. Orrill, the donee, dies without issue. 
The lessor of the pltff- is his sister and heir, and the defendant is 
the donor's son by her second husband & is her heir. 

Page 123. Buckner vs Chew et al. In Chancery: 

Chew, the father of the defts, in 1707, sold to the plaintiff's 
father two parcels of land, a great part of which was recovered 
from the plaintiff by an elder title. Chew, after the conveyance to 
the plaintiff's father gave to the defendants — some of them his sons 
and others married to his daughters — considerable estate and died 
insolvent. Two of the defendants J. C, one of the sons, & John- 
ston, who married one of the daughters &c. 

Page 130. Smithers vs Smithers. Lessee App. from Gloster: 

John Smither devised to his wife and 8 sons Moses, Ambrose, 
Eobert, Eichard, (and 4 others not named in the suit). 



jSTotes from Barton's Colonial Decisions 117 

i 
Page 140. Timson vs Scarburgh & uxor : 

Samuel Timson seized in fee of 800 acres of land, called Vaulx 
Hall plantation, by his will January 8, 1694, gave Vaulx Hall 
to his two sons "William and Samuel, William and his heirs to 
have the manor house and plantation and Samuel and his heirs 
to have the plantation, where Bobert Hickman lives. William lived 
till 21, and had issue William, John and Samuel, and being seized 
of Vaulx Hall and 150 acres purchased adjoining, he made his will 
August 18, 1716, and devised the premises thus — "William and 
his heirs to have the dwelling house and part of his land on Queen's 
Creek, and John and his heirs all the rest of his land on said 
creek. If either died before age or had no son, then to the sur- 
vivor of the two or his eldest son. He devised other lands to son 
Samuel and wrote "if neither William nor John leave no son be- 
hind them, my son Samuel to have it all to his heirs." William 
lived to be 21, but died without issue, and by his will 26 April, 
1726, devised his part to his brother John in tail male, and said 
in conclusion : "I give the remainder of my estate, lands and in- 
terest to my brother John Timson & his heirs forever." 

John Timson lived to be 21, had issue a son William, & by his 
will devised to the defendant's wife for life. 

William, the son of John, died an infant without issue. The 
lessor is Samuel, the son of Samuel Timson. the first testator and 
his heir at law. He is also heir at law of William Timson, the 
father & of his 3 sons William, John & Samuel. And so is the 
male heir of the whole family. 



Mary 







Samuel Timson 




William 




John 


Samuel 


$ 




dead sans issue 


Lesser 


Wm. 


John 


Samuel 




dies in 


1 


dead sans issue 




1726 sans 






issue 


William 








dead sans issue 





(For Timson family see Quarterly II. 4; III., 3, 4; V. 1, 3.) 



118 



Notes fboji Barton's Colonial Decisions 



Page 147. Tazewell & ux'rs vs Harmanson. In Ejectment: 

William Andrews was seized of 1000 acres patented by one Tay- 
lor. In 1664 he leased the said lands to Thomas Harmanson, for 
his and his wife's life, and after their decease the land to go to Har- 
manson's 4 sons, Thomas, William, John and Henry. Thomas 
Harmanson made his will in 1696 and Henry, his son, made his 
will in 1709, and names wife, who is enseint, and daughters. 

Page 150. Anderson & ux vs Ligan: 

Thomas Ligan (Ligon) had 4 sons William, the eldest, Rieh- 
ard his second, and two others. His will was dated January 10, 
1675. William died in 1689, and names in his will Thomas, eldest 
son, and William. After his death his widow occupied the whole 
land till his sons attained 21, but made no division. Thomas died 
in 1705 and left a son, who died an infant in 1706, and 3 daugh- 
ters, Phebe, who married one Welthall (Walthall?), Mary, who 
is dead without issue, and Elizabeth one of the lessors, who was 
born in 1701 and married the other lessor. The defendt is Wil- 
liam, the son of William, and is 59 years old. 

Page 161. Doe Lessee of Myhill ag't Myhill: 

Edward Myhill willed land to daughter Elizabeth for life, re- 
mainder of one moiety to Edward, son of Lockey Myhill in tail male, 
and of the other moiety to Joshua Myhill in tail male &c. The tes- 
tator and his wife Anne separated about five years before, and she 
lived the last 3 years about a mile from the testator on the land 
of William Mallory, where a child was born to her, and soon after 
the testator's death she married Mallory. The court held the child 
to be illegitimate. (In "an Acco't of Marriage Licenses 1719- 
1720," Elizabeth City County Records, Francis Mallory married 
Anne Myhill. According to his will dated January 7, 1742, and 
proved 18 July, 1744, Francis Mallory left an only son Johnson 
Mallory, who was married and had a daughter Anne living at date 
of will.) 

Page 174. Legan for Armistead agst Newton, October Court, 1735: 
The lands in question were granted to Behethland Gilson by 



/ 



KoTES FEOM B.ARTON's Cc-LOXIAL DECISIONS 119 

patent Sept. 27, 1667, and again granted to Thomas (Andrew?) 
Gilson October 20, 1670, as lapsed from Behethland. She, at the 
time of the land patent to her was but a year old. Died in Oc- 
tober, 1693, being then the widow of one Storke, and by her will 
devised the premises to dau. Elizabeth, whose heir apparent the 
defendant is. Elizabeth was born in 1687, married in 1702 to 
the defendant's father, who died in 1728. The land was first seated 
for Behethland in 1692. The defendant has Behethland's right & 
is 33 years old. In 1705, Augustine Smith obtained a grant to 
the aforesaid lands as lapsed from T. Gilson, and the lessor of the 
pltf has his title. In 1729 the defendant entered and settled on 
plantation. 

(Major John Smith alias Francis Dade married Behethland 
Bernard, supposed to be a daughter of Captain Thomas Bernard 
of Warwick Co. After his death in 1662 his widow married Major 
Andrew Gilson and had Behethland above (1666-1693), who mar- 
ried Nehemiah Storke, and her daughter Elizabeth, born 1687, 
married Capt. Thomas Newton. Behethland Storke married sec- 
ondly Captain Samuel Oldham. Willoughby Newton, born 1702, 
was defendant in case above.) 

In the report of this case there is cited facts in case as fol- 
lows: Edward Hill obtained a patent in 1683 for 2717 acres. In 
1693 he gave the land to Edward Chilton and Hannah, his wife, 
who was his daughter. Hannah survived her husband and Mrs. 
Carter was her heir. 

Page 180. Doe for Fitzhugh ag't Burwell : 

Thomas Wilkinson patented land, in 1662, part of which he 
sells, and the rest he devises to his wife Ann and daughter Eliza- 
beth, and if his daughter die before 14, then all to his wife in 
fee. The daughter died before 14, after whose death the wife, then 
Ann Goodall, by deed Aug. 29, gave the premises devised to her 
son-in-law Wm. Thomas and Hannah, his wife, her only daughter 
a.nd heir. Thomas and wife by deed Oct. 26, 1692, sell to Wm. 
Fitzhugh, the father of the lessor of the plaintiff, and he and his 
father have been in possession ever since, at least, above 20 years. 



120 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



Page 181. Lutwidge vs French. Appeal from Stafford: 

The respondent French sets forth that he by his marriage with 
the widow of one Triplett became possessed of the estate belonging 
to her children. In 1720 he bound out Francis Triplett to Lut- 
widge, master of a ship. Because of neglect said Francis left Lut- 
widge 5 or 6 months before his time was out, and was so ignorant 
in his business that he was forced to turn bricklayer to get a 
livelihood. 

Page 188. Ivey ag't Fitzgerald. Appeal from riansemond. April 
Court, 1736: 
Morris Fitzgerald died intestate and without issue. Henry 
Fitzgerald, his brother of the half blood, entered upon his land 
and the premises descended to his daughter, the defendant. The 
lessor of the plaintiff is son and heir of Thomas Ivey, maternal 
uncle to Morris Fitzgerald. 



Page 195. Burgess vs. Hack: 

David Fox devises land to his son William and daughter Eliza- 
beth. William died before 21, or the marriage of Elizabeth, and 
without issue. Elizabeth married Peter Hack and had issue an 
only child Nicholas, who is dead and without issue, and by his 
will devised the premises to the defendant. The lessor of the 
plaintiff is the testator's heir at law, the granddaughter of David, 
his eldest son. (This was Frances* Fox (Samuel 3 , David 2 , David 1 ), 
wife of Charles Burgess. See Fox Family. Quarterly XVIII., 
p. 62.) 



Page 207. Eichardson agst Mountjoy. April Court 1739: 

Joseph Bellfield and Mary, his wife, made a deed Oct. 16, 1715, 
to Thomas Mountjoy, eldest son and heir of Mary. Afterwards 
Mary Bellfield, who lived apart from her husband, and Thomas 
Mountjoy conveyed a part to William Woodbridge. Mary Bell- 
field died before Mountjoy, who is also deed without issue. The 
plaintiff (Alvin Mountjoy?) is heir at law to both. The defendant 
(Richardson) trespassed at the command of John Woodbridge, 
eon of William Woodbridge. (Mary Lane, daughter of William 






XoTES FKOXI BaKTOjSt's CoEOXIAL DECISIONS 121 

Lane, married (1) Alvin Mountjoy, who died in 1700; married 
(2) Elias Wilson; (3) Dr. Joseph BeUfield in 1707. She was hia 
2d wife, his first wife being Frances "Wright, daughter of Mottrom 
Wright by whom he had Thomas Wright Bellfield.) 

Page 213. Winston & uxor ag't Henry & uxor, adm'x of Syme. 
In Chancery: 
John Geddes, having a wife and one daughter married to 
Bobby, by whom she had two daus., the plaintiff Rebecca, her eldest, 
and Eliza, and was enseint of a son, by his will May 18, 1719, de- 
vised to his wife certain slaves, and during her life a plantation 
called Totero Fort and the use of all household stuffs at both that 
plantation and at Sandy Point, and declared that after his wife's 
death he gave all to her daughter & dan's daughters to be equally 
divided between them, and to his dau's. eldest eon if any there 
should be, & appointed his wife guardian of the plaintiff Rebecca. 
The wife proved the will, and possessed herself of all the estate 
both in Virginia and England, and soon after testator's death mar- 
ried one Syme. The testator's daughter soon after his death was 
delivered of a son, who died at 7 years before the testator's wife. 
Syme possessed himself of all the testator's property, and, as 
guardian to the plaintiff, got all the estate so aforesaid devised to 
her into possession, and also what she got from her father (Bobby), 
who died in 1725. Testator's wife died in 1728. Syme married the 
defendant Sarah and died intestate, and his widow married the 
defendant John Henry. This bill is brought to have the plate 
and stock at Sandy Point delivered and costs recovered by Syme 
and his wife of the exors of one Dansie, she and her sister being 
next of kin, and to have an account of the pltf Rebecca's estate 
and of the profits which Syme was guardian. October Court, 1736. 
Decree. 

(This case seems to show that John Geddes, a rich merchant, 
died about 1719, and his widow married John Syme, and died in 
1728, when Syme married Sarah (Winston, daughter of Isaac 
Winston). After Syme's death (in 1731) his widow Sarah mar- 
ried Col. John Henry, and was mother of Patrick Henry. Rebecca 
Winston (wife of William Winston), the plaintiff in the suit, waa 



122 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



a daughter of Thomas Bobby and Mary, daughter of John Geddes. 
(See Wirt's Life of Patrick Henry, William and Mart Quarter- 
ly, XI., 77-78; XXI., 48.) 



Page 223. Eobinson agt. Armistead et al. In Chancery. April 
Court, 1737: 
John Armistead and Eobert Beverley jointly purchased 100 acres 
in Gloucester conveyed to them June 17, 1680 for 50 £. Beverley 
by his will Aug. 20, 1686, devised his half part to his dau. Cath- 
erine in tail & soon after died, after which Armistead became sole 
possessor of the premises & died possessed. 

And after his death John Armistead (William?), his eldest son 
& heir entered and died possessed, after whose death his son & heir 
John Armistead entered & died possessed leaving the defend't John 
Armistead his son and heir an infant. That the said Catherine, 
at the death of Beverley, was an infant & before 21 married John 
Eobinson, Esq., the pltfs father now living, and died in 1726, 
leaving the pltf her eldest son and heir, then an infant. And 
since the death of Armistead the grandson, the defendants Bur- 
well, Armistead & Dudley, in right of the defendant Armistead, 
an infant, have entered claiming the whole by survivorship, re- 
fusing to make partition. The pltf. requests relief. 

(See Armistead Family in William and Mary Quarterly, 
VI., p. 99, where the eldest son of Col. John Armistead is shown 
to be William Armistead of Easmost Eiver, Gloucester Co., who 
died in 1711.) 

Page 232. Spicer Adm'x &c of Stone vs Pope et al : 

John Stone by his will April 27, 1695, devised his plantation, 
slaves and personal estate, to his wife and his son Eichard Metcalf 
and daughter Ann and their daughters Mary and Elizabeth and 
son John, and children that shall hereafter be born. His wife 
died before him, and he died in 1699. Ann Metcalf married sub- 
sequently Barrow, survived him and died in 1728. She had four 
children by Metcalf, Mary, Elizabeth, John aforesaid, and Sarah, 
born after the will made, to whom after their mothers death 
Stone's estate belonged by his will. The plaintiff, one of these 



jSTotes from Barton's Colonial Decisions 



123 



children, has never received any part except the slave devised to 
her. The defendant set up several titles, some of them under the 
other children of said Eichard and Anne Metcalf, and others under 
the children of Anne by her 2d husband Barrow, and the defendant 
Eust has some plate and other things of Stone's estate. Judgment, 
October, 1736. (See Quarterly, V., 12-13.) 

Page 243. Hawkins vs Hawkins. Ejectment. 

Thomas Hawkins made his will Feb. 8, 1671, and names two 
sons Thomas and John. The first died under age and without 
issue. John sold the lands devised by his father to the defendant. 
The lessor of the plaintiffs is heir of the body of John. Judgment 
April, 1737. 

Page 251. Slaughter agst Whitlock : 

Martin Slaughter by his will April 23, 1732, names son George 
(the pltf) and daughter Judith, who married the defendant and 
died without issue.' Judgment April, 1737. 

Page 256. Brooking vs Dudley. Hi von vs Brooking, & Collier vs 
Brooking : 

Upon a special verdict the case is : Judith Whale, being pos- 
sessed of several slaves, married Ealph Emery & died in 1724. The 
plaintiff Brooking, her heir at law, after her death brought suit 
against Emery for the slaves. Being an infant William Brooking 
acted as his next friend. Plaintiff had judgment in April, 1727. 
He was then about 12 years old and had no guardian till after 
he was 14 when he chose Wm. Lawson. 



Page 272. Legan, lessee of Eichard Bernard pit. vs Washington 
Parish, Dishman, Weeden, John and Wm. Brown defts. In 
Ejectment: 
The jury has given a special verdict, upon which the case is : 
A patent was granted to Ann Bernard, in 1657, for 1000 acres, 
and in 1654 for 1500 acres, including the 1000 acres, under which 
the pltf claims. Anna Bernard died seized & the premises de- 
scended to her son Eich'd Bernard, who died in 1691, having de- 



124 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



vised the same by his will to his sons Philip and John. John 'i 
had the whole by survivorship, and died in 1709, having by his ■ 
will devised to his son, the lessor of the plaintiff, who is also his 
heir and was 25 years when this suit was brought. Judgment given ' 
to the pltf, April 1738. 

Page 289. Palmer vs Word: Oct. Court, 1738. 

In detinue for slaves upon a special verdict. The pltf's mother 
when she married his father Martin Palmer deed, was possessed of 
Bridget and several other slaves &c. Palmer died before his wife 
in 1717 & by his will devised Bridget &c to his other children. 
The wife afterwards married the defendant, and in 1721 an ac- 
tion of detinue was brought in King and Queen Ct. in the name 
of the pit., his brothers and sisters, by their next friends Martin 
and Eoger Palmer agts the defendant and his then wife as one 
of the extors of said testator, for Bridget and the other slaves de- 
vised to them. Verdict for defendant. Judgment in General Court 
for the defendant. (In the York Co. Records there is this entry: 
"December 10, 1676. It is the opinion of the Court about the 
estate of Benjamin Croshaw deed, sonne of Capt. Richard Croshaw 
dee'd. that Capt Martin Palmer as intermarrying with the relict 
of the said Capt. Croshaw deed to have administration in right of 
Rachel youngest daughter, & Mr. Rice Jones, in right of his wife, 
on the said Benjamin his estate." On January 14, 1677 (78) a 
commission of administration was granted to Capt. Martin Palmer 
"as intermarrying with the relict of Capt. Win. Corker deed/') 

Page 294. Scarburg & Anna Maria, his wife pltfs vs Barber, extor 
of Barber: 

Bill sets forth that pltf Anna, before her marriage with testa- 
tor (Barber) lent him divers sums of money &c, that upon a 
treaty of marriage Testator agreed she should enjoy all her sepa- 
rate estate & gave bond for what he owed her. Nevertheless in 
his will, Testator did not provide for the bond. But the defendant 
set up in behalf of his testator (Major William Barber) counter 
claims, such as 50 £ paid to her son John Timson, her dower 
rights &c, and the court dismissed the bill. The courtship lasted 



Notes from Barton's Colonial Decisions 125 

4 years & among the papers exhibited was a love letter dated 1722. 
(Anna Maria Jones, daughter of Rev. Rowland Jones, married 1st 
Capt. William Timson, 2d Major William Barber, 3rd, Edmund 
Searburgh, 4th John Thornton, and died aged 76 in 1760. (See 
Quarterly, V., p. 4.) 

Page 304. Banks against Banks & others. In Chancery : 

William Banks made his will, naming an eldest son, and a son 
Ralph Banks. Bill dismissed, April, 1739. 

Page 343. Dudley vs Perrin & al. April Court, 1741. In 
Ejectment : 

The case was : Elizabeth Eansone, seized in fee tail of the prem- 
ises in question, married Robert Dudley. They had issue the lessor, 
their son and heir born in 1692. Dudley died in October, 1701. In 
Sept. 1710, Elizabeth married one Elliot who died in November, 
1716. She died in Dec. 1718. In October, 1726, the lessor 
brought an Ejectment in which said judgment was given against 
him in October, 1729. 

This suit was brought in April, 1739. Dudley & his wife made 
deed Oct. 16, 1694, to James Ransone, & Ransone by his will de- 
vised to his sons George, Robert and Peter, & they for a valuable 
consideration sell and convey to Thomas Booth, who by his will 
devises the land to his ex'tors to be sold. The defts and those they 
claim under have been in quiet possession since 1694. Judgment 
for the plaintifs April, 1741. 

Page 359. Edmondson vs Tabb. In Council: 

- Thomas Allaman, seized in fee of 700 acres, died intestate, 
leaving issue Judith by his first wife, and by his second wife 3 
sons John and Thomas, both of whom died under age, and Wil- 
liam. William entered and died seized in 1732', leaving a wife, 
Thomas a son and Sarah, a daughter. After his death his widow 
cont'd in possession and married John Tabb, by whom she had 
Humphrey Toy Tabb. Thomas, son of William, died soon after 
his father, under age and without issue; Sarah died in 1741 under 
age & without issue. Tabb and his wife, being in possession, sued 



-■■■■ 



126 



Tyler's Qtjarterlt Magazine 



out an escheat warrant in order to obtain a part of the land either 
to the wife as being in possession or to their son H. T. Tabb, 
brother of the half blood to Sarah. Judith, daughter of Thomas 
Allaruan and aunt of the half blood on the father's side to Sara, 
enters a caveat, & the question is to whom the court will decree 
an inquisition of the land — to the son of John Tabb and his wife, 
now both dead, or to the aunt of the half blood. (See Tabb Family, 
William and Mart Quarterlt, XIII., 276.) 

Page 363. The case of Mrs. Mary Whaley, of the Parish of 
Bruton near Williamsburg in the Colony of Virginia, but at the 
time of her death of the Parish of St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
in the Co. of Middlesex, widow. Queries made in regard to her 
will made Feb. 16, 1741, and answers by Sir Dudley Ryder, 9 
March, 1743. 

Page 367. Robert Jones, Junior, and Sarah his wife, and Dudley 
Richardson and Martha, his wife, Appellants, vs James 
Sheilds : 

William Pinketham, of York Co., in the Colony of Virginia, 
made his will Dec. 1, 1712, by which he gave certain negroes to his 
dau. Rebecca, his only child and heir at law. She married Robert 
Cobbs, and died in 1715, in the lifetime of her husband, leaving 
issue one dau. Elizabeth aged 11 years. The said Robert after- 
wards married with Elizabeth (daughter of Daniel Allen) by 
whom he had two children, the appellants Sarah and Martha. 
Robert Cobbs made his will 10 Dec, 1725, which was proved 
February 21, 1725-'26, making his wife Elizabeth and Daniel Allen 
exors. 

After the death of Robert Cobbs, his widow, Elizabeth married 
Samuel Weldon and died August 1, 1747; and the said Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert Cobbs by his first wife, married James Sheilds 
in the life time of said Elizabeth Weldon. This case was long 
drawn out and taken on appeal to the Privy Council in England 
where it was pending in 1753. 

(See Quarterlt, VI., 121.) 



Some Descendants of Richard Wright 127 



SOME DESCENDANTS OP EICHARD WEIGHT, GENTLE- 
MAN, OF LONDON, ENGLAND, AND NORTHUM- 
BERLAND, VIEGINIA, 1655. 

By Charles Arthur Hoppin, of Worcester, Massachusetts, and 
Connaught Club, London, W., England. 

This concise and precise outline of persons and their relationships, 
and technical citation of a portion of the evidence in hand establish- 
ing their identities, is a fragment of the results of a personal investi- 
gation, persisted in to the point of exhaustion, through several con- 
secutive months of time, of all accessible records bearing upon the 
surname of Wright now preserved in the counties of Northumberland, 
Westmoreland, Richmond, King George, Stafford, Prince William, 
Fauquier and Fairfax, together with partial searches (sufficient to the 
family chiefly concerned) in the counties of Lancaster, Essex, Caro- 
line, Spotsylvania and Culpeper in Virginia, and in St. Mary's, Charles, 
Calvert, Anne Arundel, Prince George and Montgomery counties in 
Maryland. 

"M r Eichard Wright/' "Gent.," "Captain," "Justice," "Mer- 
chant," of Northumberland county, Virginia, first appears of rec- 
ord in America on August 20, 1655, in a deposition made on that 
day by him in which he gave his age as "22 yeares or thereabouts." 
[Northumberland court record book 1652-1658, page 52.] It is 
quite certain that he had no Wright relatives in America when 
he emigrated from England. On May 29, 1656, he described 
himself in an agreement with "M r Hugh Lee of Virginia" as 
"Eichard Wright of London, merch 4 being homeward bound." 
[Northumberland county court record book 1652-1658, page 145.] 
Before returning to England in May, 1657, he married, shortly 
prior to March, 1656-7, "Mistress Ann Mottrom," born in England 
1639, daughter of Col. John Mottrom of Chicacoan, Northumber- 
land, Virginia, and upon arriving again in Virginia, late in the 
year 1657, became administrator of the latter's estate. [North- 
umberland county court order book 1652-1665, pages 48 dorso, 74 
84 dorso, 86 and 88, — and court record books 1652-1658, page 



128 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

132, — and 1658-1666, page 9 dorso.] Col. John Mottrom was a 
prime mover for the formation of the county of Northumberland 
and its first representative in the House of Burgesses of Virginia. 
[Hening^s "Statutes of Virginia," volume 1, page 299.J The 
numerous references to Eichard Wright, Gent., in the Northum- 
berland and "Westmoreland records prove that he was a young man 
of very marked executive ability. He became involved in over 
thirty law suits within a short time, and in no case failed to win 
the judgment he sought. In 1661, with his brother-in-law, Col. 
Nicholas Spencer, he obtained a patent to eleven hundred acres 
of land at Pascattaway, on the Potomac, a part of which later 
was acquired by the Washingtons, embracing the site of the present 
famous Mt. Vernon. [Westmoreland county "Deeds & Wills No. 
1," page 265.] 

In 1658 he secured a patent to twenty-two hundred acres upon 
the Potomac, between Lower Machodoc river and Nomini bay, 
upon which his son Francis 2 Wright settled. [Land Office, Rich- 
mond, Virginia, Patents 1655-1664, old volume 5, page 210.] 
Eichard Wright, Gent., died at Coan, between August 16 and De- 
cember 10, 1663, aged thirty years. His will, thus dated and 
proved, names his wife Anne, his sons Mottrom, Francis, daughter 
Ann, and "Cozen Mathew Merriton of London, MerchV [North- 
umberland court record book 1658-1666, page 114.] 

The widow of Eichard 1 Wright, Ann (Mottrom) Wright, mar- 
ried (secondly) David Fox who died in 1669, by whom she had 
two children, William and Elizabeth. [See Lancaster county court 
records in William and Mary Magazine, volume 20, page 134, and 
volume 17, pages 59-60.] She married (thirdly), in 1670, Col. 
St. Leger Codd (elected a burgess of Virginia for Lancaster coun- 
ty), who was buried 9 February, 1707, in St. Faul's churchyard, 
-Kent county, Maryland. [St. Paul's register, page 252, at Mary- 
land Historical Society, Baltimore.] His will was proved April 
8, 1708, at Lancaster, Virginia. 

Mottrom 2 Wright (Eichard 1) died in the parish of St. Dun- 
stan's-in-the-East, Middlesex county (now county of London), 
England, and in his will, proved 10 October, 1700 [Noel 189, 
Frerogative Court of Canterbury, London], names (1) his daugh- 



i 



t 



Some Descendants of Richard Weight 129 

ter Frances (born January 7, 1685, who married Dr. Joseph Bel- 
field and left issue in Richmond county, Virginia), (2) Mottrom 
Wright, Jr. (born 20 January, 1689-90, died without issue), (3) 
John Wright, son of the testator's brother Francis 2 Wright, and 
some unnamed children by his (the testator's) wife, Euth Griggs 
(daughter of Robert Griggs), who had, doubtless with his consent, 
deserted bim in Virginia, and whom she had taken away with 
her. [Lancaster county, Virginia, court record book 1694, — a bond 
dated 12 October, 1694.] 

Ann 2 Wright (Richard 1) married George Nicholas Hacke, 
born in, and "a leading citizen" of, Aecomac county, Virginia, son 
of Dr. George Hacke, born at Cologne, Germany, 1623, and his 
wife Anna, daughter of the noted Augustine Herman, founder and 
lord of the great manor of Bohemia, extending from Chesapeake 
bay (in Cecil county, Maryland) across Delaware to the Delaware 
river. [Aecomac county court order book 1682-97, page 172; In- 
stitutional History of Virginia (Bruce), volume I, pages 270, 432; 
Virginia Historical Magazine, volume 5, page 256.] 

"M r Francis 2 Wkight" (Richard 1), "Gentleman," "Major," 
"Sheriff" and "Justice" of Westmoreland county, Virginia, the 
third-named child in his father's will, could not have been born, 
if he was the youngest of the three children, before 1660; hence 
he was but two, if not three, years of age when his father's will 
was made in 1663. Although he may have lived with his mother 
and stepfather, David Fox, at the latter's home in Lancaster county 
and also there in the home of his mother's third husband, Col. St. 
Leger Codd, from 1670 until he was old enough to go to the estate 
at Lower Machodoc on the Potomac in Westmoreland county, be- 
queathed to him by his father, he was, by the terms of the will, 
placed under the direction of two overseers, and his subsequent 
career proves that they caused him to receive an excellent educa- 
tion. This training was either by a private tutor in Virginia or 
in England with money there on deposit which the will directed 
be used to pay for the education of the three children. That the 
son Francis 2 Wright was educated in the law can scarcely be 
doubted in the face of the fact that he was commissioned by Gov. 
Bixby as a justice of Westmoreland county in 1682, when he could 



130 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

not possibly have been aged above twenty-four, and more likely 
was under that. [Westmoreland county court "Order Book 1675-6 
to 1688-9," page 267.] A youth became legally recognized in Vir- 
ginia as a taxable inhabitant when aged sixteen. As the possessor 
of the large landed estate at Lower Machodoc upon the Potomac, 
Francis 2 Wright, Gent., appears to have taken possession of it 
before he was aged twenty-one, and to have married there, when in 
not more than his twenty-second year, Anne Washington. Anne 
Washington was named as unmarried in the will of her father, Col. 
John Washington, dated 21 September, 1675, and he died in 1677; 
her mother, Ann (Pope) (Brodhurst) Washington, daughter of 
Lt. Col. Xathaniel Pope, died previously, as the well-known fact of 
the second and third American marriages of her (Anne Washing- 
ton's) father proves; and upon her father's death Anne Washing- 
ton speedily married Francis 2 Wright, Gent., though she could not 
have been over twenty-two at the time, as her father Col. John 
Washington's letter to the governor of Maryland, Josias Fendall, 
dated 30 September, 1659, shows that his first child in America 
was born not many weeks before 30 September, 1659. [Records 
of the "Provinciall Court For this Province of Mariland Beginning 
the five & Twentieth of March Ano Dmi 1658," No. 1, liber S, 
page 297.] 

A fac-simile of the one and only genuine original will of Col. 
John Washington, entirely in his own handwriting (preserved bv 
Gen. George Washigton, who bequeathed the original to his heirs), 
is in the possession of the writer. A comparison of it with the 
recorded copy at Montross, Westmoreland county, by the writer, 
shows serious errors and omissions in the recorded copy * in "Deeds, 



* Although the original recording of this will is upon the back 
page of the old record book in the office at Montross of the clerk of 
the court of the county of Westmoreland, Virginia, entitled "Deeds, 
Patents, Accounts, Depositions from 1668 to 1677," the indexes, both 
old and new, in that office, to wills and deeds contain no reference 
to this important document, as also to other important documents; 
hence it was believed, until a comparatively recent date, that the 
original official recorded copy of this will was not extant. Various 
investigators searched for it in vain; yet it was there all the time. 



Some Descendants of Richard Weight 131 

Patents, Accounts, Depositions from 1668 to 1677," at the end of 
the book. The will names "my father Pope." The will of Lt. 
Col. Nathaniel Pope [Westmoreland "Deeds, Wills, &c, from 1661 
to 1662," folio 4], dated 16 May, 1659, names "my son-in-law, 
John Washington." Lt. Col. Nathaniel Pope's conveyance, dated 
11 May, 1659, "for my natural affection to my Daughter Ann 

Pope alias Washington" thus and again names "my 

aforesaid Daughter Ann Washington." [Westmoreland "Deeds, 
Wills, Patents, &c, 1653-1659," page 127.] Before she married 
John Washington, early in the winter of 1658, Ann Pope had mar- 
-ried and become the widow of Walter Brodhurst, Sr., who died 
after the month of May, 1658, leaving sons Walter, Jr., and Ger- 
rard. [See The Nation, page 332, No. 1766, volume 68.] Ann 
(Pope) Washington was living 26 August, 1669, when Clement 
Spilman apologized to her in court. [Westmoreland "Deeds, Pat- 
ents, Accounts, Depositions from 1665 to 1677," page 45 dorso.l 

Several deeds prove the marriage of the said Francis- Wright, 
Gent., to Anne, the daughter of Col. John and Ann (Pope) Wash- 
ington, notably one in the Eiehmond county court, Virginia, "Or- 



Owing to having been recorded upon the last two sheets in the back 
of the book, the paper has been sadly worn away, and the ink has 
faded seriously. This record is worthy of being saved, as also scores 
of other records in the same office, and at Heathville and King George, 
of almost equal historic value, bearing upon several families of na- 
tional fame. The only questions therefor seem to be: (1) Who has 
the authority to order the restoration? (2) Who will pay the cost? 
(3) Who has the good will to see that the most urgent need is met? 
It is as sad as it is true, that such nationally valuable records cannot 
be left as and where they now are, if they are to be saved for the 
future. This fact applies to scores of counties in the states of the 
thirteen colonies. Congress having failed to create a national manu- 
scripts commission with authority to collect, restore and preserve, or 
to order to be scientifically restored, such ancient records as many 
Virginian county courthouses are surpassingly rich in having (though 
usually in a condition of neglect and decay), all praise and co-opera- 
tion is due to Lawrence Washington, Esq., of the Library of Congress, 
for his recent effort to have now restored, by the library's matchless 
process, some of the most fragile and damaged records of Westmore- 
land county. 



132 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



der Book No. 4 1692 to 1709," at Warsaw, entry for the session 
of February 4, 1707, to-wit: "The jury finds that Col. John Wash- 
ington being seized of 1400 acres of land in Rappahannock county 
by his last will gave the same to Anne, his daughter, who married 
Francis Wright, gent., by whom he had a son John," etc. 

Scores of records and documents revealing the intellectual ac- 
tivities of Francis 2 Wright, Gent., have been transcribed from the 
records, all of which indicate the excellence of his social position 
md of his material independence. He was almost constantly upon 
the bench of the county court over a period of thirty years, during 
a part of which he was the president of the court. He is referred 
to in the appointments of field officers in Virginia, "3 June 1699, 
Westmoreland Francis Wright, Major." [Calen- 
dar of State Papers, America and West Indies, 1699, page 267.] 
He was commissioned in 1690 by the governor and council of Vir- 
ginia, high sheriff of Westmoreland. [Westmoreland court "Order 
Book from 1690 to 1698,'" page 6.] He was sheriff several times, 
lastly in 1712. His wife Anne (Washington) Wright died before 
11 March, 1697-8, as her brother, Lawrence Washington, in his 
will dated 11 March, 1697-8 [Westmoreland "Deeds & Wills No. 
1," page 133], bequeaths to all of his living relatives, omitting 
his sister, Anne (Washington) Wright, because, as the will shows, 

she was dead ; for the testator orders "my body to be buried 

by the side of my Father and Mother & near my Brother and Sis- 
ter"*; but the will does name "my Brother Francis Wright"; and 
it bequeaths to "my Sister Anne Writt's children." The early 
death of Anne (Washington) Wright is further independently 
established by a deed executed by her only son and heir, John* 
Wright, Gent, soon after he became of legal age, and which he 
could not personally execute until he did become of age, to-wit: 

[Westmoreland "Deeds & Wills No. 4," page 175] — 

"Indenture 22 Feb. 1708 between Francis Wright and 

John Wright of Cople parish in the County of Westmorld, 

Gentl and Thomas Eobins 



* This meaDS in the family burying ground on the original "Wash- 
ington homestead estate near Pope's creek in Washington parish, 
Westmoreland county, and at the spot where nov/ stands the tall 
granite shaft erected by Act of Congress. 



Soiie Descendants of Richard Wright 133 

Witnesseth, — all that two hundred acres of land situate in 
Washington parish in the County aforesaid which the 6aid 
Francis Wright and Ann his wife then sole owners of the said 
land sold to William Booth, dec'd, and received a considera- 
tion for the same but the said Ann dying before the same 
was legally conveyed the said William Booth had not any 
right to the same and now is the proper Estate cf the said 
John Wright son and heir to the said Ann." 
Francis 2 Wright, Gent., died between May 28 and June 23, 
1713. He had married a second wife, Martha, between the date 
of the death of his first wife, Anne (Washington) Wright, and 
1713. In Westmoreland court book, "Orders &c. 1705-1721/' page 
216, occurs the entry, for the session of June 21, 1713, to-wit: 

"Maj r Wright's Admcon grtd. Mrs. Martha Wright, 
Relict of ffrancis Wright, gentl. dec'd, came into Court & 
made oath that the said ffrancis departed this Life without 

making any Will And on her Mocon 

Certifycate is granted her for obtaining Letters of admicon 

on the said Dec'd's Estate And She ordered 

to return an Inventory " 

She was thus granted the administration of the estate because, as 
further records reveal, she then had a young son, Eiehard 3 Wright, 
by the deceased Francis 2 , and the full legal rights and inheritances 
of her late husband's son and heir, John 3 , son of Anne (Washing- 
ton) Wright, were already secured to him by the right of primo- 
geniture and by settlements previously made, in 1707 and 1708, 
doubtless just before his father married, secondly, to the said 
Martha. The situation was one liable to develop a social rift in 
the family and also legal contention. It becomes clear from a 
study of the court records in years later that John Wright 3 , Gent, 
the eldest son, did not consult the pleasure of his step-mother, 
that she did not relish his independence and actions, and, though 
he gave some land to her son, his half-brother Richard 3 , as a free 
gift, he separated himself and his immediate family (consisting 
of his wife Dorothy and sons, Francis 4 and John 4 ) from his step- 
mother and her family, and, later removing from Westmoreland 



134 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

into that part of Stafford county later formed into Prince "Wil- 
liam county, all communication between his family and that of 
his step-mother ceased. Besides, there was another reason for the 
rift. She married again, within about a year of the death of 
Francis 2 Wright, Gent., to the latter's employee, John Howell, 
who with his wife Martha became involved, as co-defendants, in 
lawsuits arising out of their administration of such part of the 
estate, probably a third, as the widow may have been entitled to 
by law. 

From these troubles John 3 Wright, Gent., seems to have kept 
aloof, and his father's only other child by Anne (Washington) 
Wright, the daughter Ann 3 , also was clear of them, having mar- 
ried Gerrard Davis, as is proven by the 1740 will of her half- 
hrother, Richard 3 Wright, son of Major Francis 2 Wright by his 
second wife Martha, [Westmoreland "Deeds & Wills No. 10," 27 
October, 1781], and by the deposition of John Kennedy, 9th of 
August, 1744, at page 151 of the said volume. The proofs of these 
several facts are fully set forth in legal terms. After the death of 
the half-brother, Richard 3 Wright, his minor son, Francis*, was 
under the guardianship of John Bushrod who discovered what he 
believed had been an encroachment by Henry Lee upon the land 
which the said deceased Richard 3 had received in 1714, when a 
child, as a free gift from his then mature and married half-brother, 
John 5 Wright, Gent., and the guardian brought suit against Fer- 
dinando Drednought, the surveyor for Lee. [Westmoreland "Deeds 
and Wills No. 10," page 151.] The documents of this suit reveal, 
among other things, the following: 

(1) the death of Major Francis 2 Wright, in 1713. 

(2) his second marriage to Martha, after 1707, 

(3) the birth by her of his son Richard 3 , about 1710-12, 

(4) the gift of about three hundred acres of land to this 
Richard in 1714, by his half-brother John 3 Wright, Gent., 

(5) the second marriage of the said Martha to John Howell, 
in 1714, 

(6) the death of Martha before 1738, 



Some Descendants of Richaed Weight 135 

(7) the next marriage of the said John Howell to Winnifred, 
and his death in 1738, leaving a will [Westmoreland 
"Deeds and Wills No. 8-2," page 589] (his widow, Winni- 
fred, being successfully sued for trespass August 1, 1739, 
by Kichard Wright [Westmoreland "Order Book 1739 to 
1743," page 9 dorso]), 

(8) the marriage of Martha's step-daughter, Ann 3 Wright, to 
Gerrard Davis (who had a son William Davis), 

(9) that "Major Wright on his death Bed desired his son John 
Wright to give Hazelrigg's Plantation to his brother Rich- 
ard, and farther told this deponent that 6he believed the 
said John would not have done it had not she the said 
Mrs. Howell tuzed for the end, and that she believed the 
said John Wright would never have done it had it not 
been on account of her relinquishing to him the great 
house," etc. [Westmoreland "Deeds and Wills No. 10," 
page 151, etc. Deposition of Thomas Reddall (Riddle) 
August 9, 1744.] 

Lee and Drednought won the suit; thus Francis 4 Wright (Rich- 
ard 3 , Major Francis 2 , Richard 1 ) found his inheritance in land to 
be about one hundred acres instead of three hundred. His father, 
Richard 3 , is said to have built Locust Hall. This Richard 3 Wright 
(Francis 2 , Richard 1 ) married about 1730 Elizabeth, daughter of 
William and Frances (Johnson) Wigginton. [Proven by the will 
of William Wigginton, proved in March, 1721, in book 7, West- 
moreland Wills, and by his widow Frances' will, proved 27 March, 
1733, recorded in Westmoreland will book No. 8.] Elizabeth 
(Wigginton) Wright, widow of Richard 3 Wright, married, sec- 
ondly, Dr. Thomas McFarlane, whose will, proved 25 November, 
1755 [Westmoreland will book No. 12], was executed by her son, 
Francis 4 Wright. Richard 3 Wright bequeathed to his daughter 
Elizabeth, who later married Fleet Cox, as mentioned in the will 
of Dr. Thomas McFarlane; Richard 3 Wright also bequeathed to his 
son, Francis 4 Wright ,who married Mary Fleet Cox, daughter of 
Presley Cox, and became the father of Richard 5 Wright, Presley 5 
Wright and Nancy 5 Wright, all named as grandchildren in the 



136 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

will of Presley Cox, proved 30 September, 1766, by the said Fran- 
cis 4 Wright, their father. [Westmoreland will book No. 13.] 

Johx 3 Weight (Francis 2 , Eichard 1 ), "Gent," "Surveyor," 
"Deputy/"' "Attorney" and "Justice" of Westmoreland county, son 
and heir of Anne (Washington) Wright, was born shortly prior to 
25 February, 1685-6, on which day his father gave to Michael Hal- 
bert a bond to guarantee a deed of feofment to land which the 
said Francis held "in right of Ann his wife"; the fact of the 
bond supplementing the deed indicates that the grantor then had 
a son who, twenty years later (26 March, 1707), after he became 
of age, his mother being dead, then signed the deed and bond 
as waiving any right he may then have had as her son and heir; 
and then the deed and bond were recorded. [Westmoreland "Deeds 
and Wills No. -4," pages 1 and 2.] This with one exception is 
the first official recorded appearance of John 3 Wright, Gent.; and 
on page 45 of the court book in the record of the proving of this 
transaction his name is entered as "John Wright Gentl." 

Extraordinary care and perspicacity are advisable in studying 
the records of this John 3 Wright, Gentl., during his life in West- 
moreland, because there were three other John Wrights living in 
the same county, at the same time, and two of them in the same 
parish of Cople, albeit three of them were his elders, i. e., John 
Wright the blacksmith, John Wright the overseer, and John Wright 
the planter. Each of these three men will be identified and dis- 
posed of hereinafter by official records proving their separate 
identities so unmistakably that no doubt should remain as to which 
man each such record refers to. Moreover, this matter is of special 
importance because Col. John 1 Washington and Lt. Col. Nathaniel 1 
Pope are qualifying ancestors for membership in several American 
societies of patriotic eminence, and only one of these four con- 
temporary John Wrights of Westmoreland was the son of Anne 2 
(Washington) Wright, the other three John Wrights not being 
descendants of, or in any way related to, the families of Washing- 
ton and Pope. The need of a perfect illumination, by official re- 
cord-proof, of this subject has been of long standing. In addition 
to the evidence above quoted establishing incontestably the fact 



Some Descendants of Ric hab d Wright 137 

that the only son of Anne Washington, daughter of Col. John 
Washington, was the son, by her only husband Major Francis 2 
Wright, i. e., "John Wright, Gent.," there are several other docu- 
ments any one of which proves the parentage of this John 3 Wright, 
Gent., and separates him from the three other John Wrights so 
absolutely that a universal unanimity of judgment thereon should 
be now as instantaneous as it is unavoidable: — [Westmoreland 
"Deeds and Wills Xo. 3," page 4, Wright to Goff; also, "Deeds & 
Wills Xo. 4/' page 175, Wright to Eobins, and page 26 of same 
book, Wright to Marshall, and page 3 of same book, Wright to 
Franck.] Furthermore, that it was this same John 3 Wright, Gent., 
son of Major Francis 2 and Anne (Washington) Wright, who in 
1723 sold all of his "manour plantation" in Westmoreland, and 
removed with his wife Dorothy and their two young boys, Francis' 
and John 4 , Jr., to the thousand-acre plantation (since known as 
"Leesylvania") near Powell's Pun in Prince William county, Vir- 
ginia, which he then purchased of Henry Lee, Gent., is proved by 
his deed to and from the said Lee [Westmoreland "Deeds and 
Wills No. 7" page 292, etc.], and by the later deeds of his eldest 
son Francis 4 Wright. [Prince William county, Virginia, deed 
book E, page 339.] Were further proofs needed one has only to 
take note of the evidence, submitted hereinafter, of the earthly 
end in Westmoreland county of each of the three other John 
Wrights. 

John 3 Wright, Gent., is of record in Westmoreland in several 
capacities — as surveyor of highways, sheriff's deputy, attorney and 
justice. [Westmoreland "Orders &c. 1705 to 1721," pages 88, 109, 
125 dorso, 259 dorso, 399.] Augustine Washington, father of 
George Washington, was on the bench as a justice of Westmoreland 
county on 22 February, 1720, when his first cousin, John 3 Wright, 
Gent., was formally inducted to the bench as a new justice of 
the county court of Westmoreland, the oath of office being ad- 
ministered, to-wit : 

"And the said Aug 4 Washington & George Turbervile Ad- 
ministered all the above oaths to the said Henry Ashton & 
Thomas Lee, as also : to John Wright . 



138 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

And each & Every of the above named Justices Subscribed 
the Test." 
And in the court record of the session held on the following 
day the name of John Wright appears as one of the "Gentl : Jus- 
tices" present on the bench. ["Westmoreland "Orders &c. 1705 to 
1721," page 399.] John 3 Wright, Gent., continued to serve at 
nearly every session of the court until the session of May 3, 1723, 
Augustine Washington's name also appearing as present on the 
bench in a like capacity during the same period of time and there- 
after. The name of John 3 Wright, Gent, is not of record in the 
county of Westmoreland after May 31, 1723, save for a brief men- 
tion in his half-brother Richard's will, and his final appearance in 
court three months later when, after resigning his justiceship, he 
testified to this sale of his real estate and his purchase of the thou- 
sand-acre plantation between Powell's Run and Neapsco creek 
(fifty-five miles up the Potomac from Lower Machodoc), in what 
became Prince William county, to-wit: 

"John Wright gentl: personally acknowledged a Deed of 
Sale of Land by him passed to Henry Lee gentl : together with 
Livery of Seizen & receipt thereon endorsed to be his proper 
act & Deed. And Thomas Sorrell, by Vertue of a power of 
Atfy from Dorothy, wife of the sd. John being proved by 
the Witnesses Relinquished the sd. Dorothy's right of Dower 
and thirds in & to the Lands & p r mises Conveyed by the said 
Wright." [Westmoreland court order book 1721, 1723, etc., 
page 45.] 
No clue to the maiden name of the said Dorothy has been found 
in Westmoreland; she died in Prince William county before May 
28, 1739. She signed her name to the said power of attorney to 
Sorrell on 27 August, 1723, as "Dorothy Wright wife of John 
Wright of Cople parish in Westmoreland County Gentleman." 
[Westmoreland "Deeds and Wills No. 7," page 293.] On page 292 
of that book of records is recorded in full the deed of sale and 
exchange between her husband, John 3 Wright, Gent., and Henry 
Lee, Gent., whereby the former conveys for "two hundred pounds 
sterling money of Great Britain, ten thousand pounds of Tobacco, 
and five negro or mulatto slaves" and "one thousand acres of land 



Some Descendants oe Richaed Weight 139 

in Stafford County situate lying and being on Powell's run, where- 
on the said Henry Lee hath now a plantation unto tha 

said Henry Lee one tract of land 

in Cople parish in the aforesaid county of Westmoreland and on 

the mouth of Lower Machodoc river eight hundred acres 

part of a pattent of land formerly granted to Mr. John 

Mottrom by patent bearing date the thirteenth day of August in 
the Year of our Lord sixteen hundred and fifty, and since, by 
several mean conveyances or "decents," the proper right and in- 
heritance of the said John Wright, and is the plantacon and tract 
of land whereon he now lives, excepting one-half acre of the said 
land being the grave yard on the manour plantacon where Maj r 
Francis Wright, father of the said John, is buryed, as also One 
other part of the said dividend of land known by the name of 
time neck which the said John Wright hath already given to his 
brother Richard Wright by deeds bearing date, the twenty-second 
day of September in the year of our Lord seventeen hundred and 
fourteen, which deeds are recorded in the County Court record of 
Westmoreland." Thus, thereupon John 3 Wright, Gent., removed 
to that northern part of the then county of Stafford which he later 
helped to erect into the county of Prince William; and upon that 
thousand-acre plantation in Hamilton parish he died intestate prior 
to May 28, 1739 [Prince William county deed book E, page 339], 
leaving, as aforesaid, sons Francis 4 and John*, Jr., both of official 
record thereabouts for the balance of their lives in more than fifty 
separate documents and items of record. 

The probate record book of Prince William county for the 
period in which occurred the death of John 3 Wright, Gent., having 
been missing since the battle of Manassas in the Civil War, at 
which time the county courthouse was raided by the Federals, the 
exact date of his death and the records of the inventory and ap- 
praisal of his estate are unavailable. Herein, again, the law of 
primo-geniture intervened to prevent a just distribution of the 
estate, and to cause another, at least temporary, rift in the family. 
As has been noted, John 3 Wright, Gent., in 1713, both his mother 
and father dying intestate, became the sole heir to their real estate, 



140 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

as being his father's eldest son. Approximately twenty years later 
that eldest son, John 3 , also died intestate and the thousand-acre 
plantation between Powell's Bun and Neapsco creek, close to the 
Potomac river and three miles north of the then Prince William 
countyseat of Dumfries, fell to his eldest son Francis 4 , (the mother 
Dorothy being dead), the younger brother John 4 receiving nothing 
but the personal estate, the value of which must have been im- 
portant, as the records show that this son John 4 was in a pros- 
perous and substantial position soon after his father's death, and 
soon surpassed in personal eminence his father's career as a public 
man. The recorded evidences of the situation upon and after the 
death of John 3 "Wright, Gent., are clear. Francis 4 Wright, failed 
to act towards his brother as their father had done for his brother 
Richard 3 in 1714, in giving a portion of the land; instead, Francis 4 
proceeded, as soon as possible after his father's death, to turn the i 

thousand-acre estate into cash and to remove northward to an 
inferior property "upon a branch of the North fork of Bull run" 
[Prince William deed book D, pages 132, 133], near to the bound- 
ary of Fairfax county. He sold one-third of the inherited estate 
on May 28, 1739, to Benjamin Grayson, Gent., the deed of which 
recites "formerly sold by Henry Lee unto John Wright, deced, 
father to the aforesaid Francis Wright." [Prince William county 
deed book D, page 127, etc.] The remaining two-thirds, he sold 
to the same Henry Lee, Gent., of whom his father originally had ', 

purchased the estate. The deed of this sale, dated 27 July, 1741, j 

recites, among other facts, "ffrancis Wright of Hamilton parish 
in Prince William County planter of the one part & Henry Lee of 
Cople parish in Westmoreland County Gent, of the other part 

667 acres being part of One Thousand acres of Land 

Conveyed by the abovesaid Henry Lee to John Wright (father of 
the aforesaid ffrancis) in fee simple as by deed dated the twelfth 

dav of June 1725 & the said John Wright, father of the - i 

said ffrancis Wright, dying intestate, the said ffrancis Wright 
as his eldest Son is heir at Law to the Said Land & all houses, 

edifices, buildings, plantations Lands, Gardens," etc 

"Advantages, Emoluments and Hereditaments, whatsoever to the 



y 

Some Descendants of Richard Wright 141 

said Messuage belonging & also the reversion and remain- 
der rents & Services of all and Singular the said Premises 

& of every part & parcel thereof with the appurtenances & also all 
the Estate right titles, interest, Claims & demand whatsoever as 
well in Equity as in Law of him the said ffrancis Wright of in 
and to the said 667 acres." 

(To be continued.) 



142 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 



Alliterations. — Gload Gallant was living at Elizabeth City 
in 1674. Garden Geggotts, Darby Donnill and Hipwell Holten 
were living there in 1694. Rondell Revell was living in North- 
ampton County in 1646. 

Catesby. — Mark Catesby, the naturalist, was in the Colony in 
1713, when he was witness to a deed in York County from E. 
Jennings, Esq., to Ralph Graves. 

Mills and Ships. — Colonial Virginia was abundantly supplied 
with grist mills. In a radius of six miles there were often as 
many as half a dozen mills; nor was the Colony deficient in ship- 
ping. On the creeks and rivers in East Virginia were many ship- 
yards, where sloops and schooners were built. The name "Ship- 
yard" still attaches to certain places on the James, Chickahominy 
and York rivers. In the will of Gov. Benjamin Harrison, dated 
January 3, 1780, and offered for record in Charles City County 
Court June 16, 1791, he mentions his property in mills and ships, 
"one of which is on the stocks," has a ship carpenter, and mentions 
his share of the salt pans in Gloucester County, and the "great 
pot" owned by him for making salt. 

Middlesex County. — This is one of the smallest counties in 
the State. It is a long narrow peninsula between the Pyanketank 
and Rappahannock rivers, ending in a point in Chesapeake Bay, 
known as String-ray Point, named after the fish, which in that 
vicinity in June, 1608, so near ended Captain Smith's life. It 
averages 39 miles in length and five in width and contains 
175 square miles. During the 18th Century it was the seat of 
remarkable influence and culture. On the Pyanketank were the 
Berkeleys at "Barn Elms," the Churchills at "Windsor" and the 
Smiths at "Shooters Hill," and on the Rappahannock were the 
Corbins at "Corbin Hall," the Robinsons at "Hewick," the Worme- 
leys at "Rosegill" and the Grymeses at "Brandon." 

These families were of the first weight in the Colony. They 
had either a seat in Council or held some other important public 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES 143 

position. They had each their coach and six horses, and abun- 
dance of silver plate. Their libraries were well furnished with 
books, their stables with fine horses, and they had a great number 
of negro slaves. Two governors in the 17th Century, Sir Henry 
Chicheley and Lord Howard of Effingham, had resided at "Bose- 
gill" remote from Jamestown, where the General Assembly held its 
sessions. Christ Church, where they worshipped, is a fine memo- 
rial. Ealph Wormeley, who was Secretary of State and died in 
1703, was characterized as the "greatest man in Virginia." 

Eivalling the Wormeleys in power and influence were the 
Grymeses of "Brandon," descended from Eev. Charles Grymes, 
an early immigrant. In his will, which has a black seal attached 
bearing the coat of arms of the Grymes family, John Grymes, 
who died in 1747-48, desires the Eight Honorable Horatio Wal- 
pole to accept a diamond ring, of 50 guineas value, as an ac- 
knowledgment of the obligation which he owed him "through a 
long continuance of his personal protection." 

Banger General. — George Brent, of Woodstock, Stafford 
County, commissioned Eanger General by Ehilip Ludwell 10 July, 
1690. 

Botetourt's Statue. — Governor Benjamin Harrison, in a let- 
ter to Jefferson, states that the statue of Lord Botetourt in Wil- 
liamsburg cost £950 besides shipping and pay to the men who came 
to set it up. (Executive Letter Book.) 

The College Company. — The Council Journal for August 
18, 1777, has "The Governor, with the advice of the Council, is- 
sued commissions appointing Eev. James Madison captain, Gran- 
ville first lieutenant, William Nelson second lieutenant, and Daniel 
Fitzhugh ensign of a company of militia, formed out of the stu- 
dents of William and Mary College." 

Washington's Southern Tour. — Anyone owning contemporary 
letters, documents, or other historical materials pertaining to George 
Washington's Southern tour in 1791 is requested to communicate 
with Archibald Henderson (Chapel Hill, X. C), who is preparing 
a book en the subject. 



AD VER'I ISEMENTS 



STRATTON NOTTINGHAM 

GENEALOGIST 

NORTHAMPTON AND ACCOMAC COUNTIES, VIRGINIA 

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(genealogical JfWagajtne 

Address all communications to the Editor, Lyon G. Tyler, 
Holdcroft, Charles City County, Va. 

Vol. 1. JANUARY, 1920. No. 3. 

CORRESPONDENCE OF COL. WILLIAM AYLETT, 
COMMISSARY GENERAL OF VIRGINIA. 
(Continued from page 87.) 
Sir 

I am Extreamly sorry to say that after all my truble I have bin 
at, in agreeing with the Sundry Tanners in the Country, they want 
to dissappoint me in the leather on Acct of the turn of all things 
Since the Committee is no more that have taken such Great ris, puts 
me to a stand how to acte, in it with them, tho am determined to 
sue them that I have greed with, how it may turn out Can not 
Say, but some leather Goes this week to the head of Elk for You, 
to be ready for the first oppty to Wmsburg the prices they aske now 
is att Foot, Shall try to Gitt to the amt of the £5000 at least for 
to Go to You, am very Sorry for the delays in it but while such 
Difference in the City and Country Goes on that there is no telling 
from one day to the next, what things is to bring, it Seems to 
me that there is no vertue honour or honesty left Among the 
people as no dependence on any agreement Can be put now So 
shall deal with them accordingly the Bearer just Gos off Con- 
clued I am Sir Yr very Obdt Servt 

Michael Gkatz 
Soal leather 7 dollars per M 
Upper do 8 do do 

Harness do 6 do do 

Calves do 16 do do 

Mr. M. Anderson 
To 
Mr. Mathew Anderson, 

Williamsburg 
per favr 

Mr. B. Grats. 



146 



Tyeeb's Quarterly Magazine 



Saturday Night. 

Gents. 

I am about sending a messenger into Northumberland for a 
qty brown thread that is there for Sale. There is one Gilmour 
in that City that has a qty "Woollens for sale. I lately bought of 
him about a hundred pounds worth for my own Store of assorted 
"Woollens from 10s Sterling downwards and not only got them at 
a low Advs but find them very well bot, my Young Man informs me 
he has a large qty more, I have a large Stock yet on hand in the 
publick Store perhaps enough for the forces now about to be 
rais'd provided they come in general proportionally equip'd with 
those that are now in Service, but I humbly conceive it best to 
err the right side, if I would go over myself I expect I could get 
a great bargain, for he is one of the Wrong headed Scotchmen, who 
whishes I dare say to part with all his property here as quick as 
possible, however his advs was sufficiently low being at 6 per Ct 
very unexpectedly to me for I had no expectation of succeding 
when I wrote him the offer, and therefore I dare say I may trust 
to the messenger. Shoes are much wanted there are a qty at 
Petersburg but are intermix' d with a qty of fine mens, and wo- 
mens Shoes, the officers will want the fine, and I will take the 
Womens myself therefore shall engage them if I receive no order 
to the Contrary, I also wrote to some time ago to Mr. Lux for 
500 prs and receiv'd for Answer that he expected to get them. 
I wrote by the express and the return of the boat to hurry them, 
I have had a qty Norfk Leather of my own by me for some months 
past, which I have reserv'd for the publick, and shall sett work- 
men about as soon as they finish planters work I could not get 
them to begin before, there is enough to make about a hundred 
and Twenty pr the publick may either have the Leather as it 
cost me, or I will furnish the Shoes, I have also wrote to Dumfries 
for a qty shoes that are there, there is also a large qty Phila 
Leather there that might be got. I find we cannot get too many 
of this Article, this being post Night or I would not trouble the 
Committee, My letters are wrote and I shall venture to send them 



* 



CoEKESPONDENCE OF CoL. WlI/LIAM AyXETT 147 

if not forbid, I have about 1200 pr Stockings and plenty hatts, 
I am with due respect 

Gent 
Your Ob Servt 

W Aylett 

If the committee pleases I am ready to wait on them for any 
further commands they may have, the post may perhaps save 
the exprs of a special messenger. 
To 
The Hble Committee Safety 

Suffolk Sepr 7th, 1777. 
Sir, 

I this moment arived to this place from Princess Anne, whero 
I have to inform you that I have not purchased any provision in 
that part of the Country, it being so remarkably Scarce, and those 
who have it for sale, ask the exorbitant price of 5 d to 6 d per lb. 
I could have bo* a plenty of beef at 5 d but the Gen n would not 
agree to break his drove, or else I should have been oblg to take 
some of them, — indeed the Inhabits of Norfolk, Princess etc are 
obliged, through necessity to give 6 d Mes rs Moss. & Barbee has 
been obliged to give 5 d for all the beef they have used for some 
time past. — I have enclosed you Colo "Walks letter where he ad- 
vises me to go to Pasquotank, Perquimones etc. but several Genn 
says I has better go higher up the country. Mr. Moss has had a 
Drove of beeves that will be in by the 10th Ins. which he says 
Mr. Barbee shall have what beef he wants while I return from 
Carolinia. We cannot sell any of the flour at Portsmouth, for 
Mr. Bailey has had a large qty. there for sale for some time, and 
cheaper than Yours. — Mr. Terrell carried all the money he had 
to Williamsburg before I got to Portsmouth. I having not money 
enough left in my hands (after paying Mr. Mackie for 6000 1 
bacon) to go to Carrolina, Mr Moss was kind enou to advance me 
333 Dollars, which sum I wish you to replace as soon as possible — 
for Mr. Moss says he does not know how soon he may have a call 
for it. You may depend the utmost of power shall be used in 



148 Tyeee's Quabteely Magazine 

trying to procure beef on as good Terms as can be bot. I am 
Sir your Most Ob' Servt, 

Powell Eeins 
P S. bacon sells @ 14d 
to 15 d per lb at 
Portsmouth 

To 
William Aylett Esq. 
D C General 
"Williamsburg 

September 17 th 77 
Coll 
William Aylett 
Sir 
The time I passed through yr State was So Alarming to A 
man Sircomstansed I am with A family at the Verry Place where 
it was Judged the Seat was Bound — will fully Plede my Excuse 
for not Vissitting you, indeed I had no interesting news or I Should 
Made A point of Waiting on his Excellence & you boath before I 
proseeded Any further — nor had I any letters papers or Accts wt 
me Relative to the Business we had transacted for yr State — 
tho had it not been for the Allarming times I should been Verry 
hapy in Waiting you & giving you Every advice I was knowing 
too and am fully Determoned to Yissitt you at Williams Burght 
in A verry Short time as Soon at lest as those floating Batteries 
Dissapeers, that at Present threttens us with Destruction — the 
Bearer W Benjamin Salter an unfortonnett freind of mine, is 
bound to the Westinges if you have Any Commands he will take 
them in charge — he wants Accomms for his Vessell — I will be 
his Securety if Required I am Sir wt all Respect yr Verry humble 
Servt 

Abm Van Bibber 
[Address:] Coll William Aylett 
Merchant at 

Williams Burgh 
Virginia 



Correspondence of Col. William Aylett 149 

Sir. 

I Observe in the last Paper Your Being Appointed Commis- 
sary of Purchaises in the three or four Southern States, (as I 
am Some What Acquainted in Some of them Parts.) Should 
You Want any Person to go and Puchase I would gladly undertak 
a line from You on that head. Shall Be Strictly Observed and 
Will Waite on You on Further Particalaurs. 

I am Sir Your Hble Sevt 

John Hopkins 
20th Sept 1777 
NB I have Bought 9 
hhds. Tobo for You 
and Expect Shall get 
the Best in a few days. 
J. H. 
To 
Colo William Aylett 

Edentown North Carolina Sepr 27, 1777 
Honoured Sir. 

This is to Informe you of my safe Arrival as I was Obliged 
to Goe in Old topsail Erlitt and Come through the Sound as it 
was Deficul to Get through as I wou'd not Venter the Sloop Bound 
at Ocorock as there was tow Tenters Lying there as I had but 15 
Days from St. Croix as I will Get up to South Quay as Soon as 
Posible I did not Sail from the West Indies till the 30st of August. 
I am Very Sorry that Some Person is Been Informing you that 
I was makeing away with the Sloop & Cargoes but I hope I will 
Convince them as I dont Doubt but I have Got a Great many 
Enemies but Sir you will Know Better when we Both meet as I 
shall Come up to Wm s Burge as Soon as I Get up to South Quay — 
etc. 

I am Your Most Obedt 

John Bayne Jr 
To 

William Elliott, Esq r 
at Williamsburg. 



150 



Tyler's Qoakteely Magazine 



Charles Town, in So. Carola. Octo. 6th, 1777. 
William Aylett Esqr 

Sir 

This will be handed you by Mr. Maurice Simons who had set 
out for Virginia before I reached this place and unfortunately 
missed of him on the Eoad, but hearing of his intention, wrote 
him requesting that he wou'd either return or Deputize some 
Person in this place to settle and receive the Money for his accot 
against the State of Virginia. He stop'd at Geo Town from 
whence he sent a Person to settle the Accot and receive payment, 
on comparing the Accot I find there is a considerable difference, 
his making the bala, much greater than yours a state of w'ch I 
have herein inclosed you as likewise a Receipt for what money I 
have paid in part — Being thus circumstanced I would by no means 
proceed to a final settlemt, but as Mr. Simons urged in his Letter 
to me that he wanted the Cash, I paid his Deputy £1 9,500 this 
Currency say, Nineteen Thousand five hundred pounds, and do 
leave the accot for you to settle and pay the Balance — In Mr. 
Simons's letter to me, I find he is much ruffled, I suppose partly 
owing to a delay of payment as well as my not waiting on him; 
as to returning to George Town from whence he writes to make a 
settlement, you very well know, Sir, it cou'd not be effected, be- 
cause, the payment came in Bills drawn on a Gentleman in this 
place w'ch must be turned into Cash before any thing cou'd be 
done; true it is, I did not make Mr. Simons acquainted with this 
circumstance — He tells me he has reed much Injury for steping 
forth in this matter as a friend to the Commonwealth of Virginia, 
and is determined to lay the matter before the Governor and Coun- 
cil of your State for redress — Shou'd Mr. Simons go so far as to 
call my conduct in question, I think he will be ungenerous, as I 
shall be absent, if present, I cou'd assign many reasons for acting 
as I did, w'ch I shall forbear mentioning at this time being much 
hurried by Mr. Chatiller who conveys this to Mr. Simons — The 
Money for the Bills I reed this Day on application, the Balance 
remaining after paying the £19,500 together with the Continental 
Certificates I went in order to wait on the Governor of this State 
with, but he being from home, prevents my informing you whether 



CoRKESPOISrDENCE OF C(XL. WlIXIAM AyLETT 151 

the Certificates will be taken in payment or not, on his return to 
Town, I shall inform myself of this and acquaint you thereof the 
first opportunity I can embrace — 

I am sadly disappointed in my expectations as to the price of 
Goods in this place, they really are higher than you can conceive, 
many articles of dry goods at a 1000 and 1200 per Ct on the Euro- 
pean Cost — Never did my Breast feel more anxiety to know the 
situation of Genl Washington and Army than at present — I have 
understood the two Armies lay very near each other the 1st Ulto — 
I am very respectfully; 

Sir, 

Your very obt Servt 
Jacob Faulcon 



William Aylett Esqr 
To Aylett 



Nantes 17, October 1777 



William Aylett Esqr 
Virginia 
Sir 
This is just to Inform you we have dispatched your Two Ves- 
sells ye Congress and Liberty we likewise contracted with M 
John King in behalf of State which we shall send very soon as 
you'll be Informed per same Opportunity by Letter From J. Gruel 
& Compy you'll please observe that we are the Persons mentioned in 
ye said firm, and ye reason of our names not being explained was 
on acct of Mr Pliarne being in America and myself P. Penet 
being Obliged to go to Germany to procure some Artillery for ye 
united States and other things, which I've effected and shall send 
ym as soon I receive ym from ye Manufacturies ; but for ye fu- 
ture I shall rest here constantly and over look ye Affairs myself 
so that any Vessells you may send from your State shall meet 
with every kind of Dispatch. We remain with Eespect. 
Sir 

Your most Obd 

Hb]e Servts. Pliarne Penet & co. 

To 
William Aylett Esquire 



152 Tylek's Quarterly Magazine 

William Aylett Esquire 
Sir 
Since the arrival of Mr. John King in our City with whom we 
have had occasion to cultivate an Acquaintance particularly some 
business to him intrusted from the Council of your State of Vir- 
ginia for furnishing several Articles in Conformity We addressed 
you to let you know we shall Compleat y e Order and in Conse- 
quence, have entered in an Agreement, by which we are Authoriz'd 
to purchaze and Expedite y e Merchandize for the acct of the State 
under the mark of C. W. V. to ye address and consignment of his 
Excellency Patrick Henry Esquire — we shall therefore arm a Ship 
in which we shall load part of ye Articles mention'd in the Invoice 
given us by Mr King and we hope the Ship LaCharmante Victoire 
Capt Andrew Duget will depart for Virginia in 30 or 40 days We 
have the Honor to be respectfully 
Sir 

Your mo Obedient 

Humble Servts 

J Gruel & C ie 
Nantes 18 Octre 1777 

South Quay Oct 24, 1777 
William Aylett Esq; 
Sir, 
I fully expected the pleasure of seeing you at this place when 
we parted last but my engagements with the Council detained me 
much longer than I expected — On my arrival I received your letter 
from Mr Eichardson, for which I am much obliged to you, and 
shall be particularly attentive to — My first inquiry was respecting 
the State of the Liberty — What number of hands she had on board, 
and when in all probability she would be in readiness to sail. The 
Capt being about, I was informed by the Gunner that the hands 
in general were very much dissatisfied, and that he believed none 
of them intended going the Voyage. I advised with Mr Eichard- 
son on the occasion, and this morning collected all the hands on 
board, and informing them I intended taking a passage in the 
Sloop, desired to know whether they intended to continue in the 



®pto'£ ©uarterlp ^i^tortcal anb 
(Senealogtcal j$laga?me 

Vol.1. JANUARY, 1920. ■ No. 3. 

NOTICE. 



On my retirement from the presidency of William and Mary College I 
deemed it proper to change the name of the William and Mary Quarterly 
Historical Magazine and begin a new series under the name of Tyler's Quar- 
terly Historical and Genealogical Magazine. The new issue will have the 
same subjects, number of pages and price (S3.00 per year) as the old. The 
old magazine expired with the April number, 1919, and the new began with the 
July magazine, 1919. Unless notice is given to the contrary subscribers to 
the William and Mary Quarterly will be transferred to the new magazine. 

An index to the last volume of the William and Mary Quarterly (twenty- 
seventh volume) is in course of preparation. 

LYON G. TYLER, Editor. 



CONTENTS 



Correspondence of Col. William Aylett, Commissary Gen- 
eral of Virginia 145 

A Group of Northern Neck Families 162 

Records of the Goddin Family 172' 

Presbyterian Periodicals of Richmond, 1S15-1860 174 

Some Descendants of Richard Wright, Gentleman, of 
London, England, and Northumberland, Virginia, 

1655 177 

A List of Marriage Bonds — Northampton County, Vir- 
ginia 192 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 212 

The Virginia Caiys 214 



H 



Vol. I. No. 3. 



JANUARY, 1920 



t&pkx'g <&uarterlj> historical 

anb 




(genealogical jWaga^ine 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



Copy of This Number, $1.00 



$3.00 Per Year 



Correspondence of Coe. Wieliam Ayeett 153 

service — to which they unanimously replied in the negative — utter- 
ing a variety of complaints and reasons for quiting the Vessell — 
In the first place they had been offered 40 or 50 dollars per month 
and only received 4 or 5 £ from the Country — They had not re- 
ceived the Bum and other Allowances promised them by the State- 
That the agent in the West Indies had paid them off what small 
proportions they had received in Island Currency, Viz. Dollars at 
8s., 3 — These reasons with some of less weight has determined them 
most ridgedly not to serve longer unless obviated — I reminded 
them that these exorbitant wages were only given by a few traders, 
who levied it on their distressed countrymen, by extorting 4 or 5£ 
a bushell for Salt, and that some consideration should be had for 
their country — To this they replied — Country here or Country 
there, damn my Eyes and limbs but I'll serve them that give t" 
best wages — It grieved me to have thrown away one generous 
sentiment upon such a sett of unfeeling animals, and vexed at the 
disappointment, and the prospect of continueing in these dreary 
regions 'till Sea men could be picked up in these difficult times, 
I applied to my friend Joshua, who offered me a passage in the 
Virginia Packett, now at Portsmouth. Without chair, home, or 
Servant, I have determined to go over and see if I can get out — 
Should I succeed in this, I shall be in better condition to dispatch 
the Liberty on her arrival at the Cape — Mr. Richardson will secure 
the Tob. on board, as soon as they have given her a clean bottom 
and I trust you will give the Capt directions to proceed to me — 
If the Virga Packett has sailed, or is like to be detained, I shall 
return to this place and wait the fate of the Liberty with all the 
patience fortitude and resignation in the power of 

Yours etc. 



Eawleigh Colston 



To 
William Aylett esqr 



154 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

St Pierre Martinigue 24th Novem 1777 

Sir 
The Embargo mentioned in my last of the 14th Ulto to be on 
the Shipping here and in France is removed; and with it all appre- 
hensions of an immediate War. — I can't learn the true Cause of 
this sudden change, but suppose it proceeds from some political 
view to gain more time and Strength. — Of the Troops expected 
two Divisions, consisting of near 2000 men each, have within these 
few days arrived, and a third of the same number is hourly ex- 
pected. — These Troops I Imagine will rest idle untill the Spring, 
when it is probable there will be some Work carved out for them — 
I would not, however, wish my Countrymen to confide too far in 
such an Event, — their own manly Exertions will be the surest 
mean s of Success : their Success the surest means of gaining them 
friends — 

I am at length able to inclose you a State of Vanbibber & 
Harrisons Accot Currt with your Commonwealth, Ballance trans- 
ferred into my private Accot., which, as per Copy also under Cover, 
will find leaves a Ballance upon the whole of Livs 3675.8.3 to my 
rysedue. — this Sum I am investing in Goods conformable to your 
last Order and they will be ready for the first safe Vessell bound to 
your State. 

I some time ago wrote you fully in answer to your objections 
respecting the affair with Vandam, Lux & Bowley's Bill etc., and 
can now only repeat that these Points are to be all discussed and 
settled with Mr. Vanbibber, as they were transactions that took 
place before his Connection with me. — 

Tobacco Still supports its price of 80 a 85 Livres, and Flour 
is rising being from 75 a 85 Livres per barrl. — If you should judge 
proper to order a Cargoe of either of those Articles here this 
Winter it will probably answer very well ; and I flatter myself that 
you will have no cause to complain either on the Subject of my 
Regularity, Punctuality, or Attention to Business. 

I have the honor to be, with much Esteem 
Sir 

Yr most obt hble Servt 
William Aylett Esqr Ed Harrison 






Correspondence of Col. Wileiam Aylett 155 

Williamsburg 26th Novemr 1777 
Honble ffm Lee Esqr 
Dear Sir 

Your very obliging letter of the 10 Septr from Nantes, happily 
came safe to hand, a few days past with a Valuable supply of 
Goods, per our Sloop Congress — I shall make it my Business to 
comply with your request in making it known to your Countrymen 
that you are in a Capacity to serve them once more in the Mer- 
cantile Way, And be assured I will exert myself to promote your 
Interest amongst them & if you should continue your Besidence at 
Nantes, I doubt not but I shall have it in my power to procure you 
the Publick Business of this State, at present our Engagements 
are such with Messrs I Gruell & Co that I am obliged to send this 
Vessell to their House, as we have ordered a much larger Quantity 
of Goods to be Shipped, than we have property in their hands to 
Satisfy, & which we have Beceived assurances shall be complied 
with, we have only Beceived by the Congress the Amount of her 
outward bound Cargoe, We have yet the Cargoe of our Brig Liberty, 
in their hands unaccounted for, & if they restrict themselves only 
to the Sale of her Cargoe, we shall be at Liberty in future, to dis- 
pose of our Consignments, as we may think proper — I am ex- 
tremely obliged to you for your Friendly recommendation of a 
Ship & Cargo to my address, my Connexions & Situation in this 
State, I am confident will enable me to render the Proprietors 
such Beturns as will merit a Continuance of their favours, I am 
about placeing myself in such a Situation, as to have it in my 
power to attend principally to Business of this Sort, I have been 
in the Service of this State since the Commencement of Hostilities 
with G. B. & have also served nearly as long to the Continent as 
Deputy Commissy General in this State, by them I have been 
lately appointed Commissy General of Purchases for the Southern 
Department, comprehending all South of Potowmack within the 
American Union, which altho it increases my Sallary & importance, 
it lessens my actual employment. And as the Business of the State 
has principally engaged my Time, I mean to resign it immediately 
in favour of a Worthy Young Gentleman who has been with me 
from the beginning, Indeed I have given it up, since the midle of 



156 Ty lee's Quaeteely Magazine 

last month, But in winding it up the Governour & Council wished 
me, to continue the Correspondence while I remained in place, 
& indeed from the great Part I have hitherto had in the manage- 
ment of their Business, and the good Success I have met with, 
will give me Weight in their Foreign Business while it is con- 
ducted, — I shall set up a House in this Town in my own Name, 
haveing already met with some considerable Commissions. I have 
no doubt of their encreasing, & shall be obliged to you for any that 
you, Your Brother, or any of your Friends can Becommend me to. — 

The Wind of Politics fluctuates here as well as in France, as 
to Peace & War. The Surrender of Burgoyne & his whole Army, 
(a circumstance that no doubt you will be acquainted with, long 
before this Peaches you, with all its comcomitants) raised our 
hopes (from the Situation of Howe at Philadelphia, & the distrac- 
tion of Two of their Men of War, & repeated repulses at our Forts 
on Delaware), that Peace & Happiness would shortly be restored 
by a total Destruction of our Enemies, But late Accounts are not 
so favourable, the Ships are like to get above our Forts, which 
are in Danger of being reduced, & Howe in all probability Eemain 
in possession of Philadelphia, which I fear will prolong the War, 
I understand the want of Clothing, Stocking, Shoes, & Blankets are 
the principal cause of our Army not being more Active, an Evil 
that I hope you as one of the Agents for the Continent, have fallen 
upon some method to remedy ere this — 

Your Brother Thomas who is a Member of our upper House of 
Assembly is in Town, he is well & Immagine will write you by this 
Conveyance. — With every Sentiment of respect & Eegard, I am 

Dear Sir 

Your mo Obt Servt 

William Aylett 

The Governor & Council have 
divided the business I conducted 
for them, the care of the Stores to 
the Young Gentleman mention'd above 
the management of the Vessels to 



CoRRESPOXDEXCE OF CoE. WlXLIAM AyLETT 157 

Mr Thos Smith who will write you 
by this Conveyance 

W A 
[Address:] 

Honble William Lee Esq 1 " 

Agent for the American States 
Nantes 
Brigantine 
Greyhound 
Cap. Wenycott 



Virginia Williamsburg 17th December 1777 
William Lee Eqr 
Sir 

I am informed by His Excellency the Governour and his Honble 
Council of this State that they have appointed you their Agent 
in France at which circumstance I am exceedingly pleased, being 
truly sensible a choice could not have been made with more pro- 
priety, they have been pleased to give me an Office of this kind, 
the Duties of which will naturally lead me to Correspond with you 
at times, having so lately engaged in the Business prevents un- 
saying anything more on the Subject at present, therefore have 
only to Observe that you should you at any time have Occasion 
to make use of my services in any manner you may Command 
them freely, in hopes of hearing from you soon, I remain with 
much Esteem 

Sir 

Your mo. Obt Humble Servt, 

Thomas Smith A. State 

To 
William Lee Esqr 
in 

Nantes 



158 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



Cape Francois Deer 22 1777 
To Wm Aylett Esqr, 
Dear Sir 
Inclosed you have a Bill of Lading and invoice of the Cargo 
of the Sloop Liberty Captn John Baynes. As the Cargo of To- 
bacco is not yet disposed of, I cannot furnish you with an Account 
current I hope on examination of Goods you will find them of 
good quality and well purchased I shall be obliged to You however 
to give me your opinion candidly on this head — your directions 
have been attended to as strictly as circumstances would admit 
With respect to the Article of Salt there was none to be procured 
on my arrival but that which is imported from France and being 
desirous to give all possible dispatch on account of the Blankets 
and other Goods for the Winter I deemed most prudent to purchase 
the Small quantity required for the Liberty tho' at a higher price 
than that which is brought from Turks Island, the quantity of 
Taffia directed was purchased but the Captain was of opinion that 
not more than six Hhds would be Shipped with convenience The 
Blankets sent were all that I could met with except of a very fine 
quality and such as would not answer our purpose As Ships are 
almost dayly arriving from Europe it is probable I shall be able 
to procure a larger quantity should they be wanting. I have exe- 
cuted Your directions in the Articles of coarse Cloth — which I 
dare Say you will not be displeased at, in any respect I am certain 
you will think them a good bargain, the Bhoan, and Flanders 
Linnen resembles that of our own manufacture in the roundness 
of the Thread and closeness of its tixture I am persuaded it will 
be found much more lasting than the common Dutch or Irish 
Linnens The Ozenbrigs is of the best quality but rather higher 
than I could wish it The Hatts are in my opinion remarkably 
cheap especially those of the finer quality which are lower than 
the price limited and sent partly a s a specimen. The Jesuits 
Bark was not mentioned in your Invoice, but directed by Mr. 
Jameson and Dr. McClurg for publick use — perhaps we may never 
have an opportunity of laying it in so reasonably The Case will 
weigh about 165 lb English wt I have now run through the prin- 
cipal articles in the Invoice, and shall be happy, if upon the 



Correspondence of Col. William Aylett 159 

whole, they give satisfaction. I have been under the necessity 
of connecting myself with a French honse in which Mr Caton is 
concerned, and obliged to give up one half of my commission. It 
will be a means however, of initiating me into the Business of 
the place, and may be useful to me in other respects. The Speed- 
well, to my great Surprize, arrived a few Days before us, and fell 
into Mr Catons hands, her Cargo sold for 105 Livrs. She will be 
dispatched as soon as she undergoes some necessary repair, and can 
procure a Load of Salt. You may depend in every instance on 
my best endeavours to Serve both Yourself and the publick, and I 
trust You will enable me by my Commissions, to live in Credit and 
Character. The Goods are not Yet arrived from France but Ships 
are dayly expected from Nantes. I have Laboured day and night 
to get Capn Baynes in readiness to Sail under a Kind of a Convoy, 
it was not my neglect that he did not. 
I am, 
Sir, 
Yours etc 



Eawleigh Colston 



(a Copy) 



Cape Francis Deer 31—1777 
Wm Aylett Esqr 
Dear Sir 

A few days after the Libertys departure, I had the good for- 
tune to meet with a quantity of coarse white Cloth in the pos- 
session of a French Officer which I purchased extremely Low on 
account of their being too thick for this Climate a favourable 
opportunity offering in a swift sailing boat which formerly be- 
longed to Botimore, and knowing Your distress for Woollings. 
I thought it adviseable to Ship them on Freight at 10 per Ct on 
the prime cost payable here. Inclosed you have an Invoice and 
Bill of Laden for them and also a Bale of Coarse Blankets contain- 
ing two Dozen, which are sent as a Specimen if they will Answer I 
believe it will be in my Power to procure a large quantity Capn 
Baynes Left this the 24th and I hope will have arrived before 
the receipt of this with a very reasonable Supply of Woollens 



160 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



Linnins Hatts &cs Amounting to £25624.13.4 exclusive of Commis- 
sion we are in hourly expectation of a Load of Salt as soon as it 
arrives the Speedwell will begin to take in her Cargo, and will 
be discharged in a few Days by her I shall do myself the pleasure 
of writing you more fully. 

I am Sir, 



(A Copy.) 



Your Most Obt 

Eawleigh Colston 



Poscript 

Permit me to give a Slight Sketch of my Situation at this 
place, I assure you it is by far the most disagreeable I ever ex- 
perienced. You must know my chief dependence, with respect to 
friendship and advice, was on the Gentleman to whom you directed 
the Speedwell in case of my absence, and to whom I had letters — 
but alas ! I discovered in a few days that he was so much disliked 
by the Americans, and his character so traduced by the French, 
that I must either disclaim every connection, or involve myself in 
the same fate — As soon as the Speedwells accts. are closed, I shall 
adopt the former Alternative — I sincerely lament his unhappy 
condition, and must do him the Justice to say that I have not as 
yet discovered any thing in his conduct to justify the numerous 
Aspersions that are cast on him — But where a Beacon is erected, 
it would argue an over curious disposition in a Stranger, to require 
a farther and more Sensible proof of the Danger — With respect to 
Mr. Lejunie under whose sanction the business, is- conducted, I must 
say he has given me Satisfaction in every instance. 
Yours &cs 

Rawleigh Colston 



Nov 14, 1779 
Dear Sir, 

Your young gentleman has put you in an exceeding ill humor 
with me, without any intention of mine. I had no idea from the in- 
different manner in which I was asked for my account of tents that 
vou had any immediate occasion for it, nor had I any reason to 



CORKESPOXDENCE OF CoE. WlEEIAM AyLETT 161 

expect as he saw me at that time in a hurry, that he would have 
left the camp without calling upon me again. It was the farthest 
thing from my tho'ts to dispute your account; nor did I conceive 
that any misrepresentation could have been made of any thing 
I said. It is true, I did in a joking way tell Mr. Henley I would 
not account with him, till he produced your account, but with no 
other intention than to make him hurry in furnishing me with it. 
I am sorry you are any ways disturbed ; I am sure I had no thought 
of it. From the enquiries I have made, I find there are two large 
tents and four small ones that were finished by my men. 
I am your most obedt Servt 
William Davies 
To 
Col. William Aylett 
Williamsburg, 



162 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



A GEOUP OF NORTHERN NECK FAMILIES. 

Daniel, Moxley, Gunnell, Bowling, Huest. 

Contributed by Fairfax Harrison. 



In July, 1744, the first election for a burgess was held in Fair- 
fax County. The General Assembly of 1742, having chartered 
the town of Eichmond, 1 had also carved a new frontier county out 
of Prince William, including the territory lying between the 
Potomac and the Blue Eidge above Bull Eun and north of Ashby's 
Gap, or what is now Fairfax and Loudoun. (Hening, v, 207.) 
During the interval between the prorogation of the Assembly in 
June, 1742, and its summons to meet again in September, 1744, 
the new county had been organized and several other events oc- 
curred which not only linked the old and the new in the colony, 
but affected the approaching election of a burgess for Fairfax. 
Col. William Fairfax, of Belvoir, who represented the community 
in the Assembly while it was part of Prince William, -was, in 
November, 1743, advanced to the Council in the place of old Com- 
missary Blair, then dead. During the previous summer Col. 
Fairfax's daughter Ann married young Capt. Lawrence Washing- 
ton, recently returned from service under Admiral Vernon in the 
Cartagena expedition, and now just established in the new house 
which he called, in honour of his chief, Mt. Vernon. As a con- 
sequence the Fairfax family interest was thrown to Capt. Wash- 
ington for the new seat in the Assembly, and, although the elec- 



iHening, v, 191. Of how little relative importance this act seemed 
at the time appears from a letter of Col. John Lewis of Warner Hall 
to Capt. Lawrence "Washington, dated June 28, 1742 (Conway Barons 
of the Potomack and Rappahannock, 162): "Our Assembly is now 
broke up, but has done nothing material besides continuing the To- 
bacco Law for four years longer." 



. 



A Gkoup of Northeen Neck Families 



163 



tion was vigorously contested by Capt. Lewis Elzey 2 and John 
Sturman, he was duly returned. 3 

Among the freeholders of Fairfax; who attended the poll for 
this election and supported their neighbor, Capt. "Washington, 
were William Bowling, Thomas Moxley, James Daniel, William 
Gunnell, William Gunnell, Jr., and Henry Gunnell. John Hurst 
voted for Elzey. 4 They were well-to-do, slave-holding "planters," 
as they described themselves on formal occasions. During the 
preceding peaceful twenty-five years, when, as Campbell testifies, 
Virginia "enjoyed a prosperity hitherto unknown/' they had mi- 
grated up the Potomac valley from the older Northern Neck settle- 
ments and were now seated on new lands upon the Fairfax County 
streams, Aceotink, Sugarland, Difficult Run and Goose Creek. 

In 1714 those five families, having only recently met, were 
not related, but one of the freeholders we have named was them 
about to marry the sister of another. One can picture the jovial 
congratulations on this alliance as they all drank Capt. Washing- 
ton's punch in honour of the election, but none of them could have 
imagined that, during the ensuing century and a quarter, their 
families were to intermarry again and again through six genera- 
tions, or as long as any of them lived neighbours, until finally three 
Daniel-Hurst marriages brought together all their blood lines in a 






2The Elzeys (who had crossed the Potomac out of Maryland) 
were consistent opponents of the Fairfax interest. It was another of 
them, William Elzey, who in 1749 vainly contested the Truro vestry 
election (Conway Barons, 266) and in 1755 ran for the Assembly 
against George "William Fairfax, when in the canvass William Payne 
had the honour of knocking down Col. George Washington. See the 
earliest version of the story in Parson Weems Life and Death Virtues 
and Exploits of General George Washington (Mt. Vernon Ed. 1918) 
242. 

sCol. John Colville was also elected for Fairfax at this poll, but 
the Assembly Journal does not show that he was seated, perhaps 
because he was a resident of Prince William. At all events we find 
him sitting for Prince William at the next session, in the place vacated 
by Col. William Fairfax. 

*See the poll list in Fairfax Liber A6, fo. 237, reproduced iu 
Boogher Gleanings of Virginia History (1903), 121. 



164 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

tight genealogical knot. This consequence of similar social status 
and propinquity in what was at first a sparsely settled neighbour- 
hood illustrates that ceutripedal family instinct which is a familiar 
and always interesting phenomenon of plantation life in Virginia 
in all classes of the community. At the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century most of these families migrated again to new lands 
in the west and are now once more as disparate as they were at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. Although it is believed 
that their names have now disappeared from Fairfax, their long 
sojourn in that community left an indelible impression on their 
descendants, wherever they may now be. 

Genealogically stated with the aid of the records they left in 
Fairfax, here is how this infusion came about: 

A. Daniel. 

I. William O'Daniel (1691?-ante 1757) of Accotink Run, 
Stafford (subsequently, 1731, Prince William, and, 1742, Fairfax) 
County, Virginia, makes his only appearance on the surviving 
records as grantee from the Proprietors of the Northern Neck, 
April 19, 1717 (warrant dated 1716) of 300 acres, on northerly 
side of main run of Accotink Creek adjoining Major Thomas 
Owsley and Capt. Daniel McCarty; and February 16, 1724, of 
400 acres on south side of the same Creek adjoining Col. George 
Mason (Northern Neck Grants, Va. Land Office, v. 159, and A. 
132). In the deed of 1717 he is described as "of the County 
of Stafford." 5 By deed dated August 16, 1757, (Fairfax Liber D, 
458) his son James O'Daniel of the Province of South Carolina 
conveys to the Rev. Charles Green, of Truro Parish, 100 acres 
left to him by the last will and testament of his father, William 
O'Daniel, being the lower part of a tract of land granted by the 
Proprietors of the Northern Neck to the said William O'Daniel 



sHe was probably a recent immigrant; although he was a con- 
temporary of the James Daniel, with whom Hayden (Virginia 
Genealogies, 294) begins the pedigree of the family of that name 
long seated in Middlesex and lower Stafford, his wearing of the Celtic 
O' probably determines that he was not of kin. 






A GEOUP OF NORTHERN NECK FAMILIES 



165 



by deed dated April 19, 1717, for 300 acres. It seems probable that 
this James O'Daniel is the James Daniel who voted at the Fairfax 
election in 1744, and who, before he migrated to South Carolina, 
married, October 19, 1755, Theodosian Congers, and in the follow- 
ing year had a son, "William Scott O'Daniel (Boogher Overwharton 
Parish Register (1899), 136). 

II. John O'Daniel (1718 ?-l 799) of Accotink Eun, Fairfax 
County, left a will, dated January 19, 1798, and proved January 
21, 1799 (Fairfax Liber G, 1794-8, fo. 423), by which he devises 
to his (second) wife, Nancy, "the tract wherein I now live on 
Accotink Eun," a reference which confirms the family tradition 
that he was a son of William and brother of James. 2 The will 
shows also that he had acquired several thousand acres of land in 
Kentucky which he divides among his children. He m., 1st, ante 
1749, Elizabeth dau. of Thomas Moxley (see B) and Ann Gunnell 
(see C), and, 2nd, Anne ("Nancy"), dau. of Gerard Bowling 
(see D) and Martha Moxley (see B), then widow of Feter Wise. 
His will names his children as of 1798, viz: sons William (who 
soon migrated to Kentucky) and Stephen; daughters Margaret 
Kelson, Elizabeth Talbert, Catherine Hurst (see E), Frances May 
(who followed her uncle to South Carolina and there married), 
Sarah and Levina Elizabeth; grandchildren James O'Daniel and 
Mary Brakeley, children of deceased son John, who, like the two 
youngest daughters then under age, was apparently a child of the 
second marriage. 

III. Stephen Daniel (1760F-1854) of Fairfax, m. Nancy 
Wise Batcliffe, dau. of Eichard Eatcliffe and Louisiana Bowling 
(see D). She was thus the niece of her father-in-law's second wife 
for whom she had been named. Stephen 3 died in his ninety-fourth 
year at his place called Airhill, near Centreville, in Fairfax, leav- 
ing a will dated March 13, 1849, and proved March 20, 1854, 
(Fairfax Liber X, 183) from which it appears that he had acquired 
a number of Fairfax plantations aggregating several thousand acres. 
He names grandchildren Eichard Nelson Daniel, John Hooe 
Daniel, and Nancy Wise Daniel, children of his deceased son 
Eichard John Daniel; daughter Jane Eearson Allison, and her 
husband James Gordon Allison; grandson Stephen Daniel Foote, 



166 Tyler's Quarteely Magazine 

only surviving child of late daughter Julia Ann Jackson; grand- 
daughters Mary Elizabeth, Anne Catherine and Frances Eugenia, 
children of late son William S. Daniel, and son Eobert Katcliffe 
Daniel. 

IV. William Stephen Daniel (1806-1849) of LaGrange, 
Jefferson County, m. his cousin Catherine Daniel Hurst (see E) 
and removed from Fairfax to her property in Jefferson. He died 
prematurely, but his widow survived until 1874 and witnessed the 
marriage of her eldest daughter to another John Hurst. 6 

B. Moxley. 

At the end of the seventeenth century there were Moxleys in 
Westmoreland. (Crozier Westmoreland County Eecords; Bishop 
Meade, ii, 435.) We find two brothers of them in Fairfax at 
the time of the organization of the County, viz. : 

I. Thomas Moxley (d. 1750), who voted at the Fairfax elec- 
tion in 1744, left a will dated January 6, 1748, and proved March 
27, 1750 (Fairfax Liber A, 319, 394 and 527), mentioning lands 
on Tuscarora Eun and "above Goose Creek" (now in Loudoun). 
He names sons James, John, Joseph, Thomas; daughters Eliza- 
beth Daniel (whose legacy was paid, on the settlement of the 
estate, to John O'Daniel, 2 see A), Jemima Winsor and Mary Ann; 
and his brother William Moxley. One of the witnesses to Thomas 
Moxley's will was Henry Gunnell (see C), which is evidence sup- 
porting the family tradition that Thomas Moxley's wife Ann was 
a sister of Henry Gunnell. 

I. William Moxley (d. 1752), who left a will dated March 
3rd and proved November 21st, 1752, naming wife Jane (appar- 
ently a second wife, as he mentions also "daughter-in-law Jane 
Watkins"), sons William, Daniel, Samuel, Thomas and Nathaniel 
(the last three minors committed to care of Gerard "Boling," 
(see D) and daughters "Sibbel" Burk (see E), Hannah Eeagan, 
Martha "Boling" (see D), Margaret, Anna Eials and Elizabeth 
Lowe. 

C. Gunnell. 
I. William Gunnell, describing himself as of Westmore- 



A Group of Northern [Neck Families 



167 



land County, was on January 15, 1729, granted by the Proprietors 
of the Northern jSTeek 1616 acres in Stafford (afterwards Fairfax) 
County, consisting of three tracts, viz. : 400 acres at lower end of 
Pinimetts Eun adjoining Dorrine and Hurle, 250 acres below 
the head of the same run adjoining Capt. Simon Pearson, and 
966 acres on lower side of Difficult Eun. {Northern Neck Land 
Grants, C, fo. 8 and 37). His progeny, alone of this group of 
families, developed the political and public office holding habit. 
He apparently left two sons, viz. : ' ' 

II. William Gunnell (d. 1794), who voted in Prince Wil- 
liam 1741 and in Fairfax 1744. His will, dated January 12, 
1784, was proved May 19, 1794, Fairfax Liber Fl, fo. 339), names 
sons, Allen, William (the William Gunnell, Jr., of the Fairfax 
Election of 1744), Henry (deceased) ; daughter Elizabeth Wren, 
and grandson (son of William) Presley Gunnell. Henry Gunnell 
was a witness. 

II. Henry Gunnell (d. 1792), who was a voter at the Prince 
William election 1741 and in Fairfax 1744, an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the vestry of Truro Parish in 1749 (Conway Barons, 
265) and a member of the Fairfax Committee of Safety in 1774 
(Eowland George Mason, i, 427). His will, dated January 21 
and proved February 2t), 1792 (Fairfax Liber Fl, fo. 61), names 
his wife Catherine; sons John, Eobert, Thomas, James, William 
and Henry; daughters Anne Brent, Mary (afterwards m. James 
Hurst, see E) and Catherine (afterwards m. Coffer). William 
Gunnell, Jr., (doubtless his nephew) was a witness. The eldest 
son was 

III. John Gunnell (d. 1800), whose will, dated July 5th 
and proved July 21st, 1800 (Fairfax Liber H, fo. 133), shows that 
he died s. p., having acquired lands in Boilings Pre-emption in 
Kentucky. He names his brothers and sisters Thomas, William, 
James, Henry, Eobert, Anne Brent, Mary Hurst, wife of James 
Hurst (see E) and Catherine Coffer, cousin William Gunnell and 
his son William, and nephew, Henry, son of Thomas Gunnell. This 
John Gunnell, more fortunate in his candidacy than his father, 
was a member of the vestry of Truro Parish in 1774 (Bishop 
Meade, ii, 226). His brother William was a member of the House 



168 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



of Delegates for Loudoun 1789-90. (Swem and Williams Register, 
31, 33.) 

Other members of this family later married daughters of James 
Hurst 8 (see E) and of Louisiana Bowling* (see D). 

D. Bowling. 

The first of this name 6 on the Virginia records is William 
Bowling, who on April 14, 1668, patented 887 acres in Abingdon 
Parish, Gloucester, adjoining Col. Augustine Warner. (Va. Land 
Register, vi, 131.) Some of his family seem to have made their 
way into Maryland, as not a few Gloucester people did, for be- 
tween 1684 and 1713 there were several John, James and Thomas 
Bowlings whose inventories are recorded in Calvert, St. Mary's and 
Charles Counties, Maryland. Those of them who remained in Vir- 
ginia pushed up into the Northern Neck. Thus we find a William 
Bowling in the courts of Bichmond County in 1701, and in 1722 
a Bobert Bowling who deposes in Stafford Court that he was then 
aged 50. We begin to identify them with 

I. George Bowling, who died in Prince William in 1736, and 
apparently left three sons, viz. : 

II. William Bowling (d. ante 1754), who gave bond April 
21, 1736, in Prince William Court for the administration of the 
estate of George Bowling, deceased, and voted at the Fairfax elec- 
tion in 1744. He was dead before 1754, when his wife, Penelope 
Bowling, of Truro Parish, describes herself as widow in a deed to 
her son William (Fairfax Liber C, fo. 798). Perhaps the John 
Bowling whose inventory was filed in 1778 (Fairfax Liber Dl, fo. 
143) was another son of this William 2 and Penelope. 



6The later descendants of these Bowlings maintain a persistent 
tradition that they are "descended from Pocahontas." Interpreted In 
the light of the recent authorities on the Boiling family (Robertson 
Descendants of Pocahontas, 1887, and Stanard in Va. Mag., xxil and 
xxiii) this perhaps means that they were of the same family as the 
Immigrant Col. Robert Boiling of "Kippax." The different spelling of 
the name is no bar to this, but it is clear that they were not descended 
from Col. Robert Boiling himself, either his first (Rolfe) or his second 
(Stith) marriage: their ancestor was a contemporary of Col. Robert. 






A Geo up of N/oktheen- Neck Families 169 

II. Bobert Bowling (d. 1746) left a will dated March 31st 
and proved September 17, 1746 (Fairfax Liber A, fo. 185), nam- 
ing his wife Mary, daughters Elizabeth and Martha, and "'cozens" 
Simon and Eobert: names which reappear among the children of 
Gerard Bowling. 3 

II. Joseph Bowling (d. 1753), whose estate was administered 
in 1753 (Fairfax Liber B, fo. 128, 130) by the Gerard Bowling 
who was probably his son, viz. : 

III. Gerard Bowling (1730P-1780), m. ante 1752, Martha, 
dau. of William Moxley (see B), and left a will dated December 
29, 1778, and proved February 21, 1780 (Fairfax Liber Dl, fo. 
159), naming children Gerard, Joseph, Simon, Samuel, Bobert, 
Anne Wise, wife of Peter Wise, Louisiana Batcliffe, wife of Rich- 
ard Batcliffe, and Jean. He was a merchant as well as a planter 
and left an estate in personal property appraised at £32,768.0.0 
"in old money with an allowance of 40 for 1." 

IV. Among the children of Gerard Bowling 2 we> find a record of 
the administration of the estate of Gerard, Jr., in 1781, the will 
of Simon 1786 and that of Samuel 1800 (Fairfax Liber El, fo. 
137), from which it appears that in 1800 Bobert was the sole sur- 
viving son. He may have migrated to the West, for the tradition 
of this family was carried on in Fairfax by the daughter. 

Louisiana Bowling (d. post 1825), who m. Bichard Batcliffe 
(1750P-1825). His provenance is not established, but he was un- 
doubtedly of the numerous family of the name to be met with in 
the eighteenth century among the planters in York County and 
earlier on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The others of his name 
and generation in the Fairfax records are a Barbara Batcliffe 
(will 1796), John Batcliffe (adm. 1797) and Eobert Batcliffe, 
who in 1801 was deputy surveyor of the county under Col. William 
Payne. Eichard Batcliffe was associated with and succeeded to the 
mercantile business of his father-in-law Gerard Bowling. He left 
a will dated March 29, 1815, and proved October 17, 1825, naming 
his wife "Lucian" ; sons Bobert, Charles, John and Samuel ; daugh- 
ters Penelope Jackson (wife of Spencer Jackson), Nancy W. 
Daniel (see A), Jane Moss (wife of Thomas Moss), Patsey 
Batcliffe (afterwards m. Bichard Coleman), "Lucian" Batcliffe 



170 



Tyeer's Quarterly Magazine 



(afterwards m. George W. Gunnell; see C) ; grandsons Francis J. 
Rateliffe, Eichard John Daniel, Charles Jackson, John Moss, 
Kobert Rateliffe, and Richard Rateliffe. 



E. Hurst. 

I. John Huest (d. 1747), undoubtedly a representative of the 
family of that name which is found also in Wicomico Parish in 
Northumberland (Bishop Meade, ii, 132), secured in 1719 from 
the Proprietors of the Northern Neck a grant of 312 acres on the 
head branches of Accotink Run adjoining lands of Thomas Nor- 
man, Robert Carter, Esq., and Capt. Edward Mountjoy (Northern 
Neck Land Grants, v. 200), and there he died in 1747. (Over- 
wharton Parish Register.) Doubtless he was the voter at the Fair- 
fax election of 1744, but it may have been his son. He was, ap- 
parently, the father of the Thomas and James Hurst who from 
1740 to 1757 register their marriages and the births of their chi 1 - 
dren in Overwharton Parish, and, by family tradition, certainly 
the father of 

II. John Huest (d. 1789) of Accotink, who first appears in 
the records in 1747 as the lessee from Daniel McCarty of lands on 
Sugarland Run, the lease naming also his (first) wife Elizabeth 
and son James (born 1744). This John 2 lived out a long life, pros- 
pering steadily and dying in 1789. His will, dated March 10, 1787, 
and proved December 21, 1789 (Fairfax Liber El, fo. 349), 
devises various tracts of land then in his possession in Fairfax and 
Loudoun, and a warrant for 1000 acres "to be hereafter laid in some 
of the back countries." He names his (second) wife Sibyl (proba- 
bly Silbyl Moxley, called Burk in the will of William Moxley. See 
B), his sons James and William, and daughters Jane Williams, 
Susanna Fenley, Elizabeth Thrift, Sarah Dulin, Bathsheba Fallin, 
and a granddaughter Elizabeth White, wife of James Marshall. 
On the settlement of the estate appeared another daughter Ann 
Floyd. The eldest son 

III. James Huest (1744-1829) m. Mary, dau. of Henry 
Gunnell (see C), and, locating the lands in the "back country" 
to which his father's warrant entitled him, removed from Fairfax 



A Group of Northern Neck Families 171 

to that part of Berkeley County which, in 1801 became Jefferson. 
He is buried at "Hurston," where a tombstone preserves his dates. 
Like his father, he had a large family. The younger children were 
Henry Gunnell and Peter, both of whom migrated to Kentucky 
and left issue, James, William, Catherine, Sally, who m. Thomas 
Campbell, Molly, who m. a Gunnell (see C), Hannah, Amelia, who 
m. Stanhope and lived in Kentucky, and Betty, who m. Moore 
of Jefferson. The oldest son 

IV. John - Hurst (1766-1850) married Catherine Daniel (see 
A) and lived out his long life in Jefferson, where he became an 
extensive landholder, including "Hurston" and "La Grange." He 
also is buried at "Hurston," where a tombstone preserves his dates. 
He left two children, 

V. "William Hurst, of "Hurston," who m. a Shirley, and 
Catherine Daniel Hurst, of "La Grange," who m. William 
Stephen Daniel (see A). Their children, 

VI. John Hurst and Mary Elizabeth Daniel married in 
1866 and accomplished, in their children, the last recorded im- 
plication of the blood lines of this group of families. 

They were henceforth once more as widely scattered as they 
had been at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 



172 



Tyeeb's Quarterly Magazine 



EECOEDS OF THE GODDIN FAMILY. 
Communicated by John H. Worsham, Eichmond, Va. 

These entries were taken from an old Bible of Wellington 
Goddin, of Eichmond, Va., who died in 1886. 

The Bible is now the property of his son, Harvie D. Goddin, 
of Eichmond. 

Bieths. 

John Goddin, son of John & Priscilla Goddin born 19th Feb- 
ruary, 1779. 

Eoxana Goddin, daughter of Samuel & Mary Ford born 25th 
May 1785. 

Albert Goddin, son of John & Eoxana Goddin born 6th Sep- 
tember 1805. 

Gustavus Goddin, son of John & Eoxana Goddin born 24th 
June 1808. 

Adolphus Goddin, son of John & Eoxana Goddin born 10th 
October 1810. 

Clarke E. Goddin, daughter of John & Eoxana Goddin born 
26th February, 1813. 

Wellington Goddin, son of John & Eoxana Goddin born 27th 
August, 1815. 

Loretto Goddin, daughter of John & Eoxana Goddin born 
13th August, 1818. 

Eliza Povall Goddin daughter of Fred. A. & Maria S. Winston, 
born 22d September, 1817. 

Ella Virginia, daughter of Wellington & Eliza P. Goddin, born 
4th October, 1835. 

Charlotte Indiana, daughter of Wellington & Eliza P. Goddin, 
born 16th July 1838. 

John Joseph Tate, son of Wellington & Eliza P. Goddin born 
24th January 1845. 



E.ECOEDS OF THE GODDIN FaMILY 



173 



Harvie Dill, son of Wellington & Eliza P. Goddin born 23d 
September 1850. 

Cbarles Winston, son of Wellington & Eliza P. Goddin born 
29tb October 1853. 

Marriages. 

John Goddin, son of John & Priscilla Goddin, intermarried 
with Eoxana Ford, daughter of Samuel & Mary Ford, 5th Jan- 
uary, 1804. 

Wellington Goddin, son of John & Eoxana Goddin, intermarried 
with Eliza Povall Winston, daughter of Frederick A. & Maria 
S. Winston, 5th December, 1833. 

Alexander H. Sands, son of Thomas Sands, intermarried with 
Ella Virginia Goddin, daughter of Wellington & Eliza P. Goddin 
8th May, 1851. 

Joshua C. Hallowell, intermarried with India C. Goddin 
daughter of Wellington & Eliza P. Goddin, 20th December, 1854. 

John T. Goddin intermarried with Mary E. daughter of John 
& Annie Darracott, 15th November 1871. 

Charles W. Goddin, intermarried with Sue F. daughter of 
George K. & Susan F. Crutehfield, 11th July, 1876. 

Harvie D. Goddin intermarried with Myrtle Taliaferro, daugh- 
ter of Thomas J. & Emuella Taliaferro 7th June, 1893. 

Deaths. 

Gustavus Goddin, son of John & Eoxana Goddin died 5th De- 
cember 1811, aged three years, five months and eleven days. 

Albert Goddin, son of John & Eoxana Goddin died 18th Octo- 
ber, 1822, aged seventeen years & forty three days. 

Eichard Grimes Goddin son of John & Ann C. Goddin died 
22d June 1849, aged 39 years & four months. 

John Goddin, son of John & Priscilla Goddin, died 22d Feb- 
ruary 1864, aged 85 years and three days. 

Eoxana Goddin, daughter of Saml & Mary Ford died 16th June 
1865, aged 80 years & 22 days. 

Wellington Goddin, son of John & Eoxana Goddin died 18th 
December (1886). 

Eliza Povall Goddin wife of Wellington Goddin died 
(October, 1900). 



174 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



PEESBYTEEIAN PEEIODICALS OF RICHMOND, 1815-1860. 
Communicated by A. J. Morbison. 



John Holt Eice established at Eichmond in 1815 a weekly 
paper called The Christian Monitor.. This paper, eight pages 
octavo, began publishing July 8th, 1815. During the first year it 
was printed by Arthur G. Booker & Co. (four doors below the 
Bell Tavern) ; then by Duval & Burke; then by Philip Du-Val; 
and then for a few weks by Eitchie, Trueheart & Du-Val. The 
last number of the first volume appeared June 29, 1816. The 
second volume, beginning September 14th, 1816, ran through 
August 30th, 1817, as a bi-weekly of sixteen pages, $2' in advance, 
or $3 deferred. Throughout the second volume the printer was 
John Warrock. Dr. Eice, the editor, remarked in his prospectus 
for volume II, that he should have no objection "sometimes to 
relax the gravity of the Monitor and join in a laugh with any 
whose object it is to laugh vice and folly out of countenance. 
Ridentem dicere verum quid vetat?" 

August, 1817, Dr. Eice announced in his Monitor that he would 
discontinue that paper, a number of gentleman having laid a plan 
for the publication of a monthly magazine, primarily of a religious 
character but to admit articles of a general nature, essays on edu- 
cation and manners, literary and scientific intelligence &c. This 
magazine, the Literary and Evangelical Magazine, edited by Dr. 
Eice, appeared January, 1818, and was published every month 
thereafter, through December, 1828, eleven volumes octavo, a set 
of books indispensable in any Virginia public library.* The 
printers were Pollard and Goddard, then Nathan Pollard (at the 
Franklin Press, which Dr. Eice had founded), then Pollard and 
Converse, and then Amasa Converse. At the commencement of 



*See, article on this magazine in William and Maey College 
Qtjabtekly, Vol. XIX, 266-271. 



Presbyterian Periodicals of Richmond., 1815-1860. 175 



the eighth volume, Pollard and Goddard advertised on the back 
cover their belief "that no Eeligious or Literary Magazine is pub- 
lished in any of the States South or West of Virginia: while in 
the opposite direction there arc several of a highly respectable char- 
acter. To supply in some degree this deficiency, as well as that 
which existed in this State, was the original design of the Literary 
& Evangelical Magazine. This object will still be prosecuted by 
adapting its materials chiefly to the state of things in the South 
and West, without however impairing its character for general 
usefulness." 

During the year 1822, as early as the month of October, Dr. 
Eice again began turning out a weekly paper, which he called The 
Family Visitor. This paper is still in existence, published at 
Louisville, Kentucky, as the Christian Observer. The Family 
Visitor was bought from Dr. Eice before 1827 by Nathan Pol- 
lard. Early in 1827 Mr. Pollard bought the good will of The 
North Carolina Telegraph (published during 1826 at Eayetteville 
by Eobert H. Morrison), and consolidating the Telegraph with 
the Visitor, called the paper after Jan., 1827, The Visitor and 
Telegraph. Mr. Pollard formed a partnership with Amasa Con- 
verse, which lasted until October, 1828, when there was a dissolu- 
tion; Mr. Converse taking over the periodicals (the magazine and 
the weekly), and Mr. Pollard continuing his book and job work 
at the Franklin Press. 

After Dec, 1828, Mr. Converse dropped the Literary and 
Evangelical Magazine, but kept on with his weekly Visitor and 
Telegraph. Before 1838 Dr. Converse changed the name of this 
paper to Southern Religious Telegraph. Eemoving to Philadel- 
phia in 1839 he changed the name again to Christian Observer. 
Dr. Converse and his sons brought the Observer back to Eichmond 
in 1861. Then in 1869 the paper was taken to Louisville, where 
it has remained. 

In 1837 there was a schism in the Presbyterian Church of 
the United States. Dr. Converse of the Eichmond Eeligious Tele- 
graph was of the New School Party. He removed to Philadelphia. 
During 1837 William S. Plumer, of the Old School party, estab- 
lished at Eichmond an organ of his party called the Watchman 



176 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



of the South. Dr. Plumer was editor of this paper until 1845. 
Benjamin Gildersleeve (father of Professor Basil Gildersleeve) 
had been in charge of a paper at Charleston, South Carolina, since 
1826 — The Christian Oserver. In 1845, Dr. Gildersleeve effect- 
ing a consolidation with the Watchman of the South, came to 
Bichmond and published there until 1856 The Watchman and 
Observer. Dr. T. V. Moore, Dr. Moses D. Hoge, and Dr. Gilder- 
sleeve undertook in 1856 the Central Presbyterian, which ran to 
1860, under that management. 

The writer has never seen a copy of the Family Visitor or of 
the Visitor and Telegraph. Now and then a copy of the Watch- 
man of the South or of the Watchman and Observer turns up or 
is turned up. It is certain that for local biography alone, a file 
.of these papers would be very valuable. It is doubtful if any file 
tof these Bichmond papers can possibly be had. 



Some Descendants of Richard Wright 177 



SOME DESCENDANTS OF EICHAED WEIGHT, GENTLE- 
MAN, OF LONDON, ENGLAND, AND NORTHUM- 
BERLAND, VIRGINIA, 1655. 

By Charles Arthur Hoppin', of Worcester, Massachusetts, and 
Connaught Club, London, W., England. 

(Continued from October Number.) 

Thus Francis* Wright forced his brother John* to leave the 
family home; but Francis lived for only fourteen months after 
the sale. [Frince William county will book C, page 376.] That 
John 4 Wright, though powerless in the face of the severe appli- 
cation of the law of primo-geniture to prevent the sale of that 
fine estate, did not relish the proceeding is evident from subsequent 
records. This is shown in his attitude towards the wife and chil- 
dren of his deceased brother Francis in appointing Thomas Strib- 
ling guardian of the children while William Stribling was allowed 
to be overseer of the estate, instead of showing a more brotherly 
interest by taking charge of the children and estate himself, such 
as, under agreeable circumstances, would be naturally expected. 
[Prince William county will book C, page 437.] Confirmation 
of the displeasure of John 4 Wright at his brother Francis' sale of 
the family home is also seen in the fact that Henry Lee, Gent., 
in buying back the property at a low price from Francis was not 
satisfied to recover a legal title to the property upon the customary 
basis of a warranty deed; but as a precaution against any claim 
that might arise from the brother John 4 against Francis, 4 or the 
estate of their father, Lee required Francis 4 Wright to enter a bond 
of £520, in addition to the deed, to protect him, the said Lee, 
against John 4 or any other person at any and all times thereafter. 
[Bond recorded in full at page 339, deed book E, at Manassas, 
Prince William county.] Shortly before the deed and bond to Lee 
were signed John 4 Wright, Gent., with one-third of his late father's 
estate sold and, doubtless, aware that his brother Francis 4 was 
negotiating to sell the remaining two-thirds to Lee, prepared for 



178 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

eventualities by purchasing a home of his own by a deed dated 
23 March, 1740-41, from "Jeremiah Darnall of ye Parish of Ham- 
ilton & County of Prince William, Planter, & Catherine his wife 
to John Wright of the aforementioned Parish & Coun- 
ty, Gent., 236 acres scituate in ye Parish of Hamilton & County of 
Prince William being part of a greater tract taken up by Waugh 
Darnall, father to ye said Jeremiah," etc. [Prince William county 
deed book E, page 170.] It is believed that John 3 Wright, Gent., 
married a daughter of Waugh Darnall, but no proof of it has been 
found. Before quoting further records of John* Wright, Gent., 
it should be stated that his elder brother Francis* died, aged about 
thirty-two years, between the date of his will, 29 March, 1742, and 
its proving on 27 September following, his male line becoming ex- 
tinct with his death. [Prince William county will book C, page 
376.] The widow Ann and the testator's only children, three 
daughters, did not permanently remain in the county. She dis- 
appears from the records and either died or married again, as is 
shown by the fact that John* Wright, Gent., uncle to the three 
daughters, received and approved, on August 25, 1752, the account 
of their estate as exhibited by "Thomas Stribling Gent., Guardian 
of the orphans of Francis Wright, Dec d ." [Prince William court 
record book for 1752, page 65.] And on the 26 November, 1754, 
their said uncle appointed a new guardian for each of the three 
daughters, as is evidenced by this entry on page 177 of the Prince 
William county court record book for 1754, session of November 

26 : "Present, John Wright, Gent. Justice, John 

Lindsay Michael Pike and Thos. Speaks of the County of Fredrick 
are appointed to settle the Estate of the Orphans of Francis 
Wright, deceased between Thos. Stribling gent, their former 
guardian and their several Guardians now appointed." This record 
suggests that the daughters removed about that date to Frederick 
county, Virginia; confirmed by the will of Taliaferro Stribling of 
Frederick county, Virginia, 1774, and by a deed there of 1771, in 
which are named his wife Elizabeth, who is shown on page 36 of 
"Some Virginia Families," by the late Hugh M. Mcllhany, Jr., 
M. A., Ph. D., of the University of Virginia, to have been Eliza- 
beth, one of the three daughters of the aforesaid Francis* Wright 



Some Descendants of Richaed Wright 



179 



who died in 1742 in Prince William county, Virginia, as a "son 
of John "Wright of that county." On November 27, 1754, John 4 
Wright, Gent., as a justice, also confirmed the choice of his de- 
ceased brother Francis* daughter, Dorothy Wright, of Francis 
Ash for her guardian [court record 1754, page 183]. 

John 4 Weight (John 3, Francis 2, Eichard 1), "Gent.," 
"Churchwarden," "Captain," "Sheriff' and "Justice" of Prince 
William county, and later "Justice" of Fauquier county, was 
horn in Cople parish, Westmoreland county, Virginia, about 1712, 
his father having married his mother Dorothy between 1707 and 
1710. He was the first male member in America of his family to 
live beyond middle age; he died shortly before February 27, 1792, 
leaving a will dated June 1, 1785. The records now in hand of 
his long life would suffice to fill an issue of this magazine. A 
few brief items will serve the purpose of this brief outline of the 
members of this Wright family of gentlemen and justices. He 
repeated in a more extended way the professional careers of his 
grandfather and father, far exceeding the latter in importance as 
a public man. He was the seventh judge, the sixth military of- 
ficer, the second sheriff and the seventh "gentleman," successively, 
in the American history of his ancestry. His great-great-grand- 
father was Lt. Col. Nathaniel Pope, gentleman and justice; his 
other great-great-grandfather was Col. John Mottrom, gentleman, 
justice and burgess; his great-grandfathers were Col. John Wash- 
ington, gentleman, justice and burgess, and Capt. Eichard Wright, 
gentleman and justice ; his grandfather was Major Francis Wright, 
gentleman, justice and sheriff, while his father, John Wright, 
Gent., was the sixth justice. John 4 Wright quite fairly main- 
tained the social and official position of the family. So consistent 
was the continuous prominence of this family in the affairs of 
the counties in which the members lived that were there no other 
evidences of their relationship that fact of their vocation would 
give cause for a belief in the pedigree. At no time prior to the 
War of the Bevolution is any man surnamed Wright, other than 
of this particular family, found recorded in Westmoreland, Prince 
William and Fauquier counties, in any public position higher than 
a warden or surveyor of highways. John* Wright, Gent., and his 



180 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



wife Dorothy and family were the first Wrights to settle in Prince 
William county; for years they remained the only persons of that 
name therein; while his sons Francis 4 and John 4 remained until 
their deaths the only contemporary persons named Francis and 
John Wright in the entire area of either of the counties of Prince 
William and Fauquier, whilst they lived therein, save the latter's 
son John, who late in 1774 removed to Surry county, North Caro- 
lina. (There was a John Lee Wright, son of Joseph Lee Wright 
[will proved 27 March, 1760, Fauquier will book No. 1, page 16], 
who both came into Fauquier county, and the former had a son 
John Lee Wright, Jr., who married in Fauquier county, 5 De- 
cember, 1767, Elizabeth Coppage [Fauquier county marriage li- 
cense bonds ] and died in Prince William county in 1815 [will 
book K, page 451] (his widow dying in 1839 — see Prince William 
county will book 0, page 428) ; but, though a county clerk or an- 
other writer of a record would occasionally omit the "Lee" in 
entering the name of the said Joseph and John, no confusion of 
identities arises when the records are properly examined. This 
Joseph Lee Wright and son John Lee Wright came to Fauquier 
county from the border of Eichmond and Westmoreland counties 
where they are both of record [Westmoreland court "Orders &c. 
1705 to 1721," pages 149 dorso, 158 dorso; court "Order Book 
1739-1743," page 185 — John Lee Wright convicted of assault and 
battery — also pages 12 and 202]. So clear, therefore, become the 
distinctions as to the parentage of the brothers Francis 4 and John 4 
and the identity of all of the latter's children (hereinafter named) 
that further space need not be consumed for additional technical 
specifications upon the said Francis and John, beyond stating that 
the said John now appears recorded as a first churchwarden of 
Hamilton parish, March 24, 1746 [Prince William county deed 
book I, page 54], having been elected some time previously; and 
that he was commissioned "His Majesty's Justice" of the county 
of Prince William prior to May 23, 1743 [Prince William county 
will book C, page 411] ; he was commissioned sheriff of the same 
county July 4, 1751, by "Lewis Burwell Esq. President of his 
Majesties Council and Commander in chief of the Colony and Do- 
minion Virginia" [Prince William county deed book for 1751, 






Some Descendants of Bichakd Weight 181 

pages 182, 183] ; he was commissioned a first justice of the new 
county of Fauquier 24 May, 1759. [Fauquier court record book 
1759, page 1.] No attempt to appreciate the man, or any of his 
relatives mentioned herein, or to recite more than a few out of 
scores of items of records in hand is possible within the limits of 
this much condensed account; all of that awaits publication in 
book form. He is usually specified in the records as John Wright, 
"Gent.," and "Sr."; and his son John 5 is usually recorded as "Jr." 
For example, see the original MS. list of tithables, 1759, in county 
clerk's office, Warrenton, Virginia ; also, Fauquier court minute 
book for 1762, page 265. In the list for 1778 the father is named, 
but John 5 , Jr., is absent, having gone to North Carolina in 1774. 
Proof absolute of parentage is found in the will of John' 4 "Wright, 
Sr., dated June 1, 1785 [original will filed in the 1792 bundle at 
Fauquier county clerk's office], in which he states: "I give to my 
son William Wright and my Son John Wright twenty shillings 
two Sons, William and John Wright, no more is that I gave them 
both land which they Sold." The gift of land to John 5 , Jr., con- 
sisted in the father giving his note for i48, 9 s , 9 d , to Minor Winn, 
on 9 November, 1771, as in part payment for the land which the 
said Winn deeded to John the son. The original note bearing the 
signature of the father (the same signature as appears on his 1785 
will and also in the front of the 1749 Dettingen vestry book at 
Seminary Virginia) is among filed court papers at Warrenton. 
The transaction was completed, upon the payment by John, Jr., 
of the balance of the purchase money (in all £94), by the deed 
from Winn, 27 April, 1772. [Fauquier deed book No. 5, page 21.] 
On September 21, 1774, "John Wright Jun r & Ann his wife" for 
£200 deeded to Peter Grant "the land which John Wright Jun r 
purchased of Minor Winn." [Fauquier deed book No. 6, page 52, 
etc.] In the July term of Fauquier county court, 1780, after 
John, Jr., had removed to North Carolina, Minor Winn sued the 
aged John Wright (Sr.) for some portion of the amount of the 
said note, but the court record reads [page 470], "This suit abates 
by death of the Pit." John* Wright, Sr., as evidenced by his will, 
was not pleased that two of his three sons sold the land which he 



182 Tyleb's Quaktebey "Magazine 

had enabled them to possess. On April 25, 1764, "John Wright 
Jun r & Ann his wife" sold to his father, "John Wright, Gent.," 
116 acres in Hamilton parish. [Fauquier deed book No. 2, page 
116.] The latter's will, dated June 1, 1785, names in addition to 
the son John as aforesaid : 

(1) — his (the testator's) daughter Eosamond Wright, unmar- 
ried; her will proved 23 September, 1811 [original will 
in the 1811 bundle county clerk's office at Warrenton]. 
(2) — his daughter Mary, unmarried; her will proved 2'5 
March, 1822 [original will in 1822 bundle county 
clerk's office at Warrenton]. 
(3) — his daughter Elizabeth Parlour — £15. "in case she 

should ever apply." 
(4) — his wife Elizabeth. 

(5) — his son James Wright, executor, who married Mary 
Duncan, December 8, 1763 [Fauquier marriage license 
bonds] ; churchwarden, innkeeper, who died leaving one 
daughter Betsey (Elizabeth) Wright [her will proved 
and recorded at Warrenton in 1834] ; she married John 
James, June 27, 1783. [Fauquier marriage license 
bonds.] His will was proved at Warrenton 26 April, 
1802. 
(6) — his son William Wright whose will, proved at Warren- 
ton, April 28, 1806 [original will filed in the 1806 
bundle in Fauquier county clerk's office], names wife 
Elizabeth, son William Wright, Jr., and refers to his 
other children without naming them; but on page 372 
of Fauquier will book No. 8 is the entry of the division 
of the estate showing, to wit: "£974:18 :4% — the sum 
to be divided between the fourteen children of the said 
Wm. Wright which will make each legatees part £69-12- 
8 3 4" Lack of space forbids the present citation of 
evidence upon these fourteen children, some of whom 
may be recognized in the following: Sarah, who had 
married the administrator of William Wright's estate, 
John Evans; Jane, who married Lain Smith; Mary, 



Some Descendants of "Rto har d "Weight 183 

who married Joshua Lemert; David, who married Nancy 
Martin; Elijah, who married Polly Brannin; Joshua, 
who married Susan Carroll; Joseph, who married Eliza- 
beth McCoy; Edward, who married Elizabeth Kay. 
[These marriages are recorded at Warrenton, Virginia.] 
William Wright, the said testator of 1805, served in 
Capt. Eustace's company, second Virginia regiment, in 
the War of the Kevolution, as per a certificate recorded 
on page 442 of Eauquier court record book for March 
term, 1780. Circumspection must be observed in study- 
ing the numerous records of this William Wright, who 
had a stormy career as a litigant, lest he be confounded 
with the son William of a Ei chard Wright* (wife Mary 
Ann), who died in Prince William county, 1767, this 
son William being the grantor of 1787 of lands in 
Prince William county to sons Zealy and John. 
John Wright, Jun 1 , "Gent," "Surveyor," "Captain," was 
doubtless born upon his grandfather's thousand-acre estate between 
Powell's Eun and Neapsco creek, soon after 1730 and before the 
death of his grandfather, John 3 Wright, Gent., who had pur- 
chased that estate of Henry Lee, Gent., in 1723. After its sale 
by his uncle Erancis, in 1741, he, John 5 , must have lived with his 
father upon the latter's new estate about a mile northwest of the 
present Midland railway station and so near to the early home on 
Licking Eun of John Marshall, later chief justice of the United 
States, that these two youths could scarcely have avoided being 
intimates. He married, in 1753, Ann daughter of Jonas, Sr., and 



* This Richard Wright was brother of "William Wright, of Fred- 
ericksburg, Virginia, whose death is recorded in the Fredericksburg 
Gazette of October 15, 1789, viz.: "Died Monday last Mr Wm Wright, 
aged 89"; both were the orphaned sons of Richard Wright, who died, 
in 1700, in the house of Capt. Richard Fossaker in Stafford county, 
leaving a nuncupative will, in which Dade Massey deposes that Rich- 
ard Wright "ye 10th day of Octor lay upon his death Bed & 

to ye best of his knowledge he heard him say that he will give his 
son William Wright to Mary Ellis & his son Richd Wright to Gilbert 
Alsop," etc. [Stafford county will book Z, page 57.] 



184. Tylek's Qitabtebey Magazine 

Honor Williams. The marriage and parentage is proved by the 
plaintiffs filed "Bill of Complaint" by John Wright, Jr., in his 
suit in chancery against his mother-in-law, Honor Williams, et al, 
for the fulfillment by her of the marrage stipulation of a gift to 
him of some of her personal property, her husband Jonas having 
died, testate, in 1749. [Fauquier county court minute book, volume 
2, page 9, etc., session of March 24, 1763]. This John 5 Wright, 
Jr., Gent., was commissioned as Captain of the Fauquier Militia 
and on July 29, 1763, "took the usual Oaths to his Majesties Per- 
son & Government and subscribed the Teste" before the justices 
of the county. [Fauquier court minute book, volume 2, page 152.] 
On April 17, 1771, this John 5 Wright, Jr., Gent., was commissioned 
by "the President and Masters of the College of William and 
Mary" as "Surveyor of the County of Fauquier." [Fauquier deed 
book No. 4, page 165.] 

The removal of Capt. John 5 Wright, Jun r ., Gent, from Fau- 
quier county to Buck Shoal township, Surry (now Yadkin) county, 
North Carolina, is proven by various indications, among which are : 

(1) He disappears completely from Fauquier records (except 
in his father's will) immediately after his sale to Peter 
Grant of the last of his property in Fauquier county, 21 
September, 1774, and his wife Ann's waiver of dower 
rights therein, October 10, and his acknowledgment of 
the deed in court on October 24 following. 

(2) He first appears of record in Surry county, North Caro- 
lina, in February, 1775, as defendant in an action at law 
brought by Joseph Crouch, in which John 5 Wright's son- 
in-law, Samuel Arnold, became one of the "sureties" 
named on the defendant's bond. [Surry county, North 
Carolina, filerl court papers for February term, 1775; 
also, in "A Civil Docket for the County of Surry," book 
1 (unpaged), "New Actions to Feb. Term 1775."] 

(3) In his will [recorded in office of clerk of the court at 
Dob?on. North Carolina!, proved at the Mav term of 
court, 1790, of Surry county, North Carolina, he be- 
queaths to "my son Thomas Wright" of said county. This 



Some Descendants of Richard Weight 185 

son's deposition proving his own services in detail in 
the War of the Kevolution and his right to a pension, 
dated 12 February, 1833, made before the justices of the 
court of Surry county, North Carolina, states, "I was born 
i in Faquier County State of Virginia on the 18th day of 

Feby 1758," and filed with this affidavit now in the 
United States Pension Office is the original leaf of his 
family Bible bearing records of births, marriages and 
deaths, among which is the entry, "Father Departed this 
Life October 30, 1789." [See Pension Papers, file No. 
11,899, at United States Pension Office.] 
(4) In his said will John 5 "Wright, Gent, and surveyor, di- 
rects that his "surveyor Instruments be sold to buy a 
horse"; also, he names therein "my loving wife Ann" 
(Williams) and their sons "Williams" Wright and William 
Wright" and daughter "Lezebeth Arnold" and her hus- 
band "Saml Arnold," who were married in Fauquier 
county, "Virginia, September 5, 1771, before her parents 
removed to North Carolina. [See record of their mar- 
riage license bond in county clerk's office, Warrenton, 
Virginia.] This Elizabeth was the eldest daughter and 
probably named for her grandmother Elizabeth Wright. 
This will of Capt, John 5 Wright, Gent., also names his eighteen 
children, all by wife Ann (Williams) Wright. Thus he and his 
brother William Wright, who died in Fauquier county, Virginia, 
in 1805, left between them thirty-two children. John's children 
named in the will are Lezebeth Arnold, Nancy Elliott, Agatha Els- 
bury, Amelia Martain, Lucretia Petty, Frances Eeiley, Thomas, 
Daniel, Sally, William, James, Williams, Posey, Patsy, Sukky, 
Peggey, Polley and John, Jr. 

Agatha 6 Weight, the fourth-named child, was born in Fau- 
quier county, Virginia, about 1756. She married Isaac Elsberry, 
son of John Elsberry, who resided upon an estate in Buck Shoal 
township, Surry (now Yadkin) county, North Carolina, soon after 
her arrival there from Fauquier county, Virginia, as her first son 
John was born in Surry county in 1776. The records of the Els- 
berrys are too numerous for present citation. Isaac and Agatha 



V 



186 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

(Wright) Elsberry, with their children, removed to Clermont 
county, Ohio, about 1805, where Isaac died in 1813 leaving his 
widow and a will naming their children. Agatha died at Xenia, 
Ohio, after 1821, in the home of her son, Hon. William Elsberry, 
for many years judge of the court of Green county, Ohio, and 
Democratic candidate for Congress. 

John Elsberry, son of Isaac and Agatha 6 (Wright) Elsberry, 
married, in Surry county, North Carolina, 26 February, 1799, 
Pamelia, daughter of Eobert Husbands. [Marriage license bond 
on file in office of register of deeds, Dobson, Surry county, North 
Carolina.] 

Sarah Wilkinson Elsberry, daughter of John and Pamelia 
(Husbands) Elsberry, born in Surry county, North Carolina, Janu- 
ary 6, 1800, married at Xenia, Ohio, February 20, 1822', Rev. John 
McClain. Their son William Page McClain of Greenfield, Ohio, 
married Margaret Ann Parkinson, September 3, 1858, and had 
issue: Jennie May McClain, Edward Lee McClain, Arthur Ells- 
worth McClain and Nellie Marie McClain, who married, December 
15, 1898, William Mace McCafferty and had issue Elizabeth Ann 
McCafferty. Edward Lee McClain married, December 17, 1885, 
Lulu Theodosia Johnson and had issue (1) Edward Lee McClain 
(soldier in the war against Germany), who married Mildred Gladys 
Wood, February 16, 1917, and has issue Edna Mildred McClain; 
(2) Helen St. Clair McClain, who married, June 2, 1917, Eobert 
Simonton Young, M. D. ; (3) Donald Schofield McClain (soldier 
overseas in the war against Germany), who married, September 
5, 1917, Marjorie Dean Miller; and (4) Ellsworth Johnson Mc- 
Clain, deceased. 

John Wright, Blacksmith, of Westmoreland County, 
Virginia, 1691-1714. 

On September 6, 1691, the "Proprietary of the Northern Neck 
of Virginia" granted to "John Wright of Westmoreland County, 
Blacksmith, of Nominy," 250 acres in "Yoacomaco fforest" — [page 
107, volume 1, 1690 to 1692, Northern Neck Grants, State Land 
Office, Richmond, Virginia]. On "the last Wednesday in May," 
1692, Joshua Davis as "attorney of John Wright, blacksmith, con- 



I 






Some Descendants of Richaed "Weight 187 

fessed judgment to James Westcombe of 160 1. Tob." — [page 61, 
Westmoreland court "Order Book 1690-1698"]. On May 26, 1697, 
"John Wright, smith," was sworn surveyor of highways for the 
precinct of "Nomony fforest" — [page 238, Westmoreland court 
"Order Book 1690-1698"]. On December 14, 1704, 'John Wright, 
Smith, of the County of Westmoreland" conveyed by deed to "Bob- 
ert Carter of the County of Lancaster Esq r ," for £15, four hundred 
and forty acres of land upon Potomac creek in Stafford county, 
"granted unto John Wright by deed from the Proprietor's office 
bearing date the 15th of March 1696/7"— [page 254, will book Z, 
Stafford county, Virginia]. On page 253 of the same book is re- 
corded the waiver of dower rights for the above sale by 

her 
"Susannah X Wright" who- in so doing recites the main facta 

mark 
of the deed to Carter and describes the grantor as "my husband 
John Wright of Westmoreland County." This same "John Wright 
of Westmoreland County blacksmith" sold to Bichard Wordell, 3 
November, 1708, one hundred acres of land in North Farnham 
parish, Bichmond county, Virginia. [Page 156 deed book No. 4, 
Biehmond county, Virginia.] Neither this John Wright nor his 
wife Susannah, elsewhere called "Anne," were able to write their 
names, as all of their recorded documents bear their "marks," in- 
stead. His will, dated January 21, 1713, proved 26 May follow- 
ing (1714) [Westmoreland "Deeds & Wills No. 5," pages 291-292], 
describes himself as a '^blacksmith," and names "my grandson 
Thomas son of my daughter Hester"; "my granddaughter Mary 
daughter of my daughter Susanna"; "to my son John my plan- 
tation where I now live," and "my best set of Smith's tools"; "to 
the child my wife now goes with all my land in Bichmond County" 
(this child was the son Thomas) ; "to my loving wife Anne," ex- 
ecutrix (evidently his abbreviation of Susannah, unless the notary 
before whom she waived dower rights misunderstood her name) ; 
"my son Thomas Blundell & my brother Thomas Walker to see 
that my said son be taught to read & write," etc., "and in case his 

mother's decease before he attain the age of seventeen years 

to take him & look after him and his estate." 



r / 
/ / 



188 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



This brother-in-law named in the will, "Thomas Walker of the 
County of Westmorld," by his own will, dated 26 January, 1715, 
proved 30 May, 1716, by his relict Mary "Walker, bequeaths one 
ewe lamb each to John Wright and Thomas Wright sons (the lat- 
ter posthumous) of the deceased John Wright, the blacksmith. 
[Westmoreland "Deeds & Wills No. 5," page 546, etc.] 

Anne, the said widow of John Wright the blacksmith, married 
again to Thomas Astbury (Asbury) prior to March 28, 1716, on 
which date they, acting for themselves and her minor son John 
Wright, sued John Carpenter; on June 1, 1716, they sued Francis 
Morris and Thomas Gollahan. [Westmoreland court "Orders &c. 
1705-1721," pages 278 and 284 dorso.] The will of Anne "As- 
bury" was proved 25 November, 1755. [Westmoreland will book 
No. 127.] Thomas "Astbury," Jr., and his half-brother, the said 
Thomas Wright, born in 1714 as the posthumous son of John 
Wright, the blackmith, by the said Anne Wright-Astbury, removed 
to Fairfax county, Virginia. On May 29, 1739, this Thomas Wright 
sued the estate of David Wood. [Westmoreland court "Orders &c. 
1731 to 1739/' page 312.] He was guardian of his said half- 
brother, Thomas Asbury, Jr. (son of the said Anne), on 26 May, 
1741. [Westmoreland court "Orders Book 1739 to 1743," pages 
100 and 116.] 

John 2 Wright (John 1 , the blacksmith) married Jane, settled 
on the land his father bequeathed along the Eichmond county and 
Westmoreland line, and died in 1736 leaving the widow Jane and 
their young son Thomas. The inventory of the father's estate, 
amounting to £89-7-1, reveals a collection of blacksmith's tools. 
[Eichmond county will book No. 5, page 285.] His widow Jane 
married again to Edmond Bulger; the proofs thereof and that her 
said deceased first husband, John Wright, was the son named in 
the 1713 will of John Wright, the blacksmith, and that the young 
Eichard Wright was her son, are fully set forth in the deed ex- 
ecuted by her and her second husband Edmond Bulger [Westmore- 
land "Deeds & Wills No. 14," pages 124 and 125], to-wit (ab- 
stract) : 

Indenture 30 March 1762 "Between Edmund Bulger of the 
parish of Lunenburg in the County of Eichmond, Planter, 



Some Descendants of Eichaeb "Weight 189 

and Jane his wife and Thomas "Wright of the said parish and 
county, Planter, of the one part, and Gerrard Davis of the 
parish of Cople in the County of Westmoreland, Planter, of 

the other part. Witnesseth that for five shillings 

the said Edmund Bulger And Jane his wife and 

Thomas Wright and Elizabeth his wife have granted 

quit claimed unto the said Gerrard Davis 

all manner of dower and right and title of dower whatsoever 

which they ........ have of in and to 150 acres of 

land in the said parish of Cople which 

said land was given by the will of John Wright late of 
the said parish and county, deceased, to his son John 
Wright, late of the said parish and county, also deceased, 
former husband of the said Jane Bulger and father to the 
said Thomas Wright party to these presents, in fee tail, which 
said Thomas Wright hath since by deed bearing date the thir- 
teenth of April last past sold the same to the said Gerrard 

Davis," etc 

"In witness whereof" 

Edmund Bulger 
her 

Jean X Bulger 
mark 

Thos. Wright 
her 

Elizabeth X Wright 
mark 

John Wright, the Planter, of Westmoreland, 1697-1711. 

i 

This worthy man is of frequent record as a "planter," several 



items of which will suffice to identify him. At the Virginia state 
land office in Eichmond, on page 275 of book No. 2, of "Northern 
Neck Grants," there is recorded a grant of two hundred and twen- 
ty-nine acres of land in Westmoreland county, made on August 
16, 1697, by "Margaret, Lady Culpeper and Thomas, Lord Fair- 
fax" to "John Wright, Pltr." On October 30, 1700, he acknowl- 



190 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



edged a deed of sale of a large part of this land to John Clement, 
and the grantor's wife, Hannah Wright, then waived her right 
of dower. [Westmoreland court "Order Book 1698-1705," page 
96 dorso.] This John Wright died before August 24, 1711, with- 
out issue ; whereupon his widow Hannah applied to the proprietors 
of the Northern Neck for a confirmation to her of the then re- 
maining part of the original grant to her husband, which con- 
firmation reads in part, to-wit: "The Eight Honorable Catherine, 
Lady ffairfax, Dutchess Dowager of Thomas late Lord & Margu- 

ritte Late Lady Culpeper, Dec'd &c Hannah Wright of 

ye County of Westmoreland hath sett forth to my Office y l John 
Wright her Husband Dyed Seized of Seventy One Acres of Land 
in y e sd County, part of One thousand Acres of Land formerly 
Granted to John Earle & left no heirs behind him, nor did dispose 
thereof by Will. Whereupon y e same Escheats to me y e said 

Propriato" And y e sd Hannah being in possession of y e 

sd Land, having moved to be preferred to a Grant of y e sd Escheat, 

Know Yee that I have Granted Confirmed y e 

sd seventy-one acres Unto y e sd Hannah Wright," etc 

"24 August, 1711," etc [Northern Neck Grants, Book No. 

4. page 42, Land Office, Richmond, Virginia.] 

On September 24, 1712, John Garner by a power of attorney 
from Hannah Wright acknowledged before the county court of 
Westmoreland her deed of sale of this land to Samuel Earle. [West- 
moreland court "Orders &c. 1705 to 1721," page 198; and deed 
book No. 5, page 74.] The deed describes her as of Cople parish 
and three thousand pounds of tobacco as the price she received, 
he having rented the land to William Wigginton, prior to selling 
it to Samuel Earle. 

Among other records identifying this John Wright, planter, 
occurs: "27 May, 1702 Ellenor Mugmoreshea serv* to John Wright 

planter, of Copely parish, had a child in his house. 

He assumed to pay her fine and save the parish harmless rather 
-than lose her services, giving a bond therefor. The child, Mary 
Mugmoreshea, was bound to him until aged twenty-one, and the 
mother to serve him extra time to save her from corporal pun- 
ishment. [Westmoreland "Order Book 1698-1705," page 160.] 



Some Descendants of Richard Weight 191 

JOHN WRIGHT, THE OVERSEER, OF WESTMORELAND, 1659-1734. 

He petitioned the court of Westmoreland, 25 January, 1691, to 
know "the bounds of his land on upper Mochotik and also that his 
father in law Eice Williams Thirds may be laid out." [Court 
"Order Book 1690-1698," page 26.] At the same session (on the 
next page of the record), in the case of the King vs. Wright, he 
was charged to wit: "John Wright, overseer to Mr. Gawin Corbin 
lor rideing ab', drinking & revelling in tyme of Divine Service." 
On March 21, 1691-2', the proprietary of the Northern Neck 
granted to him, "John Wright of Washington parish," one hun- 
dred and seven acres of land upon "Machotick dam," etc., formerly 
held by Joseph Hadnutt, deceased, escheated to said Wright. 
[Northern Neck Grants, volume 1, page 142, Land Office, Bich- 
'mond, Virginia.] He deposed on November 26, 1701, that he was 
"aged about forty-two." [Westmoreland "Deeds and Wills No. 3," 
page 15.] One June 30, 1709 : "Ordered Yirlandoe Wright, daugh- 
ter of John Wright of Upper Machotique, mark of Cattle & Hoggs 
be Eecorded." [Westmoreland "Orders &c. 1705 to 1721, page 
126.] On July 23, 1715, "Eobert Hammett & John Wright both 
of Washington parish presented by the grand Jury for Eetailing 
Liq r Contra r y to Law," etc. [Westmoreland court "Orders &c. 
1705 to 1721," page 272 dorso.] The unhappy end of this John 
Wright is indicated by the entry, on March 28, 1734, on page 136 
dorso of the said book, to wit: "John Wright a very ancient man 
petitioning this Court to be levy free, and it appearing that he 
was an Object of Pitty, It is therefore considered that he be here- 
after Exempt from paying any future public tax or levy." The 
names of all of his children are not recorded in direct connection 
with his name; but the records of Aaron and William Wright, 
some of which are too unfortunate for further reference, leave 
little or no doubt as to their parentage. Charles Wright of West- 
moreland, later of Prince William county, against whom nothing 
discreditable is found recorded, may have been an estimable son 
of John Wright the overseer, though recorded proof thereof is 
lacking; so one may accord to this Charles Wright the benefit of 
any doubt. 



192 



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207 



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212 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 

John Tayloe's Estate. — At Warsaw, Richmond Co., Va., in 
Will Book 7, at p. 354, is the will of the Hon. John Tayloe, who was 
long a member of the Council of Virginia. This will was pre- 
sented in court July 5, 1779, by four of the executors named in the 
will — Ralph Wormeley, Francis Lightfoot Lee, Warner Lewis, Jr.. 
and Mann Page, Jr., gentlemen. During a recent visit Mr. Henry 
Strother, of Fort Smith, Arkansas, found among many bundles of 



old court papers in the clerk's office the original bond given by the 
executors, Ralph Wormeley, Jr., Fancis Lightfoot Lee, Warner 
Lewis, Jr., Mann Page, Jr., Warner Lewis, Richard Lee and Ro. 
Wormeley Carter, for the proper administration of the estate. It 
was in the penalty of Ten Hundred Thousand pounds, which would 
appear to be a very large sum for the times. But Tayloe's death 
occurred during the Revolution when Continental money was de- 
preciated forty to one and Virginia money much more. 

Drinking at Burials. — "Imprimis, haveing observed in the 
daies of my pilgrimage the debauched drinking at burialls tending 
much to the dishonor of God and his true Religion, my will is that 
noe strong drinke be pvided or spent at my buriall." Will of Rev. 
Edmunds Watts, February 20, 1675-6, York Co., Records. 

A Beautiful Girl. — On a fly leaf of a Record Book at York- 
town, 1672-1676, occurs the following: "Hanah Armistead Is 
One of ye handsomest Girls in Virgin a , by Thomas Frayser. Hanah 
For Ever, Daniel Cambridge." The writing is not contemporary, 
and she is supposed to have been Hanna Armistead, daughter of 
Major William Armistead of Elizabeth City, and afterwards mar- 
ried to Major Miles Cary, of Peartree Hall, Warwick Co. This 
lady lived from about 1706 to 1750. 

Sale of Liquor Prohibited. — November the 13 th 1678. Or- 
dered that every pson or psons whatsoever be prohibited vending, 
selling or retailing any manner of strong liquor during the sitting 
of the Court. (York Records.) 



Historical and Genealogical Notes 213 

Doctor's Fees. — Nov. 24th, 1686 Doct T John Toten Desired 
that itt might be Recorded w ch was granted that hee would not 
visit at their request any Person being sick in Yorke County, 
unlesse the Person hee did visitt would give him ten shillings 
sterl for each visitt. (In 1679 Dr Toten was 39, according to a 
deposition given by him. Money was five times more valuable in 
1686 than it was before the World War, or ten times more than it 
is at present.) 

Edward Digges Plantation, Otherwise Bellfield. — Ed- 
ward Digges of the Province of Maryland, Gent, acknowledges in 
York Co. Court the sale to Dudley Digges of Virginia of all his 
plantation land in the County of York aforesaid called by the name 
of Edward Digges Esq rs Plantacon, containing 1250 acres. Sept. 
25, 1699. 

The Well at Yorktown. — Thomas Pate licensed to keep a 
ferry near Yorktown at the usual place, comonly called by the 
name of the Well. Jan'y 24th, 1699. 

Servant Freed. — At a Co rt held for Yorke County March ye 
25th 1700, p r sent his Ma^ 3 Justices: George Fitch formerly a 
servant to Major Dowsey (Dorsey?) of ye Province of Maryland 
on his complaint exhibited to this Co rt sheweth that he hath served 
ye said Dowsey these his Indentured time of fifteen Yeares past 
and shewed him his Indentures. And since y e Expiration of y e 
said Terme was deluded by one M r Dent of Charles Parish in y e 
said Province whome he hath become a slave to for y e terme of 
Eight yeares & upwards & could never bring the said M r Dent to 
any account under the pretense of his still being an Indentured 
serv* to him through which usage he departed into the colony of 
Virginia. And being here apprehended by one William Browne as 
attorney of ye said Dent and by him detected as a ffugetive from 
his s d service when upon due Consideracon of y e p r mes ye said 
Browne being p r sent, Itt is Adjudged by this Co rt that the said 
Complain 1 hath had very hard usage & unfaire dealing therein, 
thereupon Ord rd an Imediate freedom from his service aforesaid. 

Robert Anderson. — William Juxon of London Gentleman ap- 
points Robert Anderson, merchant, at present in London & bound 
for Virginia, and in case of his death Thomas Barber of York Co. 



214 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



in Virginia, gentleman, to sell his land in James City County, 
near Skiffe's Creek Mill in Virginia aforesaid. Eecorded in York 
Co. Court May 24, 1701. (In the last issue of this magazine there 
was a note on Eobert Anderson, see p. 111.) For Juxon family, 
see Va. Magazine XV, 318-320. 

Godwin Family. — This family was in Colonial Times one of 
the leading families of the Southside, and is still represented in 
Virginia by men of weight and influence. It is gratifying to 
learn that the early wills of this family have been rerecorded in 
the clerk's office of Nansemond County, whose colonial books have 
perished. This has been done through the thoughtful care of Dr. 
George Gray Godwin, of Portsmouth. In doing this he has set a 
fortunate example. 

The Forest. — The first settlers in Virginia had their habita- 
tions on the rivers and creeks. The inland country, as shown by 
the land grants was called "The Forest." The distinction is still 
preserved in the Northern Neck, where the people in the interior 
are often referred to as "Foresters." This, too, was doubtless the 
origin of the homes of Henry Cary (1650P-1720) in Warwick 
County, and of John Wayles (1715-1773), Jefferson's father-in- 
law, in Charles City Co. Both places were inland and called 
"The Forest." The house at each place has passed away. The 
latter — the home of John "Wayles — was burned by Federal troops 
during the Confederate War, 1861-'65, The owner then was Mr. 
Talman, a Confederate scout. 

Grantille Smith. In stating the officers of the Company 
formed in 1777 out of the students of William and Mary College, 
the name of the first lieutenant of the Company should have been 
printed "Granville Smith," not "Granville" merely. (See page 
143.) 



THE VIRGINIA CARYS. 

The Virginia Cabys. An Essay in Genealogy. Privately printed. 
The Devinne Press, New York. 1919. Copyright 1919. 
This beautiful volume proceeding from the hands of one who 
modestly signs himself F. H., presents a singular charm to book- 
lovers and historical students. It seems to combine all that we could 



The Virginia Caeys 215 

desire in a book — beautiful paper, careful printing, scholarly research 
and masterly grouping of many isolated facts. It is after all better 
that Wilson Miles Cary never completed the labor of preparing the 
history of the Carys, for F. H. has not only gathered here the riches 
of his kinsman's labors, but added tremendously to them by his own 
indefatigable researches. There are few families in Virgina history 
more interesting than the Carys. In business, in social life and in 
politics, they have always taken a leading part and were they, if 
such a thing were possible, struck out of the history of this State, 
serious gaps would appear in the social structure. The first Cary, 
like the first of all the prominent Virginia families, was a merchant 
who came to Virginia for the better opportunities it presented for 
trade. Indeed, this was the prevailing motive for the coming of most 
of the important settlers. On this subject the old records preserved 
in the county clerk's offices are illuminating. There are countless 
powers of attorney from merchants in England to agents, often de- 
scribed as about to start for Virginia, to collect tbeir debts and man- 
age their affairs in Virginia. These agents, who were necessarily 
trusted men, often made this colony their permanent home. Miles 
Cary was not only a merchant himself, but came of a line of mer- 
chants, some of whom had been mayors and aldermen of Bristol. 
F. H. gives a very careful account of his numerous descendants, and 
in addition, tells about ail the other Carys that came to Virginia in 
the early days, such as Major Francis Cary, who came with Col. 
Norwood in 1649, Oswald Cary, of Middlesex; John Cary, of Surry, 
etc. He disposes very promptly of the absurd story that Miles Cary 
was a representative of the Hunsdons, of Hertfordshire, though his 
ancestor like theirs was a cadet of the same Cary Devon stock. It is 
not certain that any of the Hertfordshire branch came to Virginia, 
but their brethren of the Falkland line were represented through mar- 
riage ties. The most famous of all the Carys, Lucius Cary, Lord Falk- 
land, had no less than three brothers-in-laws — Richard, Robert, and 
Francis Moryson holding important positions in the colony — all three 
of whom were commanders of the Fort at Point Comfort and the last 
also was acting Governor in 1661. There was also Charles Moryson, 
son of Richard, who succeeded his uncle, Francis, at the fort. Among 
the Virginia Carys themselves, the two most distinguished were doubt- 
less Col. Wilson Miles Cary, "Ceeleys," and Col. Archibald Cary, of 
"Ampthill." They were both Virginia gentlemen of that age — able 
and trustworthy, and so passionately convinced of their own honesty 
that they distrusted any one who disagreed with them. 



\ \ 



\ \ 



AD VER'I ISEMENTS 



STRATTON NOTTINGHAM 

GENEALOGIST 

NORTHAMPTON AND ACCOMAC COUNTIES, VIRGINIA 

AND 

COUNTIES OF THE EASTERN SHORE OF MARYLAND 
A SPECIALTY 



ADDRESS, EAS1VILLE, VIRGINIA 



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\\ 



r^^^f^ h u?./ 



Vol. I. No. 4. 



anb 



APRIL, 1920 



Spier's dSuarterlp Historical 




Genealogical j$taga?me 



Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 



Dpler'g (©uarterlp i^tsftortcal anb 
(genealogical j$laga?me 



Vol. 1. 



APRIL, 1920. 



No. 4. 



NOTICE 



Owing to the high cost of printing, the editor finds it necessary to ad- 
vance the price of this magazine, beginning with the July number, 1920, from 
S3 to &4 per year. Single numbers will be sold at SI. 25. 

As back numbers of the old William and Mary College Quarterly, which 
was the original name of the present magazine, have become very scarce, 
single copies, as far as had, may be obtained for $2 a-piece. 

Address all communications to LYON G. TYLER, 711 Travelers Bldg., 
Richmond, Va. 



CONTENTS 



Propaganda in History 217 

History of York County in the Seventeenth Century 231 

Nullification and War 276 

Kirby (Kerby) Family 282 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 285 



©pier's ©uarterlp 2|t3torical anfc 
(genealogical JHaga?tne 

Vol. 1. APRIL, 1920 No. 4. 

PROPAGANDA IN HISTORY. 

During the "World "War we heard a great deal of propaganda, 
and the word was used generally in a bad sense. But there is 
really nothing harmful in the word itself. It signifies only a means 
of publicity, which, when applied properly and legitimately serves 
a very good purpose. The Germans applied it improperly. They 
sent to this country millions of dollars to buy up newspapers and 
newspaper men to abuse the allies and make palatable their own 
conduct, too often brutal in the extreme. Propaganda is a form 
of advertisement, and it is only when advertisements are resorted to 
for the purpose of spreading erroneous conceptions that they are to 
be condemned. Quack advertisements are at all time pernicious. 
A feature especially popular in this country is propaganda ap- 
plied to history. This consists in using striking characters and 
events of the past to give importance to present matters. As long 
as the truth is told much good must result, for the past contains 
vast archives of experience, from which valuable information may 
be had. The reverse happens when to give prominence to particu- 
lar ends, historical matter is exploited at the expense of truth. 

These thoughts are suggested by what is so often read in the 
newspapers and periodicals of the North and even in books which 
have a more serious character. By sheer dint of assertion, taken 
up and published as if by concerted arrangement, certain things 
are given a character that never did belong to them. The idea 
seems to be with many who are active in the matter that the real 
truth makes no difference provided the multitude can be got to 
accept a certain view. This is the very essence of German propa- 
gandism, so much feared and condemned during the World War. 



218 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



But this is not true of all, for there are some who appear to be 
swept along by a force which they are powerless to resist. 

Let me cite some of the cases which have been made the 
subject of this kind of exploitation. 

1. There is a manifest disposition to place Plymouth before 
Jamestown. It is an old story and goes back a hundred and fifty 
years to the historian Hutchinson, who asserted in his history 
of Massachusetts that the Virginia colony had virtually failed and 
that the Pilgrim colony was the means of reviving it. How far 
from the truth Hutchinson strayed in his statement is shown by 
Bradford's contemporary narrative "The Plymouth Plantation," 
which proves very clearly that it was the successful establishment 
of the Virginia colony that induced the Puritans to leave Hol- 
land for America, in preference to some Dutch plantation like 
Guiana. Sir Edwyn Sandys was the patron as well of the Puritan 
colony as of the Virginia colony. They sailed under a patent of 
the Virginia Company of London granted through his auspices, 
and when by miscalculation they landed outside of the dominion 
of the Virginia Company the compact adopted by them in the 
cabin of the Mayflower followed the terms of the original patent. 
It was, indeed, owing to the Jamestown Colony that a landing was 
at all possible. Six years before Sir Thomas Gates had sent 
Argall from Jamestown, who had driven the French from their 
settlements in Nova Scotia and on the coast of Maine, and thus 
prevented them from occupying the coast of Massachusetts as they 
were about to do. 

So far from the truth was Hutchinson's statement that in 
1620 the Virginia colony had virtually failed, that even after the 
massacre of 1622 Virginia had over nine hundred colonists, and 
the Plymouth colony but one hundred and fifty, and these, accord- 
ing to Bradford, were in a starving condition from which they were 
rescued by a ship of Capt. John Huddleston, a member of the 
Virginia colony. In 1629, when the Plymouth colony had 300 
inhabitants, the Jamestown colony had 3,000. 

But recent writers do not even admit the reservation of Hutch- 
inson of a prior though vanishing Jamestown. That ancient settle- 
ment, with all that it stands for, is actually to be snubbed out of 



Propaganda in History 219 

recognition, and the claim is now boldly advanced that the Ply- 
mouth settlement was the first colony and all Americans the 
virtual output of that plantation. Can anything be more astonish- 
ing, and where is the "New England conscience" that it does not 
revolt against this perversion of the truth ? 

Among the many recent instances of this historic prevarication 
which have fallen under my notice, reference may be made to the 
columns of the Saturday Evening Post for February 7, 1920, to 
the World's Work for November, 1919, and to Mr. James M. Beck's 
book, "The War and Humanity," published by G. P. Putnam's 
Sons in 1917. No plea of ignorance can be advanced for these 
writers, and, on the other hand, it is impossible to believe that they 
deliberately falsified. They come under the class of propaganda 
victims rather than propaganda sinners. They were swept on 
against their own better knowledge by the spirit of propagandism 
so deadly to the very existence of truth. 

As to the first of these, the article in the Saturday Evening 
Post, the person who composed the editorial entitled "Sanctuary," 
uses the following words : 

"Two ships, the Mayflower and the Buford, mark epochs in the 
history of America. The Mayflower brought the first of the 
builders to this country, the Buford has taken away the first 
destroyer." 

We learn from the Richmond News Leader for March 1, 1920, 
that Mrs. Elizabeth Henry Lyons, the historian general of the 
National Society of the Colonial Dames in the State of Virginia, 
wrote a protest against this statement and received a reply vir- 
tually admitting that the editors knew differently when they made 
it. Their words were that in "a strict sense" Mrs. Lyons was "his- 
torically correct," but that "they did not believe in this narrow 
sense our editorial is likely to be misleading even to school boys, 
who are thoroughly familiar with these dates in American history." 
The dates referred to were 1607, when the Sarah Constant and 
her two companion ships brought the first settlers to Jamestown, 
and 1620, when the Mayflower brought the Puritans to Plymouth 
in Massachusetts. 

There is a hint here that in a broad sense the article in the paper 



220 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

was correct, but on this point the learned editors did not en- 
lighten Mrs. Lyons. There is no broader word than error and no 
narrower word than truth. It is the Good Book which says : 
"Enter ye by the narrow gate; for wide is the gate and broad the 
way that leadeth to destruction." 

The plain truth is that neither in its origin nor in the in- 
stitutions established in New England did the Plymouth colony 
lay the foundation of the American Commonwealth. It was ante- 
dated by Jamestown, and its institutions were aristocratic in every 
feature. The American institutions of today are democratic, and 
are tested by the law of reason and nature. In colonial New Eng- 
land everything was tested by the stern decrees of the Old Testa- 
ment and the suffrage was confined to a few favored members of the 
Congregational church. Though there were annual elections, the 
magistrates had no difficulty in retaining office for life through the 
law of preference, which universally prevailed, and the town meet- 
ings, were little oligarchies. And even today some of the worst 
inequalities in elections prevail in the New England States. And 
the Eev. Mr. Stone aptly described Massachusetts of the 17th cen- 
tury when he said that "it was a speaking aristocracy in the face of 
a silent democracy. On the other hand, Virginia, though aristo- 
cratic in many of its forms, was a democracy in its essence, since 
its House of Burgesses, which was the great controlling body 
rested on universal suffrage and not on church membership. It 
is true that in 1671 the possession of a freehold was made the 
condition of voting, but as the law did not define the extent of the 
freehold no real change was made till 1736. 

Now as to the writer in the World's Work. This is 
no less a person than William Sowden Sims, an admiral 
in the United States Navy. In an article entitled "The Eeturn 
of the Mayflower/' he describes how Great Britain welcomed 
our navy at the outset of our participation in the war 
with a moving picture film which depicted how in 1620 a few 
Englishmen had landed in North America and laid the founda- 
tions of a new state, based on English conceptions of justice and 
liberty, how out of the disjointed colonies they had founded one 
of the mightiest nations of history, and how when the liberties of 



Pbopaganda IK HlSTOBY 221 

mankind were endangered, the descendants of the "old Mayflower 
pioneers" had in their turn crossed the ocean — this time going 
eastward to fight for the traditions of the race. Admiral Sims 
makes this comment: 

"The whole story appealed to the British masses as one of the 
great miracles of history — a single miserable little settlement in 
Massachusetts Bay expanding into a continent overflowing with 
resources and wealth — a shipload of men, women and children 
developing in three centuries into a nation of more than 100,000,000 
people. And the arrival of our destroyers, pictured on the film, 
informed the British people that all this youth and energy had 
been thrown upon their side of the battle." 

ISTot a hint of Jamestown, not a word of tribute to the men, 
who, in the early days before Plymouth Bock, laid down their lives 
by thousands that this great continent might be saved from French 
and Spanish dominion and Plymouth itself might exist. 

Nothing more aptly describes the effect of this propagandist 
program than its acceptance and exploitation in England through 
the moving picture film described by Admiral Sims. The English 
managers cared nothing between Jamestown and Plymouth, but 
were bent from their natural regard for truth, by the wish to 
please the present dominant influence in America, which they 
correctly located northward. 

Finally, as to Mr. Beck, in his book, entitled "The War and 
Humanity," which Theodore Eoosevelt endorsed with a "Fore- 
word," no one can doubt that he knew better when he wrote the 
words which follow. They were part of an address delivered by 
him in 1916 at a luncheon, given to him in London by the Pil- 
grim Society of that city, when Viscount Brice and other emi- 
nent Englishmen were present. And yet he must not be judged 
too harshly. Like Admiral Sims, he was the helpless victim of 
propaganda. Mr. Beck said: 

"Never was a nation more dominated by a tradition than the 
United States by the tradition of its political isolation. It has its 
root in the very beginning of the American Commonwealth. In 
nine generations no political party and a few public men have 
ever questioned its continued efficacy. The pioneers who came in 



222 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

1620 across the Atlantic to Plymouth Eock and founded the 
American Commonwealth desired like the intrepid Kent in King 
Lear 'to shape their old course in a country new/ so that the 
spirit of detachment from Europe was emplanted in the very souls 
of the pioneers who conquered the virgin forests of America." 

Mark what Mr. Beck said: "The pioneers who came in 1620 
across the Atlantic to Plymouth Eock and founded the American 
Commonwealth." Not a word of the men who came in the Sarah 
Constant, the Qoodspeed and the Discovery, and prepared the way 
at Jamestown for all future colonization of America. 

2. The second myth which has been extensively circulated is 
that the Plymouth settlers came to America for religious freedom. 
As a matter of fact, they left England for Holland because they 
were persecuted, and they left Holland for America, not because 
they were persecuted by the Dutch, but, as Bradford narrates, 
because they were in danger of being absorbed in the body of the 
Dutch nation by natural causes. Charles M. Andrews, in a re- 
cent work, declares that with the single exception of giving to 
New England the congregational form of worship, these humble 
and simple settlers were "without importance in the world of 
thought, literature or education." 

The settlers who came with John Winthrop in 1629 were the 
real builders of Massachusetts, which for a century and a half 
was the enemy of free thought. The persecuted in England turned 
persecutors in America, and the colonial disputes with England 
turned upon the religious and political tyranny which the Puri- 
tans erected in New England. Far from religious convictions 
being the only driving force that sent hundreds of men to New 
England, hardly a fifth of the people in Massachusetts were pro- 
fessed Christians; and yet it was this fifth that had the power and 
taxed and persecuted all the rest. The liberty they wanted from 
England was the liberty to harass the majority of the population 
which did not agree with them. Seen at this distance of time Eng- 
land showed a marvel of patience in dealing with the people of 
Massachusetts in the 17th century. And yet there is not an in- 
stance of severity which has not had its respectable defenders, 
and Charles Francis Adams, Jr., in his "Massachusetts — Its His- 



Propaganda in Histokt 223 

torians and Its History," takes notice of how these apologists 
have in their histories "struggled" and "squirmed" and "shuffled" 
in the face of the record. 

3. The third myth of which I shall take notice is one strangely 
endorsed by Charles Francis Adams himself in the same book. 
He makes the remarkable statement that the Massachusetts Con- 
stitution of 1780, written by his great-grandfather, John Adams, 
first fixed the principles of the American written constitution, 
and pioneered the way to the Federal Constitution of eight years 
later. This assertion has been taken up and repeated by many 
persons since, till it is becoming rapidly accepted as a fact by the 
writing and reading public of the North. As in the case of James- 
town, George Mason and the Virginia Constitution of 1776 are 
ignored and made to suffer from a propaganda of untruth. 

4. Not to mention numerous other subjects of propagandism, 
there is the Lincoln myth. Hardly a single paper published north 
of Mason and Dixon's line can be taken up without the reader 
seeing something about this wonderful hero of the North. We 
all know that the North started out with making a hero of John 
Brown, but abandoned him for the much more desirable character 
of Mr. Lincoln. His assassination gave propagandists a good start- 
ing point, and since then never has propaganda been more active. 
Washington is even relegated to the background, and a highly 
worthy and eminent historian, Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, calls 
Lincoln "The First American." The ideality given him is chiefly 
based upon a great fabrication sedulously taught and inculcated 
that Lincoln fought the South for the abolition of slavery of the 
negroes. This was denied to the very last by Lincoln himself, 
but is exploited in the recently published play of Mr. Drinkwater, 
an Englishman, as it has been by hundreds of other writers. 

The mischievousness of this Lincoln propaganda idea was exhib- 
ited recently to the full by Bev. Charles Francis Fotter, pastor of 
the Lenox Avenue Unitarian Church, New York, in an address de- 
livered on March 7, 1920, at Earl Hall, Columbia University, 
and reported in the "Sun and New York Herald." This gen- 
tleman characterizes Lincoln as the "future social Christ" of 
America, and prophesied the coming of an "American Church" 



224 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



and an "American Bible," in which people "will find in parallel 
columns the stories of Christ and of Lincoln." 

Absurd and blasphemous a^? this hysterical prophecy may ap- 
pear to some, it may, nevertheless, come true. What the Eoman 
Senate achieved by decree in the case of their emperors, may in 
this day be more certainly accomplished by money and propaganda. 
When the most elemental facts in the history of the United States 
are snubbed and ignored, as in the case of Jamestown, it is not 
at all surprising that the character of Lincoln is so represented by 
the Northern press that the true Lincoln is no longer recognizable. 
Everything in any way tending to lessen his importance is studi- 
ously kept in the background. 

The writer certainly has no wish to detract from Lincoln's 
real merits. That he was a man of ability and originality, that 
he was tactful and resourceful, that he was unwilling to resort to 
extreme measures when milder measures would suffice ; that he did 
not cherish the same venom against the South as many of his 
party did — is frankly admitted. But that either of these things, 
or all of them, is sufficient, to make him an ideal person in history, 
by no means follows. There are too many deficiencies in the op- 
posite scale of his character. 

It is impossible to associate idealism with coarseness, and Lin- 
coln judged by every test of historic evidence, was a very coarse 
man. There is no reason to doubt the substantial accuracy of his 
friend and admirer Ward H. Lamon, who declared that "in his 
tendency to tell stories of the grosser sort, Lincoln was restrained 
by no presence and no occasion." Herndon, who was his law part- 
ner, says that "he loved a story, however extravagant or vulgar, 
if it had a good point," and Don Piatt declares that he managed 
to live through the cares and responsibilities of the war only by 
reason of his coarse mold. After his election Piatt saw much of 
Lincoln, who told stories, "no one of which will bear printing," and 
Hugh McCulloch tells of "the very funny stories" of Mr. Lincoln 
during the war, after hearing of Sheridan's victory in the Valley 
of Virginia — stories, he says, "which would not be listened to with 
pleasure by very refined ears." And General McClellan said "his 
stories were seldom refined." 



Pkopaganda in Histobt 225 

Indeed, what kind of an ideal man is he who could open a 
Cabinet meeting called to discuss the Emancipation proclamation 
with reading funny things from Artemas Ward, and, when visiting 
the field of Sharpsburg, freshly soaked with the blood of thousands 
of brave men, could call for the singing of a ribald song?* 

Certainly it would never do to put Lincoln's letter to Mrs. 
Browning on the subject of marriage in a column parallel with the 
stories of Christ. Its grotesque humor, its coarse suggestions and 
its base insinuations against the virtue of a lady to whom he had 
proposed and by whom he had been rejected, are shocking enough 
without subjecting it to such a test. 

Mr. Lincoln's kindness in individual cases and professions of 
charity in his messages, which have been greatly exploited, by no 
means prove that he had any exalted sense of humanity. The 
recognized expression of humanity among nations is the inter- 
national law, and Lincoln and his government acted repeatedly 
contrary to it. 

»For a year after the war began, Lincoln did not resort to ex- 
treme measures, but after the first year he appeared prepared to 
go to any extent. According to Mr. Chase, he declared in Cabi- 
net August 3, 1862, that 'lie was pretty well cured of any ob- 
jections to any measure except want of adaptedness to putting 
down the Eebellion." And in August, 1864, he declared that 
"no human power can subdue this rebellion without the use of the 
emancipation policy, and every other policy calculated to weaken 
the moral and physical forces of the Eebellion." There is no in- 
stance to my knowledge of his interference with Grant, Hunter, 
Sheridan or Sherman, or any other Federal general, in the policy 
soon adopted of extreme devastation of the South. He pro- 
claimed as pirates subject to the death penalty the privateersmen 
of the South. His government declared medicine contraband, 
the first time it was ever done in the annals of warfare, and he 
refused to hear or see a committee of Federal prisoners permitted 
by Mr. Davis to visit Washington in the interest of the suffering 
prisoners at Andersonville. He declared to a committee of clergy- 



*Don Piatt in Rice, Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln, p. 486. 






226 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



men from Chicago that in issuing his emancipation proclamation 
he would look only to its effect as a war measure, independent 
of its "legal"' or "constitutional" character or of "its moral nature in 
view of the possible consequences of insurrection or massacre in 
the Southern States." This declaration, which involved directly 
the admission that, if he were once convinced that emancipation 
would end the war, he would proclaim it regardless of massacre, 
is not exactly such as would recommend him as a champion of 
humanity to the Southern people. Massacre of women and chil- 
dren is a dreadful thing. It is a terrible but true indictment 
which Charles Francis Adams, Jr., makes of the methods em- 
ployed by Lincoln's government in the closing year of the war 
on the South; "Our own methods during the last stages of the 
war were sufficiently described by General Sheridan, when dur- 
ing the Franco-Prussian War, as the guest of Bismarck, he de- 
clared against humanity in war, contending that the correct policy 
was to treat a hostile population with the utmost rigor, leaving 
them, as he expressed it, nothing but their eyes to weep with 
over the war." Did the Germans get their ideas of "frightfulness" 
from Sheridan? 

When we come to examine Lincoln's statecraft, it appears to 
indicate a lack of decision utterly at variance with the inordinate 
estimate placed upon his abilities by modern propagandists. These 
people never tire of blaming Mr. Buchanan for not at once using 
force to suppress the "rebellion," and yet have not a word of 
censure against Lincoln for allowing a whole month to pass with- 
out taking any action. That he declared in his inaugural ad- 
dress that he intended to hold the forts and public property was 
no more than what Mr. Buchanan had also said, and this declara- 
tion was subject to developments. Even James Schouler, in his 
history, states that "so reticent, indeed, of his plans had been 
the new President, while sifting opinions through the month, that 
it seemed as though he had no policy, but was waiting for his Cabi- 
net to frame one for him." Is this the kind of appearance that 
a President who is expected to lead in matters should assume 
before the nation? 

After the meeting of the Cabinet on March 15, 1861, in which 



Propaganda in History 227 

five of the members opposed action, Lincoln's mind more and more 
tended to the same conclusion. It is idle to say, as many of his 
panegyrists do, that Lincoln had no knowledge of Seward's as- 
surances to Judge Campbell that the troops would be withdrawn 
from Fort Sumter. Mr. Schouler is an admirer, but he cannot 
agree with this view of the case, and Lincoln's biographers Nicolay 
and Hay soften "assurances" down to "opinions," as if this made 
much difference as to their moral character, provided tne informa- 
tion was to be imparted to President Davis, which Judge Camp- 
bell assures us he was permitted by Seward to do. What person 
had the power to convert "opinions" into action unless it was the 
Secretary of State acting under the President? 

It appears, indeed, that the policy of giving up Fort Sumter 
went to the extent of the preparation of an editorial for a New 
York paper to defend Lincoln, — a copy of which was furnished 
Gov. Francis Pickens, of South Carolina, "by one very near the most 
intimate counsels of the President of the United States."* But 
after signing an order for withdrawing the troops, Lincoln recon- 
sidered when the governors of seven of the Northern States, which 
were under control of the tariff interests, assembled in Washing- 
ton about the first of April, 1861, and protested against it. 

That the final determination turned on the tariff question is 
not surprising when one considers the obstinacy of the North in 
adhering to protection in 1833. On March 16, 1861, Stanton, 
who had been a member of Buchanan's Cabinet, wrote to the ex- 
President that "the Pepublicans are beginning to think that a 
monstrous blunder was made in the tariff bill (the Morrill tariff 
included ranges from 50 to 80 per cent), that it will cut off the 
trade of New York, build up New Orleans and the Southern ports 
and leave the government no revenue." There was a Confederate 
tariff of from ten to twenty per cent., and Lincoln^ fears of it 
were ultimately excited. 



•Francis Pickens' Letter in William and Mary College Quarterly, 
XXIV, 78-84. It has been suggested that the person who gave the 
editorial to Gov. Pickens was Mr. Todd, Mrs. Lincoln's brother, who 
resided in Alabama and joined the Confederate Army. 



228 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



So on April 1, Seward materially changed his attitude by 
placing in Judge Campbell's hands a written memorandum to 
the effect that the President might desire to supply Fort Sumter, 
but would not do so without giving notice. On April 4 Lincoln 
had an interview with Col. John B. Baldwin, who came from 
the Virginia Convention, and in response to an appeal told him 
he had come too late, and asked "what would become of his 
tariff if he allowed those men at Montgomery to open Char- 
leston as a port of entry with their ten per cent, tariff?"* That 
day Lincoln drafted instructions to Major Anderson at Fort Sum- 
ter that relief would be sent, and ordered him to hold the fort. 

The same sort of uncertainty and vacillation hedged about 
Lincoln's action on Emancipation. He suppressed several meas- 
ures looking to that end by his generals, and on Sept. 13, 1862, 
declared that Emanicipation was absolutely futile and likened the 
policy to "the Pope's bull against the comet." He asked: "Would 
my word free the slaves when I cannot even enforce the Constitu- 
tion in the Eebel States? Is there a single court or magistrate 
or individual who would be influenced by it there ?"f And yet on 
September 23, he decided to do what he had refused to do ten days 
before. The only circumstance which had happened in the interval 
was the battle of Sharpsburg, but this certainly did not affect the 
substance of the objections which he had urged on Sept. 13. No 
court, nor magistrate, nor individual in the South was by that bat- 
tle put in better mind as to the question. In the North the effect 
of the proclamation, according to Lincoln himself, "looked soberly 
in the face is not very satisfactory." The Republicans were de- 
feated in the elections which followed, and Mr. Ehodes, the his- 
torian, writes that "no one can doubt that it (the proclamation of 
emancipation) was a contributing force." It is difficult to under- 
stand what single fact places Lincoln's action on a higher plane 
than that of Lord Dunmore during the American Revolution. 

Nevertheless, the propagandists have been successful in dis- 



*Gordon, Life of Jefferson Davis, 134. 

fNicolay and Hay, Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, VIII 



30, 31. 



Propaganda ix Histoey 



229 



seminating the idea that Lincoln -was the great emancipator and 
that all his shuffling and equivocation was fine evidence of con- 
summate leadership on his part. 

The propagandist has in similar manner smoothed away all 
exceptions affecting the relations of President Lincoln to his 
Cabinet. And yet such exceptions existed, if any confidence is to be 
placed in Charles Francis Adams, Sr., who in his "Memorial Ad- 
dress" on Seward represents him as practically subordinate to his 
Secretary of State. And while Gideon Welles, Secretary of the 
Navy, repels the charge and claims that the President was the 
dominating mind, his narrative of the incredible liberties taken by 
Seward, and the President's indifference to them, till roused by 
others to a proper sense of his dignity, does not redound much to 
Lincoln's credit. Welles complains much of the assumptions of Se- 
ward, but doubtless forgot his own action in the Trent affair, when 
he wrote a letter approving the conduct of Wilkes, subsequently dis- 
avowed by Lincoln. If indeed Lincoln did not on the side give 
Welles permission to act as he did, which is very probable, what was 
this letter but officiousness on Welles' part meriting signal rebuke ? 
And if Welles did write with Lincoln's permission, what was Lin- 
coln's final action in apologizing to Great Britain, but a species of 
camouflage unworthy a President of the United States. 

This deference, if not submission to his secretaries, is said 
by others to have been even more manifested by Lincoln with 
Stanton, his Secretary of War, than with Seward, his Secretary of 
State. John C. Popes declares that Lincoln and Stanton con- 
stantly interfered with military plans greatly to the detriment of 
military success, and the history of the Virginia campaigns 
is a history of official blunders in the appointment by 
Lincoln of incompetent generals. Charles Francis Adams, Sr., 
declares in the same "Memorial Address" on Seward that 
Lincoln was "quite deficient in his acquaintance with the 
character and qualities of public men or their aptitude for the 
positions to which he assigned them. Indeed he never selected them 
solely by that standard." Welles, in his rejoinder, does not deny 
that such appointments were made, but retorts only by saying 
they occurred chiefly on the recommendation of Mr. Seward "who 



230 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

was vigilant and tenacious in dispensing the patronage of the 
State Department." This does not help the case. The very point 
against Lincoln is that he did not exert his own individuality 
sufficiently against a lot of impudent secretaries. There was a 
dignity attaching to his office, which it was his duty to maintain 
at all times and was not reserved for special, even if important 
occasions. 

No one can say that after the war began Lincoln ever wavered 
in his purpose to subdue the rebels, and no one can say either, 
with due regard to the facts, that he let any scruples of charity 
interfere with his success. He appealed to a great idea — the Union 
— which he declared was his sole idea in prosecuting the war, but 
the old Union was founded on consent and the Union he had in 
mind was one of force. His war, therefore, was contrary to the 
principles of 1776 and to the modern principle of self-determina- 
tion, now the accepted doctrine of the world — a doctrine not only 
endorsed by the present President of the United States, but re- 
cently by both houses of Congress, in the case of Ireland — a 
divided and much weaker country than the Confederate States of 
America, which had a thoroughly organized government, in pos- 
session of a territory more than half the size of Europe. 

The present Southerners are glad to be free of slavery and are 
loyal citizens of the Union, but this is far from saying that they ap- 
prove the violent methods by which slavery was abolished and the 
Union restored. 

In conclusion of this article on propaganda, I may cite 
a few sentences from Eobert Quillen in the Saturday Evening 
Post for January 24, 1920, which the editors might have taken to 
heart when preparing their editorial about Plymouth Eock for 
their issue two weeks later. 

"Since the purpose of propaganda is to present one side of a 
case, it is from its very inception a distortion of facts, and an 
avoidance of the whole truth. * * * Truth lies at the bot- 
tom of a well and we are poisoning the well. * * * Propa- 
ganda has made doubters of us all." 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 231 



HISTORY OF YORK COUNTY IN THE 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

Beginnings of Settlemem\ 



The view of Yorktown from the York .River has been pro- 
nounced by an English traveler as uot dissimilar to that of Dover 
seen from the English Channel. Vts long line of cliffs, however, 
are composed of reddish rock mar? •'nd not white chalk. The view 
both up and down the river is stimulating. Save where the river 
narrows at Yorktown to a mile, the width for a stretch of twenty- 
seven miles from Yorktown to "West Point is seldom less than 
three miles, and not far below the town the river expands rapidly 
till the waters as they enter the Chesapeake Bay or twelve miles 
distant, at Too's Point, acquire a width of from five to six miles. 

At the time of the arrival of the whites the region about the 
present town on the south side of the river was ruled by the Chis- 
kiack Indians, whose chief town was located on the river at a place 
about three miles above, now known as "Indian Fields." In 1612 
the chief of these Indians was known as Ottahotin. They called 
the river Pamunkey, but the English at their coming gave it the 
name of Charles River in honor of Prince Charles, afterwards 
King Charles I. 

The first known visit of a white man to York River was in 
1606, when it is reported that a ship sailed up that broad thor- 
oughfare and was kindly received by Powhatan. Then the captain 
took his ship to the Eappahannock, where despite a similar kind 
reception, he slew an Indian chief, and carried away some of his 
people. John Smith declared that this was the reason why, when 
he was captured in 1607 up the Chickahominy, he was taken on 
the long trip to the Rappahannock. Powhatan wanted to find out 
whether he was the same man who had committed the outrage of 
the year before, but the wicked captain of 1606 was a taller man 
than John Smith, and the Eappahannock people failed to identify 
him. So he was taken back again to be rescued by Pocahontas at 



232 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Werowocomoco, a place which has been satisfactorily identified 
as "Purton," on the north side of the river, some sixteen miles 
from Yorktown, and about eleven miles from West Point. 1 

The next year (1608) Captain Christopher Newport sailed 
from Jamestown and made a call upon Powhatan, and from time 
to time thereafter the Jamestown people repeated these visits; 
but no actual settlement was made on the York till many years 
after the arrival of the settlers. 

The need of a settlement in this region was felt, however, and 
as early as 1611 Sir Thomas Dale, the deputy governor, in a let- 
ter to the Earl of Salisbury, recommended a fortified place at 
Chiskiack. Then, after the Indian massacre of 1622, when the 
Chiskiack Indians deserted their territory and moved to the 
Pyanketank Eiver, the idea of "winning the forest," by running 
a pale from the James Eiver to the York Eiver and planting a 
settlement on the latter, took strong hold on Sir Francis "Wiatt 
and his Council. It was regarded as the best means to ward off an 
Indian attack, and the discussion led to the offer four years later 
of Samuel Mathews of Denbigh and William Claiborne of Ki- 
coughtan to build the palisades, defended at intervals by houses. 

The Palisades. 

Still nothing was done, and in the meantime the James Eiver 
Valley as far as the Falls and the Accomac peninsula were fully oc- 
cupied. At last, with the coming of Sir John Harvey as governor, 
the project so long delayed was carried into execution. At a meet- 
ing of the Council on October 8, 1630, as appears from a patent 
recorded 2 at Yorktown, an order was entered offering as an en- 
couragement "for secureing and takeing in a tract of land called 
the Forest, bounding upon the chiefe residence of the Pamunkey 
king, the most dangerous head of ye Indian enemye," fifty acres to 
every person who should settle the first year on Charles Eiver and 



i William and Mary Quarterly, VIII, 273, X, 1-3. Pobton was only 
a variation of "Powhatan." 
zibid. XXVI, 27. 



Yobk County in the Seventeenth Century 233 

twenty-five to every person who the second year should settle 
there. At the same court two tracts of six hundred acres each 
were granted to Captain John West, brother of Lord Delaware, 
and Captain John TJtie, who were made commanders of the new 
settlement. 

About four miles above the modern Yorktown, two creeks, 
Felgate's Creek and Bang's Creek, form a bay opening into 
York Biver, and on the east of this bay settled Captain "West, 
and on the west thereof settled Captain TJtie. In the angle 
formed by the two creeks settled Captain Eobert Felgate, a well 
known ship captain from London. 

Other settlers availed themselves of the offers of the Council, 
and the land along the river on either side of the two commanders 
was rapidly taken up. On the east of Captain West settled 
Francis Morgan, and next to him was Mr. William Pryor, and on 
the high ground west of Yorktown Creek settled Captain Eichard 
Townsend. Then east of Yorktown Creek, occupying the present 
site of the town, was Captain Nicholas Martian, 3 a Frenchman, 
who obtained his denization in England. 



7lico£€Lf77l4zJ(4#' 



Martin Baker, a merchant from Plymouth, England, took up 
six hundred acres next to Martian, and at the present "Temple 
Farm" were the settlers sent by Sir John Harvey to his plantation 
of seven hundred and fifty acres, called York. 

These first leading settlers, as shown by the records, were people 
of excellent standing and they had both money and credit. 

The E. D. Plantation ob Bellfield. 



By order of the Council, dated June 6, 1632, Captain John 
West was granted two thousand acres "in right of his son, being 



^Martian's name is spelt variously in the records Martian, Mar- 
teau, Martue, Martin, etc. But "Martian" is the usual spelling. It 
appears, however, that his name was really Martian, and above is a 
facsimile signature procured by Mr. Frank Turnbull, of New York, 
at the wish of Judge John L. Thomas, from official papers in London. 



234 Tyleb's Qtjaktebly Magazine 

the first born Christian at Chiskiack." There is little reason to 
doubt that this son was Col. John West, of West Point, 4 at the 
forks of the river, to which place his father removed in 1650, on 
selling his plantation on Felgate's Creek (now known as Bellfield) 
to Edward Digges, fourth son of Sir Dudley Digges, master of 
the rolls to King Charles I. The plantation was owned by the 
Digges family till 1787, when it was sold to William Waller. Dur- 
ing most of the long interval in which it remained in the posses- 
sion of the Digges family, it was known as the "E. D. Plantation" 
(Edward Digges Plantation), and was famous as the chief seat 
of the silk culture in Virginia, and afterwards as the plantation 
which raised a specially favored brand of sweet scented tobacco, 
known as the "E. Dees," which it is said never failed to bring in 
England "one shilling on the pound, when other tobaccoes brought 
not three pence ." 5 

King's Ceeek Plantation. 

The seat of Captain John Utie on the York Eiver, known first 
as "TTtimaria," was sold by his son of the same name to Captain 
William Tayloe (sometimes spelled Taylor in the old records) 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of Eichard Kingsmill, of James- 
town Island. On Tayloe's death the plantation went to Col. 
Nathaniel Bacon by his marriage with the widow, and by deed 
from his heir and nephew, William Tayloe of Richmond County, 
ancestor of the Tayloes of "Mt. Airy" on the Eappahannock. 
Col. Bacon absorbed other grants, among which was the land of 
John Cotton of Queen's Creek, whose wife Ann wrote the history 
of Bacon's Rebellion. This Col. Bacon, who rose to be president 
of the Council of State, was first cousin once removed of Nathaniel 
Bacon, junior, the rebel. He died in 1691, and this property went 
to his niece, Abagail Smith, who married Major Lewis Burweli. 
On Burwell's death in 1710 it became the property of his son 



•*For West Point, see W. & M. Quarterly, IX, 214. 
sFor Beli-field, see William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. XV, 36-38, 
and for Digges Family, see Ibid. I, 80-89, 140-150, 208-213. 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 235 

James Burwell. It was long known as Bang's Creek Plantation, 
and comes into prominent notice during Bacon's Bebellion. Not 
long before the "World War" (1914), this property was purchased 
by the Duponts and named "Penniman," and during the war 
it was taken over by the Federal government and made an im- 
portant center for filling shells. 

The process of absorption of the small grants continued, and 
about 1740 all the land between King's Creek and Queen's Creek 
on the York and Skiff's Creek and Archer's Hope Creek on the 
James was owned by the three Burwell brothers, James Burwell, 
of "King's Creek," Nathaniel Burwell, of "Carter's Grove," and 
Lewis Burwell, of "Kingsmill." On the road from Springfield 
to King's Creek is a stone with their initials "J. B., L. B., N. B.," 
marking the corner at which the estates of the three brothers came 
together. 

First Bridge Over Yorktown Creek. 

Capt. Eichard Townsend's land of 650 acres lay west of York- 
town Creek, and in 1657 Col. George Eeade and Lt. Col. Thomas 
Ludlow were directed by the Court to agree with William Thomas 
to erect a sufficient bridge over the creek "parting Col Eeade's 
land and Mrs. Townsend." 8 Later, in 1689, this land was selected 
as the site of the College and free School, erected afterwards 
at Middle Plantation (subsequently Williamsburg). In 1693 Wil- 
liam Buckner obtained the half of the estate lying immediately 
on the creek from Francis Dade of Stafford County and Frances, 
his wife, who was coheiress of Bobert Townsend, with her sister 
Mary, who married John Washington, Jr., of Westmoreland County. 

York Plantation. 

York Plantation, containing originally 750 acres (now known 
as Temple Farm), was, as stated, first patented by Governor Har- 
vey in 1631, who mortgaged it to George Menifie, Esq., of the 



«This creek is variously known in the Records as Martian's, 
Smith's, Townsend's, and Yorktown Creek. 



236 Tyler's Quaktekly Magazine 

Council. Later in 1644, after Harvey had been declared a bankrupt, 
it was sold by Menifie to George Ludlow, another councillor, and 
a cousin of the regicide in English history, Lt. Gen. Edmund 
Ludlow. George Ludlow in 1646 got a new patent for it and the 
adjoining land of Martin Baker, describing his tract as containing 
fourteen hundred and fifty-two acres and as running from the 
mouth of Wormeley's Creek five hundred and fifty-five poles up 
York Eiver to the land of Captain Martian. Here in 1649 landed 
the cavalier, Col. Norwood, and his party, after their severe trials 
in the woods of Accomac. George Ludlow died in 1656, and this 
land went to his nephew, Lt. Col. Thomas Ludlow, who died in 
1660. For a number of years it remained in the possession of the 
Eev. Peter Temple, who married Mary, Thomas Ludlow's widow. 
But in 1686 it was deeded to Major Lawrence Smith of Gloucester 
County by the Eev. John Wiles of Culford Parish in Suffolk 
County, England, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Ludlow, and by Eev. Eeter Temple and Mary, his wife 
(widow of said Thomas Ludlow), then of the parish of Sible 
Heningham, Essex Co., England. It continued in the Smith 
family till 1769, when Eobert Smith sold it to Augustine Moore, 
who married Lucy Smith, his sister. It appears not to have ac- 
quired the name "Temple Farm" or "Temple Field" till 1818. 

Augustine Moore died before 1781, and his widow was living 
in the house at the time of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, 
October 19th of that year. There is no evidence in the records 
that Bernard Moore ever owned the place, or that Spotwood was 
ever buried there, as is sometimes said. 7 

The Court House at Yohk. 

The first entry in the York records is that of the caption of 
a court held July 12, 1633, at TJtimaria (Penniman), the resi- 
dence of Captain John Utie. The justices present were Capt. 
John Utie, Mr. William English, Capt. Nicholas Martian, Mr. 
Lionel Boylston, Capt. Eobert Felgate and Mr. Eichard Town- 



'For Temple Fabm, see William and Mary College Quarterly, Vol. 
II, 1-20. 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 237 



send. Then after several other courts a meeting was held at 
York July 7, 1634. After this the courts were held for a number 
of years at the different justices houses — Mr. William Pryor's, 
John Chew's, Capt. John West's, etc. Finally York became the 
settled place. In 1658 the house of Capt. Eobert Baldrey, at York, 
was hired for a court house, and one thousand pounds of tobacco 
was paid annually as the rental, increased soon to 4,000 pds. of 
tobacco, which doubtless covered entertainment as well. In 1662 
a ducking stool was placed at Wormeley's Landing on Wormeley's 
Creek, near the place "where it is supposed the town for York 
Eiver will be built." Near by, and at the same settlement, the 
county prison, stocks and pillory were erected. 8 

York thus became the capital of the county, and in 1843 when 
Henry Howe began to collect materials for his book, the site of 
this old settlement was still indicated by the many old chimneys 
then standing near the mouth of Wormeley's Creek. 9 In the 
same locality was the Church of York Parish, situated in the 
"old fields." To this church William Hawkins on his death in 
1655 left after his wife's death 1,500 pds. of tohacco for a silver 
flaggon, and in 1686 Argall Blackstone, his grandson, left a 
silver wine bowl, inscribed with his name, to be purchased out of 
the sale of a hogshead of tobacco, also giving permission to the 
vestry, if they would cover the church with plank sawed feather 
edged instead of clapboards, to use trees on his estate for that 
purpose. 

The first clerk of the county court mentioned in the records 
was Mar. Johnson (Marius? Johnson). He was succeeded in 
1639 by Francis Willis, a great friend of Sir John Harvey, and 



sJune 25, 1661. The Court this day agreed with Jerrard Haw- 
thorne to build or make a paire of stocks and a pillory & fitt them 
with Iron worke & all things compleat & to bring them to Mr. 
Robert Baldrey's house at furthest by ye 20th of August next, & 
set ye stocke where Mr. Baldrey shall appoint & the pillory neare 
the horsepath against ye Court House. In consideration whereof, the 
Courth doth order him to be paid eight hundred pounds of tobacco 
& caske at the next Leavy. 

sHowe Historical Collections of Virginia, 1846, p. 522. 



238 Tyleb's Qtjabtebly Magazine 

who was removed in 1640 from his office by Sir Francis Wiatt on 
account of his speaking contemptuously of the acts of the assem- 
bly. He was succeeded by Eobert Booth. He held the office till 
1651, when Thomas Ballard was appointed, who held office till 
1662. He was succeeded by John Baskervylle who held office till 
1679, when Bichard Awborne, who had been clerk of the General 
Court, succeeded him. This latter held office till 1681, when Ed- 
mund Jenings became clerk. On June 3, 1691, "William Sedg- 
wick, at Burlen Hall, in Lincolnshire, succeeded Jenings. 

The population of the Chiskiack region, after it once began, 
increased rapidly. In 1631 William Claiborne with one hundred 
men settled Kent Island, now a part of Maryland, one hundred 
miles up the Chesapeake Bay. This remote settlement appears to 
have been linked with the settlement on the York, for, in February, 
1632, Capt. Martian took his seat in the Assembly as the repre- 
sentative of both "Kiskyacke and the Isle of Kent." By Septem- 
ber 1632', population on the south side of York River was exten- 
sive enough to claim two representatives in the assembly. The 
region was divided into two districts, one retaining the old name 
of Chiskiack, which included the present Yorktown, and the other 
called York, comprised the settlement on "Wormeley's Creek. In the 
assembly held at this time Capt. Martian represented Chiskiack, 
and Lyonel Rowlston represented York. The following year 
(1633) it was enacted that "a fortieth part of the men in the 
compass of the forest east of Archer's Hope Creek and Queen's 
Creek to Chesapeake Bay should be present before the first day 
of March next at Dr. John Pott's plantation (newly built) at the 
head of Archer's Hope Creek, to erect houses and make secure 
the land." This was the beginning of Middle Plantation 10 (after- 
wards Williamsburg) which became the key of the palisades 
run for six miles from Archer's Hope Creek emptying into James 
River to Queen's Creek emptying into York River. 

Subsequent to this, in 1635, the whole colony was divided 
into eight counties. The settlement on the York was comprised 



icFor an account of the Middle Plantation, see Tyler's "Williams- 
burg, the Old Colonial Capital." 



Yobk County in the Seventeenth Century 239 

in a county named after the river, Charles Eiver County, but the 
name was changed in March, 1643, to York, as was also that of the 
river in honor of James, Duke of York, the son of Charles I. Why 
this change was made the records do not tell us, and the writer can 
only suggest that it was to avoid confusion caused by the existence 
of another county of similar name, Charles City County. 

Charles Eiver County, or York County, had first an indefinite 
northerly and westerly extension, and did not acquire its present 
limits till some years after its change of name. In 1651 Gloucester 
County north of the York Eiver, and in 1654 New Kent County, 
comprising all the country west of the Skimeno Creek on the south 
side of the river, and all the country west of Poropotank Creek on 
the north side, were cut off. 



Parishes in York County. 



The parishes in York County in 1646 appear to have been 
three in number, Poquoson Parish extending from Back Eiver 
(old Poquoson Eiver) to Back Creek, York Parish extending 
from Back Creek to Yorktown Creek, and Hampton Parish from 
Yorktown Creek to Queen's Creek, which was then the westerly 
limit of the settlements. In 1657 the parishes were New Poquo- 
son (afterwards changed by the General Assembly to Charles 
Parish 11 in 1692), from Back Eiver to Back Creek, York from 
Back Creek to Yorktown Creek ; Chiskiack or Hampton from York- 
town Creek to Queen's Creek; Marston from Queen's Creek to 
Skimeno Creek; Middle Plantation comprising the settlement of 
that name between Queen's Creek and Archer's Hope Creek. In 
1658 Harrop Parish in James City County was combined with 
Middle Plantation Parish in York to form Middletown Parish, 
and in 1674 Marston and Middletown became Bruton Parish. In 
1706 York and Hampton Parishes were, by an order of the Coun- 
cil united to make York-Hampton Parish. 12 



ii William and Mary Coll. Quarterly, XX, 142. 
izCouncil Journal 1705-1721, p. 68. 



240 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 
Growth of York County. 



In the meantime the settlements had spread both east and 
west to the farthest limits of the county. Between Wormeley's 
Creek and New Poquoson there settled immediately on the east 
of the first named creek Col. Christopher Wormeley, who had been 
governor of Tortugas Island in the West Indies; near Too's Point 
(a corruption for Chew's Point) Col. John Chew, ancestor of 
Chief Justice Benjamin Chew of Pennsylvania; on Chisman's 
Creek Col. John Chisman 13 of the council of state and his brother 
Edmund, whose son of the same name was one of Bacon's majors; 
on Poquoson Eiver Capt. Christopher Calthorpe, son of Chris- 
topher Calthorpe of Norfolk County, England, whose family was 
connected with Queen Elizabeth. At the other end, in the point 
between Queen's Creek and York Eiver Nicholas Jurnew patented 
500 or 600 acres in 1632, which was called "Vaulx Land," or 
"Vaulx Hall," and was successively the home of the Vaulx, Temple, 
Timson, Shields, and Johnson families, and is now the property 
of Gen. Littleton Waller Tazewell Waller. Adjoining Vaulx Land 
on the west and lying east of St. Andrew's, afterwards Carter's 
Creek, was Poplar Neck, containing 1,750 acres, patented by Major 
Joseph Croshaw, whose daughter Unity married Col. John West, of 
West Point. About the close of the seventeenth century Poplar 
Neck was the property of Edmund Jenings, Esq., for many years 
secretary of state, who built a brick house thereon and called it 
Eipon Hall, after his native place Eipon in Yorkshire. In the re- 
gion beyond Carter's Creek, stretching to the west of Skimeno, 
Daniel Wild, Philip Chesley and Arthur Price were among the old 
inhabitants ; later Baldwin Mathews, grandson of Governor Samuel 
Mathews, resided in this quarter, and in the 18th century there 
was a ferry at Skimeno Plantation kept by Thomas Buckner, 
connecting with Cappahosic on the other side. 

Other leading settlers of York County during the 17th cen- 
tury were Mr. Henry Tyler, Major Otho Thorpe, Capt. Robert 



i3This name was pronounced "Cheesman," aDd the spelling often 
followed the sound. 



Yoek County in the Seventeenth Centuby 241 

Higginson, Mr. Peter Efford, Col. John Page, George and Edward 
Wiatt (nephews of Governor Prancis Wiatt), John Clarke (son of 
Sir John Clarke of Wrotham in Kent) — all of Middle Plantation; 
Capt. William Brocas, Major William Barber, Maj. James Good- 
win, Maj. William Gooch, Lt. Col. Thomas Ballard, Maj. Philip 
Stephens, Lt. Col. Henry Gooch, Mr. John Hansford, Mr. Eobert 
Hyde, Maj. John Brodnax, Eev. Edward Folliott, Bev. James 
Sclater, Col. Eichard Lee and Dr. Henry Lee, Peter Perry, Dr. 
Henry Power, Dr. Francis Haddon, Mr. Eobert VauLx, Mr. An- 
thony Bobinson, Mr. Thomas Curtis, Mr. Thomas Bushrod, Capt. 
Thomas Hill, Mr. Thomas Nutting, Mr. Edmund Peters, Eev. 
Eoland Jones, Mr. John Baskervyle, Mr. Eobert Sheild, Mr. 
Mathew Hubard, Mr. John Howard, Mr. Eobert Curtis, etc. Quite 
a number of these settlers have been traced to respectable families 
in England, and it is perfectly evident from the environment that 
most of the others whose connections have not been so traced be- 
longed to the same social circles. They were as a rule men of 
good education, and it is certain that no better set of immigrants 
could have come to a new country for settlement. 

After the cutting off of Gloucester County (1651) and New 
Kent County (1654), York assumed its present dimensions. Its 
mean length is 2'6 miles, mean breadth 5 3/4, and area 149 square 
miles. 

The Eiest Eebellion. 

The Yorktown Tegion was from a very early period a center 
of political activity. Sir John Harvey, who became governor in 
1629, lived to be very unpopular in Virginia because of his sym- 
pathies with the tobacco monopoly desired by the king and with 
the designs of Lord Baltimore to cut off Maryland from Virginia, 
of which it was originally a part. Chiskiack and York were the 
centres of opposition to Harvey, and on April 5, 1635, at the 
house of William Warren, who had leased a part of Martin Baker's 
patent on the river, a meeting of protesters was held, at which the 
chief speakers were Capt. Nicholas Martian, Capt. Francis Pott, 
and Mr. William English, the first sheriff of Charles Eiver County. 
Harvey was enraged at the proceedings, and caused the leaders to 



242 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

be arrested, but his council took side3 with the culprits and de- 
posed Harvey from his government. In May an assembly was con- 
vened which confirmed the action of the council and conferred the 
government of the Colony upon John West, of Chiskiack. Harvey 
returned to England where he appealed to King Charles, who 
ordered his reinstatement as governor. But the deposition of 
Sir John Harvey was the first vindication on the American conti- 
nent of the right of a people to "self-determination." 

It is interesting to note that William Warren's house in which 
the first steps were taken must have been only a few hundred 
yards from the Moore house in which the articles of Cornwallis' 
surrender were signed, and that the chief actor at the meeting 
was Capt. Nicholas Martian, the first patentee of Yorktown and 
an ancestor of George Washington, who was the chief actor in 
the overthrow of English authority at that place in 1781. 

Sir John Harvey was an active, energetic man, and soon after 
his return to the Colony in 1637 he began improvements at James- 
town, and started measures to erect a brick church and brick state 
house. All the island side for half a mile along the river was 
taken up, aDd the Secretary of State, Richard Kemp, erected at 
Jamestown a building of brick, "the fairest ever known in this 
country for substance and uniformity." But the fires of the old 
quarrels still burned brightly and the old councillors, West, Utie, 
Matthews, Dr. John Pott, and Pierce, who had been summoned to 
England, were untiring in their efforts to ruin Harvey. Added to 
this, as an element in fanning the flames, were the autocratic 
methods pursued by Harvey and his friends. 

Among those who had incurred his ill-will was the minister 
of York and Chiskiack, Anthony Panton, who had come to the 
Colony in 1632. Panton had no use for Harvey's secretary of 
state, Kemp, and ridiculed him from the pulpit, referring to "his 
pride of a lock he had tied up with a ribbon old as Paul's." This 
talk it must be confessed was rather provoking, but Kemp allowed 
his resentment to go too far. Panton was hauled before the gov- 
ernor and council, and through Kemp's influence his property was 
confiscated, and Panton himself banished from the Colony on the 
pain of death should he ever return. 



Toek County in the Seventeenth Century 243 

The affair made a great sensation, both in Virginia and Eng- 
land, and contributed to Harvey's final undoing. In 1639 after 
a brief second term of eighteen months, Harvey was recalled by 
the king, and the government of Virginia was turned over to the 
opposing faction. Sir Francis "Wiatt and the old councillors came 
again into authority, and they speedily restored Panton to his 
parish, and to satisfy the claims which arose from many quar- 
ters, Harvey's estate both at Jamestown and York was seized upon 
and exposed to sale. To avoid punishment, Kemp, the Secretary 
of State, secretly fled from Virginia, and appeared at the court of 
King Charles. He contrived to adjust matters, and in 1642, 
when Sir William Berkeley came over as governor, he returned to 
Virginia and served as Secretary till his death in 1649. 

The Commonwealth Period. 



Many people came during the civil war in England to Vir- 
ginia, but the records from 1648 to 1657 are for the most part 
missing in York County. The county duly submitted to the rule 
of Parliament, but there was certainly much sympathy with the 
old royal cause. Among the royalist officers who settled in York 
County was Major John Brodnax, who died in 1660 and left the 
fine wardrobe of a cavalier, which is on record. Descendants of his 
name are still well known in Virginia. After the death of Oliver 
Cromwell, the Lords of the Council of State in England sent a 
letter to the Governor of Virginia apprizing him of the accession 
of Eichard Cromwell as Lord Protector. This letter was read in 
the House of Burgesses in March, 1659, and assented to by them. 
But there was much dissatisfaction at this time, and in July, 
1659, Major Joseph Croshaw, who sat in the House of Burgesses 
from York County and was a justice, "questioned and disputed 
the present authority." 

Thereupon Governor Samuel Mathews suspended Croshaw 
from his office as a justice by a letter addressed to the Commis- 
sioners of York County (as the justices were then called) bear- 
ing date July 16, 1659. The Governor declared the conduct of 
Croshaw as very "presumptious and tending much to ye breach 



244 Tyleb's Quabtebly Magazine 

and detriment of this our colony." It happened, however, that 
before that time unknown to the Virginians, Richard Cromwell 
had resigned from his office and the Long Parliament under the 
protection of the army had again taken over the government in 
England. 

There is evidence that many people in England tvere looking to 
Virginia at this time to escape the troublous conditions. This is 
manifest from a letter written by Francis Wheeler in London 
to his father of the same name living at Queen's Creek in Vir- 
ginia. In it he says : "Father I think it would be convenient 
for you to keepe a plantacion & something in Virg% the times 
being so dangerouse here." At the date of the letter there had 
been another 'overturn in the government of England. The 
soldiers, who, on the resignation of Richard Cromwell, had put 
in the old Long Parliament, in a little more than five months 
after its restoration expelled it a second time on October 12, 
1659. The nation became divided between the army commanders, 
Fleetwood and Monk, and the Long Parliament, which, supported 
by the navy and some troops, reassembled in the hall at West- 
minter. 

All this is very interestingly referred to in Francis Wheeler's 
letter recorded in the York books : 



Francis Wheeler of London to his Father in Virginia. 

London, December the 29th 
1659. 
Loveing ffather, 

My duty remembered to you with my Love to my mother Lawe 
and all the rest of our freinds in generall desyreing yor health, 
praise be ye Lord for that health I enioie at present: my last to ycu 
was by Capt Holman wherein I certifyed you of the Receipt of 16 
hhds of tobacco pr the Virga Merchant and three of my Unkle Tustians. 
I think I also certifyed you that I had sold fifteen hhds of yor six- 
teenths in ye aforesaid shipp for ffive pence 33 pound & the excise; 
the hhd I thought had been lost was found, & I have reed 16 hhds 
upon yor Account out of ye Virginia Mrchant this yeare & my Unkle 
Tustians 3 hhds of tobacco. I have here sent you an accompt of 
sixteen hhds. in ye Virginia Mrchant what they produced; my Unkle 
Mann and Aunt rememb their Love to you & my Mother law; and all 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 245 

ye rest of your freinds in ye Countrey remembr their Love to you 
and my Mother Law. 

Since the 9th of October here hath been another overturne in the 
Gove"nmt of this nation: ye soldyers turned out ye last long Parlia- 
ment & for a while we were without any settled Governmt but ye 
sword, & swordsmen bare ye rule of ye Nation & this Citty not many 
weekes ago stood in a dangerouse condition, according are we judge 
by the eye of fflesh, and had not the good hand of the Lord pre- 
vented what was feared, for aught I know this Citty might be turned 
into Ashes & the streets running with blood. The soldyers they are 
divided one against another, & the people they are divided some for 
one government some for another, & how long thus a kingdome 
divided against itselfe can stand, I know not. Sinne & eniquity hath 
divided us one afTinst another & who knows but that the Lord may 
give us upp to be aestroyed one of another. The last Parliament part 
of their members, have againe within these eight days, mett againe 
at the Pliament house & some of the soldiers have revolted from their 
Comanders & adheered to this Pliamt & this Long Pliarot together 
with ye soldyers are likely to be our rulers againe for a season unless ye 
soldiers Clash againe. 

As for tobacco it is rather worse comodity than better, then it 
was 2 monthes or 8 monthes agoe & what it will be next yeare is 
very uncertaine, unlesse here were like to be some settled Governmt. 
Father I thinke it would be convenient for you to keepe a plantation 
& something in Virga, the times being so dangerouse here; and this 
with my prayer to ye Lord for you I leave you to ye protection of 
ye Lord & Rest 

Your Loveing and Obedient Sonne 

Francis Wheeler. 

(Thus superscribed) 

These for his very Loveing ffather Mr Francis Wheeler, Living at 
Queens Creek in Virginia. 

The "mother-in-law" (a designation then for step-mother) 
mentioned in the letter was formerly Eleanor, widow of Nicholas 
Comins, whose daughter Elizabeth married Mr. Robert Harrison, 
of York County, father of Mr. Eobert Harrison, who built the 
prison at Yorktown in 1699. 

It was not long after this letter that the restoration took place. 
Monk, commanding the army in Scotland, declared for a free 
parliament and invited King Charles II to return. Charles II 
embarked on the fleet from Holland May 23, and on May 29, which 



246 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

was his birthday, he entered the city of London. The way for 
twenty miles was strewn with flowers and the gutters of the city 
itself ran with wine. 

In the meantime Virginia had become very restless in view 
of the chaotic conditions in England, and, on the death of Gov. 
Mathews, the assembly meeting at Jamestown March 13, 1660, 
assumed all power into its own hands and unanimously recalled 
Sir William Berkeley back to the governorship, from which he had 
been expelled in 1652. Means of communication were slow in those 
days, and it was three months and a half after the king returned to 
London, before he was proclaimed in Virginia. On September 
20, 1660, Sir William Berkeley, having received the royal com- 
mission as governor, issued the following proclamation: 

Proclamation of Sir William Berkeley. 

By his Majyes Governr and Capt. Generall of Virginia. 

Itt is thought fitt & accordingly ordered for the speedy & better 
dispatch of all Affaires tending to ye peace & welfare of yis Collony 
and, the Inhabitantes yereof that all officers whatever within this 
Country doe remaine & continue within their severall offices until 
further order to ye contrary. 

And forasmuch as it hath pleased Almighty God to invest our most 
gratious Soveraine Charles the Second, King of England, Scotland, 
ffrance & Ireland In the dominions & just Rights of his Royall ffather 
of ever sacred Memory, these are therefore in his Matyes Name strictly 
to charge and comand you and every of you forthwith to cause the 
said King to be proclaimed in every of the respective counties and 
that all Writts and Warrants from henceforth issue in his Maiestyes 
name. Hereof faile not as you will answear ye contrary at yor utter- 
most perill. Given at James Citty under my hand this 20th f Sep- 
tembr, sixteen hundred and sixty. 

William Berkeley. 

To the Sherr and other cheife officers of York County. 

Recr 20 Octobr 1660. 

The joy in Virginia over the restoration was probably only 
second to that in England. The colonists had practically enjoyed 
self-government under the King, and they had a sentimental at- 
tachment to the crown, which continued throughout the Common- 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 247 

wealth period. They submitted to the powers that be, but there 
were outcroppings of impatience, which exhibited itself in nearly 
all the counties. Seen at this distance of time, the gross human 
faults of the cavaliers in England were preferable to the cruel, 
heartless creed of the Puritans and their total lack of sympathetic 
feelings. That York was not behind the other counties of Vir- 
ginia in manifesting their joy on the day 'Tiis sacred majesty" 
was proclaimed is shown by the County levy. 

The whole population must have assembled at York plantation. 
There was music furnished by a band of trumpeters. A barrel 
of powder obtained from the governor was used up in firing salutes 
and John Fox (ancestor of the Fox family of Virginia), cap- 
tain of the William and John, thundered with his cannon. Six 
cases of drams and 211 gallons of cider were consumed by the crowd, 
which must have been consequently pretty lively and noisy. Yet the 
solemnity of the occasion was recognized by the presence of Rev. 
Philip Mallory, who had officiated as minister of the last two 
assemblies, and was recognized as a man of excellent example. 

From the York County Levy Oct., 1660. 
Att the proclaiming of his sacred Maiesty 

(Tobacco) 
To y e Ho ble Govern r $ a barrell powd r 112 lb. 00996 

To Capt Fox six cases of drams 00900 

To Capt Fox for his great gunnes 00500 

To M r Philip Malory 00500 

To ye trumpeters 00800 

To M r Hansford 176 gallons Syd r at 15 and 35 gall at 20, 

caske 264 03604 

Col. George Reade. 

Capt. Nicholas Martian, who had made himself conspicuous 
in Harvey's deposition, died between March 1 and April 4, 1657, 
the dates of the making of his will and its proof in court. He 
left three daughters, Elizabeth who married George Eeade, Sarah 
who married William Fuller, some time Puritan governor of 
Maryland, and Jane who married Lt. Col. John Scasbrooke of 



248 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



York County. By virtue of his marital connection the land at 
Yorktown came into the possession of George Eeade, who on ac- 
count of his importance deserves more than casual mention. He 
came of a well known English family, being the son of Eobert 
Eeade, Esq., and grandson of Andrew Eeade of Linkenholt, Hamp- 
shire, England. His mother was Mildred Windebank, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Windebank, and his brother Eobert was secretary 
to his uncle Sir Francis Windebank, Secretary of State to Charles 
I. Now, unlike his father-in-law, George Eeade was a friend 
and adherent of Governor Harvey, and Secretary Kemp had been 
his chief friend from the time of his arrival in 1637. So it hap- 
pened that, when Kemp ran away from the Colony, he left Eeade 
to act as deputy secretary. Afterwards Eeade was burgess for 
James City County in 1649, but removing soon after this time 
from Jamestown to York County he was one of the justices there 
in 1652. During the commonwealth period he was elected by the 
House of Burgesses a member of the Council of State, a position 
in which he was confirmed by Charles II in 1660, in the royal 
commission issued at the time. Eeade remained a councillor till 
his death, which occurred some time between September 20, 1671, 
when he made his last appearance in Council, and November 20, 
1671, when his will was proved in the General Court by Thomas 
Eeade and Henry Eichardson. He left surviving four sons, Eob- 
ert, Francis, Thomas and Benjamin Eeade and two daughters 
Mildred, who married Col. Augustin Warner (from which mar- 
riage Washington was descended), and Elizabeth who married Capt. 
Thomas Chisman, of York County. 



Bacon's Eebellion. 



Five years after Col. Eeade's death this region became in- 
volved in the throes of another rebellion, even more extensive than 
that which deposed Sir John Harvey. Heavy taxes and Indian 
massacres, which Governor Sir William Berkeley failed to sup- 
press, brought about the rising under Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., who 
like his cousin Nathaniel Bacon of King's Creek, was a relative 
of Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam. In York County the leading 



1 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 249 

friends of Bacon were Edmund Chisman, Thomas Whaley and 
Thomas Hansford. 

Chisman and Whaley were majors under Bacon, and Thomas 
Hansford was commander of four counties and president of Bacon's 
court of sequestrations. For about six months a guerilla war- 
fare prevailed throughout the colony. There was a great deal of 
pillaging and plundering on both sides, and York County was in 
such confusion that no court was held for nearly a year. A com- 
pany of rebels under Hansford took possession of Col. Eeade's house 
and another company under Whaley occupied the house of 
Nathaniel Bacon, Sr. As long as Bacon lived, the rebel cause was 
triumphant. Berkeley was driven from Jamestown over the bay 
to Northampton County, where he was the guest of Col. John 
Custis at Arlington. But just at the time when Bacon's authority 
was most recognized, he was taken ill and died on October 26, 
1676. 14 He was succeeded in his command by Joseph Ingram, who 
like Bacon was a recent comer, but had less merits as a commander. 

The altered state of affairs stimulated the loyalists to new en- 
deavors. Berkeley greatly encouraged by Bacon's death sent over 
the bay Major Robert Beverley, who surprised Hansford and the 
twenty soldiers that kept guard at Col. Eeade's house. They were 
taken to the governor in Northampton, and a second expedition 
under the same commander was successful in securing Major Chis- 
man and one Captain Wilford. 

They met with scant courtesy from Sir William Berkeley, and 
notable was the conduct of Hansford, who is described by Berkeley 
himself as a "valiant, stout, man and most resolved rebel." He was 
a son of Mr. John Hansford, who had been one of the justices of 
York County and had died not long before the rebellion broke out. 
At the trial he made no vain supplication, but only asked that "he 
might be shot like a soldier and not hanged like a dog," and when 
the plea was denied he made use of the short interval allowed him 
before the execution in professing repentance for his sins. But 



i*This is according to the report of the commissioners. British 
Calendar of State Papers Colonial America and West Indies, 1677-1680, 
p. 167. T. M.'s account in Force's Tracts says Bacon died Oct. 1, 1676. 



250 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

he expressed no repentance for his rebellion, which he would not 
acknowledge, desiring the people at the place of execution to take 
notice that "he died a loyal subject and a lover of his country." 
It is said that he was the first Virginia born ever hanged on the 
gallows. 15 

When Major Chisman was brought into Berkeley's presence 
there was a tragic scene which was much to the honor of his lady. 
The governor immediately demanded of him why he engaged in 
Bacon's designs. He was about to reply when his wife threw her- 
self at the governor's feet and asked to be hanged in his stead, de- 
claring that it was owing to her instigation that he had taken 
Bacon's part. But the governor, using a vile epithet, rejected 
her intercession and ordered Chisman to prison. Here he died 
before his trial came off, some say, of bad usage. 16 

Captain Wilford, the third of the distinguished prisoners, was 
the second son of a knight who had lost his life and estate in the 
late king's quarrel with his parliament. "He was a little man, 
yet he had a great heart, and was known to be no coward." Bacon 
had made use of him with the Indians as an interpreter. In the 
recent fighting he had lost an eye but he made a jest of it, declar- 
ing that, as the governor had long ago promised him a hanging as 
being one of those who went out with Bacon in his first expedition 
against the Indians, it made no difference whether he had one eye 
or two eyes, for that in either case the governor would see him 
well guided to the place of execution. He suffered like Hans- 
ford on the gallows. 

Having so far succeeded beyond his best hopes, Sir William 
came over to York Biver with four ships and two sloops, and 



isFor an account of the Hansford family, see Virginia Historical 
Collections, XI. 

isFor an account of the Chisman family, see William and 
Mary College Quarterly, I. Lydia Chisman, the wife of Major Chis- 
man, is described in the York records as a daughter of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Bushrod. She married 2dly. Thomas Harwood, and in 1698 was 
killed by lightning. T. M. says that she was a niece of Capt. George 
Farlow, an expert mathematician, who like her husband, took part 
with Bacon, was captured by Berkeley, and was executed. 









Yokk County in the Seventeenth Century 251 

taking up his station before Tindall's Point (now Gloucester 
Point) despatched Major Beverley on another expedition. He was 
again successful, and surprised a party of Baconians under Col. 
Harris at William Howard's house in Gloucester. 

This success enheartened the loyalists of Gloucester, who as- 
sembled at Major John Pate's house at Poropotank under Major 
Lawrence Smith, and about the same time a rising of Berkeley's 
friends occurred in Middlesex County. Ingram at West Point 
promptly sent against the latter a band of soldiers under Lt. Col. 
Gregory Walklett, and when Smith set out from Major Pate's 
with a hope to cut him off, Ingram made a rapid march and cap- 
tured the weak garrison left behind under the charge of a min- 
ister. He then marched to meet Smith, who having learned of In- 
gram's movement had retraced his steps. When the two forces 
faced one another in a short time, the men under Smith being 
lukewarm in their new loyalty refused to fight, and Ingram, hav- 
ing made prisoners of all the officers, dismissed the soldiers to their 
homes. 

Much about the same time Berkeley met with another severe 
reverse. He sent a party of men under Hubert Farrell, of Charles 
City County, to attack Major Whaley and his guard at Col. Bacon's 
house in York. Col. Bacon and Col. Philip Ludwell went along 
also, and the attack was made at night. But Whaley and his forty 
men, though much outnumbered, made so valiant a defense that 
they not only held back the assailants, but killed Farrell, the leader 
of the royalists, wounded several and took three or four prisoners. 
It is said that Whaley and his men "gloried more over their vic- 
tory than Scanderbeg did for the greatest victory he ever obtained 
over the Turks." 

So far Ingram had done well, but he was not composed of the 
same stuff as the dead Bacon. The news that reached him from 
England of the sailing of a regiment of red coats cooled the ardor 
excited by his victories. And when he was visited at Poropotank 
by Thomas Grantham, commander of the ship in which Ingram 
had come to Virginia, he was easily induced, through the inter- 
cessions of this gentleman, to negotiate terms of surrender. These 
being satisfactorily accomplished, he suffered Grantham to go to 



252 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



West Point and inform the garrison there of his determination, 
whereupon the soldiers forsook West Point and were taken by 
Grantham on his ship to the governor at Tindall's Point to re- 
ceive the benefit of the articles of surrender. 

The news of the surrender of West Point had a demoralizing 
influence on the Baconians generally. At Green Spring where 
Bacon had planted a strong garrison under Capt. Drew, similar 
negotiations took place, and Drew, having been promised his safety, 
agreed to hold the place till the governor returned. 

The capitulation of Ingram occurred in the early part of Jan- 
uary, 1677, and at this time Lawrence and Drummond who had 
been considered the two leading friends of Bacon were at the 
"Brick House" in New Kent County, opposite West Point. They 
had been excepted out of the governor's pardon. Drummond had 
been governor of North Carolina, and was esteemed a man of much 
wisdom and honesty. Lawrence was an Oxford scholar, and had 
been a burgess for Jamestown in the assembly which had sat at 
the call of Bacon in September, 1676. At the time of the burn- 
ing of Jamestown when Bacon set fire to the church, Lawrence 
and Drummond, not to be outdone, fired each his own house — 
their houses being two of the three best in Jamestown, the third 
being the house already mentioned as built in 1639 by Richard 
Kemp, but then in 1676 the property of William Sherwood, the 
lawyer. 

They had made some attempt to hinder Grantham's design, 
but not succeeding they sent down to Col. Bacon's house for Major 
Whaley and his guard. He hastened up, and on his arrival the 
combined forces numbered three hundred men and boys. Peel- 
ing that with this number they were too weak to make a success- 
ful stand, they marched higher up the Pamunkey Eiver as far as 
the new house of Lt. Col. Henry Gooch (Gooch's Ferry), in what 
is now King William County. But on arriving there and finding 
that many of the soldiers had deserted, the party broke up alto- 
gether, every man undertaking to shift for himself. 

Lawrence and Whaley, with three other soldiers, mounted their 
horses and rode off into the woods in snow ankle deep and were 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 253 

never heard of again. 17 Most of the rest went to their homes 
where the most important were soon arrested and brought to Sir 
William Berkeley at Tindall's Point. 

Berkeley had his quarters at this time on Capt. John Martin's 
ship, and on January 11 a court martial was held on board when 
Thomas Hall, clerk of New Kent County, was tried and con- 
demned to be hanged at Col. Beade's place on the southern shore. 
This Hall was described by Berkeley himself, on account of his 
facility with the pen, as of more value to the rebels than forty 
armed men. On the next day, January 12, three others were tried 
on the ship and hanged at the same place : Captain Thomas 
Young, of Chickahominy, who had served in tbe parliamentary 
army, and was son of Thomas Young, who in 1634 explored Dela- 
ware Bay; Henry Page, a servant and carpenter, whom on account 
of his ability Bacon had made a lieutenant colonel, and one Harris, 
who had shot to death, a "valiant loyalist prisoner." 

These executions being over, the governor after a few days 
moved up to King's Creek, and on January 19th anchored be- 
fore Col. Bacon's house, now cleared of Whaley and his men. They 
found that the damage done to the estate amounted to £2000 sterl- 
ing, chiefly in goods taken from Col. Bacon's store. Here Mr. 
Drummond, taken the day before in Chickahominy Swamp, was 
presented to the governor. The governor had an old grudge 
against Drummond and was delighted to have him in his power. 
His words have been often quoted, "Mr. Drummond, I am more 
glad to see you than any man in Virginia. You shall hang in half 
an hour." 

Probably the governor was wrongly reported in this last par- 
ticular. Drummond was hanged sufficiently speedily, but not in 
"half an hour." That night he was sent on board a ship in irons. 
On the next day the governor landed, and rode in his coach to Col. 
James Bray's house at Middle Plantation. The following day ( Jan- 



"Whaley left behind a son, James Whaley, who became a promi- 
nent merchant and lawyer of York County. He married Mary Page, 
niece of Col. John Page, and had an only son, Matthew, who died at 
nine years of age. His mother in 1706 established a school to his 
memory, which the College of Wm. & Mary still maintains. 



254 



Tyueb's Quarterly Magazine 



uary 20) he sent a body of cavalry for Mr. Drummond, who walked 
all the way (five miles) from King's Creek to Middle Plantation in 
fetters. On his arrival he was tried, condemned at one o'clock and 
hanged at four. 

On January 22, Berkeley proceeded to Green Spring (six 
miles west of Middle Plantation), where a court martial was held 
on the 24th of the month, and sentence of death passed on James 
Crewes, William Cookson, John Digby, William Eookings, Wil- 
liam West and John Turner — all leading friends of Bacon. 

The ships with the troops from England, and the commis- 
sioners appointed by the king to enquire into the present troubles, 
entered Chesapeake Bay January 29, 1677. Berkeley went to 
Kiquotan, now Hampton, and visited the ship "Bristol" to confer 
with the commissioners and gave them a list of those executed. 

Then an assembly was called to meet on the 20th of February, 
when the Rebellion may be said to have reached its end. After the 
assembly met, civil courts were resumed, but though the accused 
had the benefit of a jury, executions and fines, under the influence 
of Berkeley, were continued as long as he remained in the colony, 
despite the protest of the commissioners. Lt. Col. Henry Gooch, at 
whose house the rebels had their last gathering was fined 6,000 
pounds of pork for the use of the soldiers. 18 

Hansford House as a Coubt House. 

In the celebrated meeting at Middle Plantation August 3, 1676, 
Bacon had compelled the justices to administer to the people an 



i»The comparatively light fine put on Gooch shows that his sup- 
port of Bacon had been only half-hearted. At the meeting at Glou- 
cester C. H., when Bacon demanded an oath of allegiance and there 
was some hesitation, Gooch suggested that he had "spoke only to the 
Horss and not to the foote." Whereupon Bacon retorted: "He had 
spoke to the Men and not to the Horss, leaving that servis for him 
to do because one beast would best understand the meaning of an- 
other." Col. Gooch (pronounced "Gouge") married twice — first about 
1661 Millicent, widow of Robert Kinsey and 2dly about 1676 Jane 
Jones, sister of Rev. Rowland Jones of Bruton Parish, Middle Plan- 
tation (Williamsburg). He was ancestor of all of the name in Vir- 
ginia. 






Yoke County in the Seventeenth Century 255 

oath of allegiance, and in a letter dated February 17, 1677, these 
gentlemen for York County — John Page, John Scasbrooke, James 
Vaulx, Otho Thorpe anl Isaac Clopton — now besought the gover- 
nor "to indemnify" by them by name for obeying the mandate and 
to indicate "who should be justices of York County." The gov- 
ernor on March 23 reappointed all, except John Seasbrooke, who 
had married Chisman's wife's sister Elizabeth (his second wife), 
and whose case was reserved for the consideration of the council 
on account of suspicion. And on March 31, in reply to a petition of 
the court, who complained that the county was without a court- 
house, he ordered that its sessions be held "in the house lately be- 
longing to Thomas Hansford, whose estate for his rebellion and 
treason is forfeited to his sacred Majesty." 

However, this idea of forfeiture did not receive the approval of 
the commissioners sent over by the king, who reported in favor of 
giving the estates of "the wretched men" executed for rebellion to 
"their poor wives and children, which will be an act of great 
mercy," and the king approved. 

The right of Hansford's children to his estate, which was lo- 
cated at the head of Felgate's Creek, was recognized by an agree- 
ment made February 20, 1678, between the court and the execu- 
tors of Mrs. Hansford (who within a year had followed her mar- 
tyred husband to the grave), by which the house lately belonging 
to Mrs. Hansford was leased to the county for a court house at one 
thousand pounds of tobacco per year. This arrangement continued 
till January 20, 1680, when the place of meeting was changed to the 
French Ordinary not far distant on the York road, half way be- 
tween "Williamsburg and Yorktown. 

Court House at the French Ordinary. 

There is in the record a deed from Andrew Header and Agnes, 
his wife, dated February 24, 1680, for the sale to the worshipful 
court of York County of "one house new built" at the French Ordi- 
nary for "a court house with the ground whereon it stands," and in 
this house the court began now to hold its sessions. Eleven months 
later Mr. Eeader died, and not long after William Whitaker of 






256 Tylek's Quarterly Magazine 

Warwick County, who married his widow, was employed by the 
court at 3,000 pounds of tobacco to repair the courthouse and for 
7,000 pounds to put up a prison. Further repairs on the court- 
house were made in 1686 by Mr. Joseph Ring, to whom Whitaker 
and his wife sold thirty-five acres of land at the French Ordinary. 
In 1698 after 18 years at this place a new move was made, 
and the capital of the county was taken back to the river, near its 
original site, where it has ever since remained. 

Beginnings of Yoektown. 

By the will 19 of Col. Reade, cited in the records, the land at 
the present Yorktown amounting to 850 acres was left to his three 
sons,. Robert, Francis and Benjamin Reade, one-half to the former 
and the other half to the two latter. On February 24, 1691, a divi- 
sion line was drawn between Robert Reade on the one hand, Ben- 
jamin and Francis Reade on the other. It was to begin "at the 
River syde at a Rock lying by the edge of the Water and running 
south, 39 degrees west, on y e North Side of a small swamp, which 
is a little above the Well where the ships usually Water, and so 
Running into the woods, keepeing the same course by a Lyne of 
Marked trees unto a marked gum, which stands by the syde of a 
branch which Runes into y 6 swamp, which parts this land and the 
land of Mr. David Condon." Benjamin Reade, who moved to 
Gloucester County, owned the fourth part lying immediately on 
the river, amounting to 2121A acres. 

When, therefore, in April, 1691, the General Assembly passed 
an act directing the justices of the several counties to purchase or 
condemn fifty acres for a county port, the town site for York was 
taken entirely from Benjamin Reade's tract. 

On July 24, 1691, the following order was entered: 

"Ordered that the court on the 29th day of this instant July 
meet upon Mr. Benjamin Reade's land beginning at the lower side 
of Smyths Creek and so running downward by the river towards 



"Col. Reade's will was recorded in the General Court, whose 
records were burned in Richmond in 1865. 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 257 

the ferry being ye land appointed by Law for a Port in order to 
laying out of tbe same for a town and doeing all other things 
relateing thereto, and that the sheriff give notice to the surveyor 
of this county that he then and there give his attendance. And 
further this court doth hereby nominate and make choyce of Mr. 
Joseph Ring and Mr. Thomas Ballard to take and receive of Mr. 
Benjamin Eeade a ffirme and authentic Deed or Conveyance of 
the said land as ffeoffees in trust which is accordingly by them to 
be confirmed to every respective pson or psons as ye law directs for 
what shall to him or them/' 

Nature, indeed, appears to have pointed out this situation as 
the permanent place for the capital of the county. Here 
the two shores of York Eiver approach within a mile of one 
another and the deep water between enabled the ships to come 
close in to the land. As a consequence not only a well had been 
dug on the south bank for the convenience of the sailors, but in 
1661 there were both a ferry and an inn or ordinary near the well 
for the accommodation of the public. On the point opposite, 
known first as Tindall's Point after Capt. Robert Tindall, who 
came with the first settlers, and in the 18th century as Gloucester 
Point, was a fort called Fort James constructed in 1667 of dirt 
and in 1672 ordered by the Assembly to be rebuilt of brick, which 
was accordingly done from clay taken from Col. Baldry's land 
at York. 20 Tindall's Point was, as we have seen, an important 
locality in Bacon's Rebellion, and after its suppression the Gen- 
eral Assembly thought seriously of building the new Jamestown 
there, and even passed a resolution to that effect which was after- 
wards reconsidered and repealed. 

Col. Lawrence Smith 21 acted as surveyor, and as laid out by 
him the fifty acres for the port began "at a marked poplar on the 
branch adjoyning to the River, thence running South Forty de- 



aoYork County Records in William and Mary Coll. Quarterly, 
XXVI, 34; Hening's Statute^ at Large, II, 255, 293. 

21 For Smith family see Ibid., II, 5-15. Col. Smith died in 1700, 
leaving a son, John, who became a member of the Council of State 
and inherited his Gloucester estate, and a son, Lawrence Smith, who 
succeeded to his Temple Farm estate. 



258 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



grees west thirty two poles, south east eight poles, south forty de- 
grees west thirty two poles, south east sixty two poles south forty 
degrees west ten poles, south thirty eight degrees East sixty two 
poles, north forty degrees 62 poles to the River side, north thirty 8 
degrees West up York River from low water Marke sixty five 
poles, north forty degrees east ten poles and north west seaventy 
poles along the said low water marke to the beginning place." 
The lots into which the fifty acres were divided were half acre 
lots, most of which were speedily sold, and of which Gov. Francis 
Nicholson bought three, which in 1696 he presented, with the 
houses upon them, to the court of York County "to be disposed of 
for the use of Mr. Robert Leightenhouse the present schoolmaster, 
and afterwards for the use and advantage of such persons as shall 
teach school with the approbacon and allowance of the court afore- 
said." The sum paid Benjamin Reade for the fifty acres was 10,000 
pounds of tobacco and cask. There are in the records a plat of 
the fifty acres and a chart showing the division into lots, with the 
names of the first purchasers. 

The ancient well, "where the ships usually watered," was near 
the eastern limits of the town, and as late as 1699 Thomas Pate 
was licensed to keep ferry there. 

The following taken from the York County Eecords shows the 
total cost accompanying the Port Land, and the number of record 
books existing at that time. 

At a court held for York County Feby ye 24th 1691/2. 

Present Mr. Dudley Digges, Mr. Robert Read, Mr. Thomas Bal- 
lard, Mr. Tho. Mountfort, Capt. Peter Temple, Capt. Thomas Har- 
wood, Capt. Charles Hansford, Justices. 

An Account of ye whole charge of ye Port Land In York County: 



To ye Consideration thereof 

To Caske 

To Col. Smith 

To Caske 

To Wm Sedgwicke 

To Caske 

To Severall Cop» of Ord« abt ye Town 



Tobacco 
10000 
00800 
00500 
00040 
00500 
00040 
00299 



Yoek County in the Seventeenth Centuby 259 

To Sherrs Charges for laying out ye Land £ Towne 00716 

To caske 12894 lb. Tobaccoe 01032 

To Sallery 01290 



15216 



A List of Bootes and papers belonging to ye Courts Office of 
ye County aforesaid delivered to me ye subscriber by Mr Joseph Ring, 
& Capt. Tbos Ballard by vertue of an order at June Court last 1691/2. 

Impris Thirteen Record Books bound five of them dampnifyed in 
some respects both in the covers and paper. 

Impris Five more Record books dampnifyed being unbound & very 
old. 

Impris The Statute att Large, a Collection of ye Statutes att Large, 
Dalton's Justice, also a bound written booke of ye Lawes of Virg» 
writt by Mr Job Howes. 

Impris A Deal box of papers ould and nailed up. 

Impris An old Dansick Case of Papers since ye time of Coll: Ed- 
mund Jenings being first Clerk here, together with a pcell of loose 
papers. 

March 18 1691/2 

Received then [from] ye above named Mr Joseph Ring & Capt 
Thoma* Ballard ye above noted articles according to ye list to re- 
ceive & be accomptable for, as witnesse my hande ye day and year 
above these presents written, I say Received <p me 

Wm Sedgwick. 

March ye 18 1691/2 Ordered to be committed to ye records (by 
the) above named Mr. Joseph Ring and Capt Thomas Ballard and is 
accordingly jjfj formed 

ty Wm Sedgwick, CI. Cur. 

Of these records reported as existing in 1692 none of the papers 
and unbound books are preserved, and but ten of the thirteen bound 
books. 

Doubtless it was expected from the first, that Yorktown, which 
was the name given to the port, would be the seat of justice as 
well as the emporium of commerce, but the court seemed to be in 
no hurry to move from the French Ordinary. Several years passed 
and it was not till 1696 that action was definitely taken. Then 
to hasten the purpose Governor Nicholson in October of that year 
made a promise to give five pounds sterling "towards building 
the court house at Yorktown" and the General Assembly about 



260 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



the same time reciting the complaints which came to them of the 
inconvenience of the existing site to the inhabitants of the county, 
ordered the court house to be built by the last day of October 
of the next year, on a penalty for failure of fifty pounds sterling 
to be paid by each justice. 

Thus prodded the justices contracted with Mr. Henry Cary of 
Warwick County, at a cost of thirty thousand pounds of tobacco 
and cask, to put up a building, which was doubtless accomplished 
in time to escape the legislative penalty; for at a session of the 
court held September 24, 1697, at the French Ordinary, it was 
ordered that the next meeting should occur at Yorktown on No- 
vember 24, 1697. 

On that day the following justices were present at the new 
court house: Mr. Joseph Ring, Capt. Thomas Ballard, Mr. Rob- 
ert Reade, and Capt. William Buckner. Capt. Thomas Barber, 
son of Lt. Coll. William Barber, attended as sheriff and William 
Sedgwick as clerk. 

The old prison at the French Ordinary appears to have been 
used for some time longer. It was not till March 24, 1699, that 
the court ordered the sheriff to give notice to the members to meet 
at the court house in Yorktown on the 11th of April following 
and contract for a building of a prison adjacent thereto and for 
"such other ye instruments of justice as then will be found neces- 
sary to be forthwith undertaken," nor was it till that year that 
the sheriff was ordered to remove to Yorktown "ye standard of 
this county and all other implements and materials yt are moveable 
and belong to this county from the old court house, ye prison, 
stocks and pillory, and yt ye same be duely pformed sometime 
betwixt this and the next court." The prison was erected by Mr. 
Robert Harrison at a cost of 10,000 pounds of tobacco and cask. 22 
There was also the project for the erection of a church at 
Yorktown. Governor Nicholson while subscribing five pounds 
sterling towards building the court house at Yorktown gave also 



zzThe tobacco had to be placed in casks for convenient transporta- 
tion, and this was paid for at the rate of eight per cent, so that Mr. 
Harrison received 10800 pds. 



YOEK CoTXNTY IN THE SEVENTEENTH CeNTTJKY 261 

in 1696 twenty pounds sterling, "if within two years a brick church 
be erected there." Whether the church was built within the time 
contemplated is not known, but it was certainly built soon after. 
Instead of brick, however, the walls were composed of stone marl 
obtained from the banks of the river, which though soft when first 
handled quickly hardened when exposed to the air. This church 
now became the church for York parish, and the old wooden 
church at Wormeley's Creek was abandoned. In the course of a 
hundred years it was so entirely forgotten that its scattered founda- 
tion bricks were taken as the vestiges of "an ancient temple," and 
the enclosing walls "as a safeguard against the Indians." Within 
the enclosure is still a flat slab, bearing a coat of arms and an in- 
scription which reads as follows: 

Major William Gooch,23 f this Parish 
Dyed Octob: 29, 1655 

Within this tomb there doth interred lie 
No shape but substance true nobility; 
Itself though young in yeares but twenty nine 
Yet graced with vertues morall and divine; 
The church from him did good participate; 
In councill rare fit to adorn a State. 

At the time when Yorktown was laid out the church of New 
Poquoson stood on the side of the road leading from Yorktown to 
Hampton, and the site is still marked by some old brick and 
broken stone. By will proved in 1688 James Calthorpe, son of 
Col. Christopher Calthorpe, gave to the parish of New Poquoson 
two hundred feet of land square "for the use of the church where 
the church now stands." 



23ln 1652 William Gooch was a justice of York County, in 1654 
he was a member of the House of Burgesses for York County, and on 
March 31, 1655, he was made Councillor by the General Assembly. 
He died the following October. Henry Gooch was doubtless a near 
kinsman, and Governor William Gooch (1727-1749) was doubtless 
his nephew, as he had an uncle of that name who died in 1655. Major 
William Gooch left an only daughter, Ann, who married Capt. Thomas 
Eeale, Jr. For Gooch Family, see Wm. & Mary Quarterly, V, 110-112. 



262 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

At this time, too, the church of Marston Parish at the other 
end of the county stood near the village of Magruder, and its 
site is marked by tombstones placed there in later times. After 
its union with Middletown Parish in 1674 to form Bruton Parish, 
a book containing a register of births and deaths in Marston 
Parish was used for similar purposes by the new parish, and it 
is still preserved in "Williamsburg, though in a somewhat muti- 
lated condition. 24 

The church of Hampton Parish stood, first, as it appears proba- 
ble, near the river in the neck between King's and Felgate's Creeks. 
About 1700 the old site was abandoned, and a church of brick 
built on the ridge near the head of Felgate's Creek. This church 
about 1706 was united as already stated with that at Yorktown and 
the two parishes of York and Hampton became known as York- 
Hampton Parish, and for a long time the minister who officiated 
at Yorktown had under his charge the church at the head of Fel- 
gate's Creek just mentioned, still referred to as old "Cheescake 
Church" and torn down during the "Civil "War," to furnish bricks 
for the chimneys of the barracks of the Federal officers at Wil- 
liamsburg. 

All the early churches in Yory County including the first 
church at Middle Plantation, were mere wooden structures, but in 
1674 when Bruton Parish was created a small but handsome brick 
buildin« h was erected at Middle Plantation, which was followed by 
the stone church at Yorktown. At the time of the Eevolution all 



"In 1658 Major Joseph Croshaw gave an acre of his estate, Poplar 
Neck, on which stood the church "lately erected" for Marston Parish. 
Among the ministers of Marston Parish was Rev. Morgan Godwin, 
son of Morgan Godwin, archdeacon of Shropshire, and great-grandson 
of Thomas Godwin, Bishop of Bath and Wells. March 16, 1665, he took 
the degree of A. B. at Oxford and soon after came to Virginia, where 
he took charge of Marston Parish. He returned to England before 
1676 and handed to the Bishop of Winchester "a virulent libel against 
all the plantations and Virginia in particular." Burke, History of 
Virginia, app., xxxix.) In 1680 he published a dissertation against 
slavery called The Negroes and Indians Advocate — and in 1685 he 
preached a sermon at Westminster Abbey against the slave trade, 
preceding by more than a century Wilberforce and Clarkson. 



Yoke County in the Seventeenth Centuet 263 

the churches in the Peninsula from Hampton to Eichmond were 
of brick. 

Conditions of Life. 

Conditions of life in York County in the 17th century 
were similar to those prevalent in other parts of Eastern Virginia. 
Besides the animals still extant in the county wolves lurked in 
the coverts, a menace to sheep and pigs. No county levy is free 
from rewards paid in tobacco for the destruction of these "per- 
nicious vermin." There are now no beaver in York County and 
very few otter, but the land grants and deeds of the 17th century 
make "the beaver dams" and "otter dams" an essential feature 
in the description of tracts of land, showing the great abundance 
of these animals at that time. 

There was "no wild and wooly west" in York, but society was 
orderly and organized on the principles which prevailed in the 
county of the same name in England, modified it is true by the 
environment. There was the same recognition of classes, though 
the distinctions were not fixed or constant as in Yorkshire. And 
if among the servants some convicts were found there were also 
among them, as the records show, men from the gentry of Eng- 
land, who were attracted to Virginia by the opportunities of 
fortune making. 23 These opportunities, while sometimes the 
means of raising humble families to a sudden degree of impor- 
tance, were also active in re-establishing families reduced in wealth 
but well recognized in England. But there were no hard and fast 
lines, and York County aristocracy was without the) influence of any 
class of lords or peers; and universal suffrage for the House of 
Burgesses stimulated all freemen towards an equality of inde- 
pendence. Moreover, the leading men were generally from the 
younger sons of the English gentry in England, whose pretentions 
to aristocracy were much diminished by their character as mer- 
chants. 



zsFor an example of this kind, see York Records in William and 
Mary Coll. Quarterly, XXVI, p. 31, where William Gardner, of Ludlow, 
gentleman, contracted to serve Mrs. Eliz. Higginson three years. 



264 Tyleb's Quaetebly Magazine 

Virginia owes much to the London firms, because they were 
continually sending over trusted young agents like Samuel Timson, 
many of whom settled down and founded Virginia families. York 
County was essentially a colony of London. 

This class system, and its precarious authority at the same time, 
is illustrated by two apt instances in the York records. In 1673, 
James Bullock, a tailor residing in York County, was fined 100 
pounds of tobacco for his unprecedented presumption in running 
his mare in a race with a horse belonging to Dr. Matthew Slader 
for a wager of 2,000 pounds of tobacco. Eacing was declared by 
the justices "a sport for gentlemen only." 26 On the other hand, 
William Hatton in 1662 scandalized the court by declaring that 
the justices who composed it were a lot of "coopers, hogg- trough 
makers, pedlars, cobblers, tailors, weavers, and not fitting to sit 
where they doe sit." 27 He was hauled up and made to eat his 
words, but the records show that one of the court at least, Lt. CoL. 
William Barber, had been a cooper in the early day of his residence 
in the colony, and Major James Goodwin another was the son of a 
salter in London. All were engaged in merchandizing. 

The terms "gentleman and yeoman" had pretty nearly the 
same meaning as they had in England, but they lacked in appli- 
cation the character of persistency. Land was easy to get, and 
the yeoman readily became a gentleman. "Mister" and "Mis- 
tress" were terms applied in conversation to persons of the better 
condition, and in the documents all persons of inferior grade are 
named without any title, and when spoken to were addressed as 
"Goodman" and "Goodwife." The term "Esquire" was strictly 
confined to members of the council, and the sons of knights, of 
whom there were very few in the colony. "Clerk," pronounced 
"dark," was a term descriptive not only of clerks of courts and 
the House of Burgesses and committees of the House and Council, 
but of ministers of the gospel. 

The church establishment was modeled after the Church of 
England, and there were very few persons of other religious pro- 



26York Records, in Ibid., Ill, 136. 
27York Records, in Ibid., XXVI, 30. 



York County in the Seventeenth Centuby 265 






fessions. About the middle of the century the Quakers excited 
apprehension by their strange doctrines, and the sheriff was in- 
structed to break up their meetings. In 1661 the fractiousness of 
Mr. Thomas Bushrod, a justice himself, who took the Quakers 
under his protection, occasioned a lively scene in court, which re- 
sulted in his arrest — and reference to the governor and council. 28 
There were long intervals in which these people were not dis- 
turbed, but on occasions the authorities in the county would recur 
to their old apprehensions, and such Quakers as had been non- 
attendant on the church would be summoned and fined. Wo harsh 
jail sentences, nor any whippings, nor any personal mutilations 
were inflicted. Toward the close of the century the toleration act 
took effect in Virginia, and there was a Quaker congregation near 
Skimeno, in which James Bates and Edward Thomas were leading 
members. 

The business of the merchants consisted largely in buying and 
selling tobacco and importing settlers and servants, for each of 
which if imported at their expense the merchants were entitled to 
fifty acres of land. Then there was the usual trade in clothing 
and articles of general use. During the whole of the 17th century 
labor was chiefly performed by white men, and negroes were not 
present in any great number. 

The society was largely that of city people transferred to 
rural conditions. They missed the community life of New Eng- 
land, but social relations were encouraged by the crowds brought 
together at the County Courts, funerals, marriages and races. 
We have much data regarding funerals, which shows the expendi- 
ture of much money on the entertainment of guests, who came 
from miles away. Whole beeves would be consumed, and much 
powder used in firing salutes. At the funeral of Major Philip 
Stevens, a Parliamentary officer who came over in 1649 with Col. 
Henry Norwood, as much as ten pounds of powder was consumed 
in his honor. But the expenditure of powder was insignificant in 
comparison with the consumption of liquor. The amount drank 



zsYork Co. Recordi in William and Mary Coll. Quarterly, XI, 
29-37. 



266 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

in burying John Griggs in 1676 was six gallons of cider and six 
gallons of rum, and the whole expense of the funeral was esti- 
mated at 1750 pds. of tobacco, which appears rather dispropor- 
tional to the value of his estate. There were not wanting people, 
however, who even in that day, when drinking was universal, co - 
demned the custom at funerals, among whom was Eev. Edmund 
Watts, who in 1676 directed that there should be no drinking at 
his funeral having observed that "it tended much to the dishonor 
of God and his true religion." 29 

According to the law of the colony servants, who were im- 
ported without indentures, specifying the term and condition of 
service, were compelled to serve five years, or, if under 24, till 
reaching that age, and on their release were entitled to two barrels 
of corn, two suits of clothes, a pair of canvas drawers, two shirts 
and one felt hat. During their service the custom seems to have 
been to give them meat three times a week, and when Major James 
Goodwin violated this custom by confining his servants to a diet 
of corn bread and water, much murmuring arose at his quarters. 
The ringleader, Isaac Friend, spoke of getting a matter of 40 
armed men together, who should go through the country, crying 
"who would be for liberty and free from bondage." Any danger- 
ous results were prevented by the vigilance of the magistrates, who 
entered an order desiring "the severall magistrates and masters 
of families to prevent the like dangerous discourses in those parts 
and carefully to look into the practice and behaviour of their 
severall servants." 30 

The unrest of the servants in York had probably some con- 
nection with the widespread conspiracy of the servants the follow- 
ing year in Gloucester County, on the north side of the York. 
Many Oliverian soldiers had been sent over to serve, and being 
in disfavor because of their conduct in England, were treated in 
Virginia with doubtless more than usual severity. The betrayal 



"Bruce, Social Lije of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, p. 



220; York County Records. 

soYork Records in William and Mary Coll. Quarterly, XI, 34-37. 



i 



Yokk County in the Seventeenth Centuky 267 

of their plot by one of their number enabled the authorities to put 
down what might have proved a very dangerous uprising. 

A servant who raised his hand against his master or mistress 
was punished by an extension of his term of service two years, 
but servants had their protection in the authority of the court, 
to whom they were authorized to appeal if badly treated. There 
are repeated instances recorded in the York court books of the 
interference of the justices for their protection against cruel 
masters. 

The following letter recorded in one of the York books is much 
to the credit of Sir William Berkeley: 

Majr Croshaw: Here hath been a woman servant wth me who 
hath been most unChristianly used by hir master one Jno Russell 
I desyre you to call him before you & if he will not give security 
for his better useing of hir then you are to bind him over to the 
County Court, where I doubt not but the Com" will take care ser- 
vants shall be Christianly used. 
May 2d Ao 1661 

Yor freind & servant 
Wm Berkeley. 

Major Croshaw bound Russell over to keep the peace in the 
penalty of forty pounds, which at a court held in June, 25 lbs. was 
declared forfeited, because of Eussell's uncivil language to Major 
Croshaw, from which, however, he was relieved at the court foi 
August following, by his making humble submission and asking 
forgiveness. 

The county court met at first monthly, and then six times or 
more a year. The number of justices was eight, but they were 
seldom all present. At the last term each year the court laid the 
annual levy. This was assessed on the number of tithables in the 
county. In those days labor was in great demand and a man's 
wealth was dependent on the number of persons in his family. 
The tithable was for the most part any white man and all negroes 
of both sexes above sixteen, and the population was supposed to 
be four times the number of tithables. Thus in 1700 the num- 
ber of tithables in York County was 1180, so its population was 
probably about 5000. 



268 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

The county court had a considerable range of authority. It 
appointed the supervisors of the highways, the ferrymen, the con- 
stables, and other officers, and saw that they complied with the law. 

A word as to the professions. The physicians appears to have 
been chiefly apprentices attracted to Virginia by the lack of any 
restrictions on the practice of medicine. The regularly graduated 
man was probably the exception. Their help was greatly needed 
from the prevalence of scurvy among the servants, and the chills 
and fever, which was very fatal. For most of the 17th century, 
one out of five immigrants was lucky if he survived the first year 
of his stay, and this period of probation was called the "seasoning 
time." The mortality fell chiefly upon the servant class, who were 
most exposed. Among the more prominent men of the medical pro- 
fession during this century were Dr. Giles Mode and Dr. John 
Petit, two Frenchmen, whose names were anglicised into Moody and 
Pettit, by which their descendants are known in Virginia today, 
Dr. Francis Haddon, Dr. Henry Waldron, Dr. Patrick Napier, 
Dr. Henry Lee, Dr. John Toten, and Dr. Matthew Slader. 

The lawyers were also, like the doctors, largely untrained men. 
The business of the courts was at first of a very simple character, 
and there was not much need of expert lawyers. But Henry Cabot 
Lodge did not know what he was talking about, when in one of his 
books he says that the early lawyers of Virginia "were for the 
most part pettifoggers and sharpers, broken adventurers from Lon- 
don and indentured servants." If Mr. Lodge had taken the trouble 
to examine the Virginia order books he would not have made such 
an ill-founded remark. As a matter of fact, the lawyers of York 
County were like the lawyers of other counties in Virginia, the 
first men in the community. At first the causes were pleaded by 
the more prominent merchants and planters, acting for the parties 
in suit. But towards the latter part of the century trained law- 
yers began to make their appearance. A simple statement of the 
names of the lawyers is a sufficient rebuttal of the charge made by 
Mr. Lodge. We find in 1646 among the lawyers William Hocka- 
day, Francis Willis, Thomas Bushrod and Dr. Eobert Ellyson; 
about 1660 John Morecroft, James Bray, Thomas Ballard, John 



York County in the Seventeenth Century 269 

Page and Daniel Parke; about 1675 William Swinnerton, William 
Sherwood and Gideon Macon; about 1690 Benjamin Harrison, 
Bobert Hyde, Hugh Owen, Dionysius Wright, Isaac Sedgwick 
and Jams Whaley. Of these, Willis, Bray, Ballard, Page and 
Parke became members of the Council of State; Hockaday, Bush- 
rod, Ellyson and Macon were at different times members of the 
House of Burgesses. With the exception of Sherwood, ITar-ison 
and Wright, who were trained lawyers, and the possible exception 
of Hyde, Owen, Morecroft and Sedgwick, all were merchants and 
planters, well informed but not regularly trained to the law. 

No conclusion to the disadvantage of the lawyers is to be 
drawn from the acts of the Assembly during this century. Rural 
communities are ever jealous of special classes, and strictures on 
the profession of law are sometimes even yet heard in rural dis- 
tricts of Virginia. 

The inventories of estates show the great increase in wealth 
in York County throughout the century. Towards the latter part 
some of the planters had as many as a hundred cattle and from 
twenty to thirty horses. The houses were well furnished with 
plate, carpets, chairs, beds and other furniture. The planters did 
not use forks, and they are not noticed in the inventories during 
this century. 

The houses were as a rule framed structures, one story and a 
half high with dormer windows and a chimney at each end. To- 
wards the middle of the century brick houses began to appear. 
The Lee house, and that at "Bingfield," formerly the home of 
Joseph Eing, doubtless belong to this early period. 

The amount of education in York was above the average for 
that age. Nearly every inventory enumerates books, and the wills 
have frequent provisions regarding education. There were many 
teachers and tutors, and the county courts looked after the poor 
children and saw that they were taught to read and write by bind- 
ing them out to useful trades with this requirement in the inden- 
tures. As a colony of the great English metropolis, York County 
in the 17th century had doubtless more of culture than was to be 
found anywhere else in the English colonies. 



270 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 
Conclusion. 



This account of York County during the 17th century may be 
concluded with some extracts from the records, which throw 
light upon the character of the people that came to Virginia and 
on their mode of life. 31 

Mr. Tom Peck, one of the younger sons of Mr. Henry Peck, of 
London, merchant, came to Virginia about 1650, and had stores 
in James City County and York. His letters show that he was 
affectionately assisted by his father and brother Charles, for whom 
he acted as agent in Virginia. 

i 
Mr. Henry Peck to Tom Peck. 

Tom: Out of a true sense of yor condition which hath more 
wrought upon me than my own Necessityes I have to myi own preiudice 
sent you another servant (Vizt) a Boy; which though it may seem 
but little to you, yet to me, in ye condition I am yet in, it is a great 
matter to spare Tenne pounds, for soe much or neare it every ser- 
vant stands me in. Besides you may consider what I have formerly 
done for you which I am sure hath been more than any man in Eng- 
land hath done for his younger children. Nay there be many that 
have farre greater estates than I ever had have not done hardly 
halfe soe much for them as I have done. But if God blesse me & 
ever make me able, I shall doe what is fitting for mee to doe 
hopeing God will blesse your Industry in ye meane time, & that above 
all things your care to serve him shall Increase more and more which 
that it may is ye dayly prayers of 

Yor Loving ffather 

H Pecke 

July 26, 1659 

To Mr. Tho: Pecke, mrchant at Skiffes Creek on James "River in 

Virginia 

Recr 17 Novemb 1659 



siFor full information the reader is referred to Dr. Philip Alex- 
ander Bruce's noble works, The Economic History of Virginia During 
the Seventeenth Century, The Institutional History During the Seven- 
teenth Century, and The Social History of Virginia During the Seven- 
teenth Century. 



Yoek County in the Seventeenth Century 271 



Mr. Charles Peck to Mr. Tom Peck. 

July 28th 1659 
Dearest Brother 

I have sent you goods & one servant in John Chambers Mr of ye 
Prosperous, & in ye Charles, Saml Cooper Master, two servants and 
goods two boxes with hatts No 1, 2, C. T., and a bayle of cloth & one 
mothers box in ye Bayle C. T. No 3 in ye Charles. I pray doe ye most 
you can for me this yeare, for I doe intend for to send to you in 
some other shipp this yeare, in ye Pilgrim or some other shipp or by 
Mr Hunt. 

I am willing to doe what I can for you and doe still intend for to 
entreat our ffather. He doth not know that I have sent you a mayd 
servant or goods this yeare. I told him that I have sent James Clarke 
to serve you for an yeare, for to help you till you get other servants, 
and that James Clarke will doe you but little good, for you must send 
something for his yeare's service. 

I have gott money of him for the Boy. I pray give him thanks 
& wright to him & our mother & earnestly entreat them for to supply 
you once more, for I find them willing if hee could get money in & 
happily hereafter hee may; however in ye meantime I will not be 
unmindful of if I see opportunity for to doe you good. 

I have spoken to one yt was Mr Gowres man, one Mr Thomas 
Solsbury newly out of his time, for to make you his ffactor, for he is 
heare part owner of a shipp & told me that he did intend hir for 
James River, but ye rest of the owners were not agreed, & he an- 
sweared If hee could have his will hee would not be unmindful of 
my Brother. If anything happen I pray doe yor best, for he is a man 
of gentile spiritt & much a gentleman & merchant, & if I bee not 
mistaken hee is of a better nature then young Mr Gower. 

I pray if tobacco be very deare, I mean ordinary, send not too 
much but rather if you can, send me a bill of Exchange for to receive 
moneys & som sweet scented, soe they be very right; that I may have 
moneys for to cleare them I pray send one hhd of your own cropt 
& He send you how it proceeds here. 

As for ye mayd I have promised that shee should be a servant 
in your house for to ye worke of a servant mayd, & that she should 
not be sold unlesse that [to?] some planter for a wife. I pray send 
returne for hir. 

Remember my kind love to my sister & I pray be kind to James 
Clarke. 

Soe I rest yor Brother to Berve you & love, whilst I am 

Charles Pecke. 

I pray send this letter enclosed as soon as you can. 
Recordr 17 Novemb 1659 



272 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



Before this letter arrived or soon after Mr. Tom Peck died, 
and his widow Elizabeth was allowed to take over the goods and 
servants shipped to her husband. On June 20, 1660, "Charles 
Pecke of London merchant" appointed "James Clarke, dwelling at 
Yorke now in Virginia M r chant" (& in case of his death Wm. 
Hay of the same place and Nathaniel Hunt of James River in 
Virginia "Merchants") his lawful attorney and agent in Virginia. 

The following letter is from Capt. Eichard Longman, mer- 
chant in London, to Mr. Eichard Jones in Virginia. Mr. Jones 
was a planter of some means, and his daughter Elizabeth after- 
wards married Thomas Hansford. He died soon after this letter 
was written. At this time Longman was represented in Virginia 
by John Achley and his son Eichard Longman, Jr. : 



Capt. Richard Longman to Mr. Richard Jones. 

Loving freind Mr Richard Jones: 

Yors i r eced 39 Capt. Cooper & by the Lyon. I was very glad 
to heare of your safe arrivall, thoughe wth a long and tedious voyage. 
I am sorry to heare of ye losse of yor sonne & of yor servants; blessed 
be God yt you was soe well your selfe, for I did very much feare it 
haveing so long a passage. 

By Capt Wilson I sent you a Letter, haveing another opportunity. 
I thought convenient to let you know that I am in good health with 
the rest of my family & I hope this will meet with you & your family 
in ye like condition. Capt Wilson doth intend to make two voyages 
this year that makes him hasten so soon. 

There is no good newes to write you at all, for we know not who 
shall govern us as yet; here is very dead times, for trading was never 
worse, but I doe not question to make as much of tobacco as any man 
shall according to its quality. 

Mr. Jones, I hope I shall not need say much to you concerning 
ye ordering of your tobaccoes; give it, but substance & cure it green 
& whatever you doe pack it true; let it be all of one cise as neare 
as you can & in small bundles & I doe not question by ye Grace of 
God to Answear yor expectation or any friend of yors that you can 
write to me that maketh good tobaccqe; the Wm & John & Capt ffox is 
not arrived as yet but expected very speedily. 

My wife & all my family desyre kindly to be remembered to you 
& Mrs Jones & soe doth your assured freind. 

Richard Longman, 
the 15th of June 1659. 



Yokk County in the Seventeenth Century 273 

For Mr Richard Jones living In Cheescake Parish, Yorke Rlvei 
in Virga, from a freind whom God prserved. 






Orders Relating to /Servants. 

At a court held for York Co. 31, 1661. In the difference between 
Daniel Smith pltf & Wm Crumpe attorney to Mr Robet Vaulx deft. 
Itt is Ordered yt ye said Daniell be paid his freedom Corne (his free- 
dom clothes being already paid) and that his Inkhorne, books, wright- 
ings and other things which hee brought into ye Countiey with him 
bee returned wth costs of suit als. Execucon. 

At a Court Holden for Yorke April 24th 1665. In the difference 
between Judith Walker, pltf. & Mr Edmund Cheesman dft concming 
ye pltes freedome beinge formerly servt to ye deft & it appearing 
yt ye defte delivered her up her Indentures It is ye courts opinion & 
thereupon ordered that ye pltf be free & that shee have her clothes & 
Trunkes delivered her & yt the defte pay costs als Exec 

At a Court &c 24 Oct. 1662. John Shelton ordered to serve his 
master "one whole yeare" after the expiration of his Indentures 
according to act of Assembly, "for useing threatening speeches to 
his master Thomas Morley and striking his overseer, his master's 
son William." 



Some Records Relating to Old Attorneys of York Co. 

[Court June 16, 1646] 

Mr Kiggan my respects. These are to intreate you to do me the 
favour as to present my business in court concerning Mr Ludlowe. 
John Phillips was to have been my attorney but hee is by accident 
fallen lame and therefore cannot appeare. And yis note shall fully 
oblige me to stand to without any contradiction what shall by you 
be accomplished and ever remaine yrs to comand 

Christopher Boyse 
[Court 24 Sept 1647] 

Mr Bushrod: Loveing ffreind, with my best respects remembered 
I pray you to let me entreate to Msecute a suite for me against Capt. 
Ralph Wormeley for a debt due to Joseph Nettmaker from the estate 
of Luke Stubbins deed. I have sent yu Mr. Nettmakers letter of 
attorney, by which I give you power to psecute ye suite yrselfe or to 
appointe another. I have sent you also Mr Stubbins his note under 
Mr Nettmaker his hand and Mr John Stringers deposicon to prove the 
debt. I believe Capt Wormeley will pay ye debt without suite when 
he sees Mr. Stringers deposition Not ells at present I rest yrs to 
be Comanded 

Cornelius Lloyd. 



274 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



[Court, Dec 21, 1661 j 

Mr. Bray: This is first to give you thanks for your civility at 
Kent Court concerning Terrell, and indeed I shall not forget it, but 
I have made you ample sattisfacon and indeed is the ground and 
cause of this my writing to you that is to he my Attorney now at 
this Yorke Court. If you refuse it for any reason that you are en- 
gaged to ye other party as being employed by him, then be so civill 
as to crave a Jtiefference till ye next court, for I finde myselfe so 
disabled in body that I dare not venture as yet; though I have at- 
tempted twice to go out of doores, I have found that I have gone, 
by ye worst of it. Now ye business is yat Newell [Jonathan Newell 
a leading merchant of James City Co.] sues me for a debt of my wives 
a pretended bill past to him for a servant of five hundred pounds of 
tobacco past in hir husbands lifetime. Now I would faine know of 
him what force that is, shee being under covert baron. If the court 
grant judgment upon that, Appeale to Towne The second is Mr 
Aldrey's for a hogshead of tobaccoe. It appeared that ye tobaccoe was 
worth nothing by ffoure deposicons. If hee Newell substantially 
proves that was his hogshead which must be by two oathes, then 
submit to ye judgment of ye Court 

Another action of Case Newell hath Arrested me on Thursday 
last. What it is for I cannot tell nor devise, therefore can give noe 
instruction soe of necessity you must crave a Refference, for if I did 
know what it was yet in that case that I am in I could not in that 
time provide myselfe to Answear him. 

Nor Sr when this Court is over if you please to entertain my 
businesse with my freinds you shall finde a considerable business for 
ye Quarter Court and I shall give you very good sallary I doubt not 
but to your content So I cease to wright leaving many things to your 
discretion. 

Joseph Croshaw. 

[Court August 25, 1662] 

It is ordered that Mr John Page and Mr. James Bray, for their 
uncivill wrangling and rude deportment in the face of the Court, be 
taken into the Sheriff's custody till the Courts further pleasure 
therein be known. 

(Both lawyers apologized and they were "discharged from their 
comittment paying costs.") 



[Court May 24, 1660] 

Capt [Daniel] Parke: Mair Croshaw hath -arrested mee to 
Yorke Court. You know ye Govern" comand lyes uppon mee to attend 
him & ye speaker to Nanzimond; if therefore either the crossnesse 






Yobk County in the Seventeenth Centtjky 275 

of winds or any other intervening accord should impede my return- 
ing I shall entreat you in my behalfe to crave a Refference untill 
General Court. In doing this you -will engage yor freind & servt 

Edward Folliott 
May ye 15 1660 

(Mr. Folliott was at this time minister of Marston Church. It 
appears that later he was minister of York Parish. He was a son 
of Sir John Folliott and Elizabeth Aylmer, daughter of John Aylmer; 
Bishop of London. He left descendants in Virginia.) 

Court November the 12th 1678. 

Mr William Sherwood appeared attorney for Samuel Richardson 
and Mr Gideon Macon for James Bullocbe 



276 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



NULLIFICATION AND WAR. 



Communicated by George P. Blow, Esq. 
George Blow to Hon. John Y. Mason. 1 



Dear Sir : 

Your most welcome and valued letter of the 26th ult., was 
duly received by mail. I had determined to postpone my answer 
until my return from Norfolk, (where I expect to go in a few days) 
and until I could mix a little with the people, and ascertain their 
opinions, so that I might be enabled to express to you the feelings 
and sentiments of your constituents on the subject of the differences 
between the General Government and South Carolina. But an 
accidental opportunity of hearing of the good health of yum 
family, has changed my determination; as I am perfectly sure 
that you would rather hear that, so late as Monday last, your good 
Lady and children were all in fine health, than to read any poli- 
tical composition that could be written. 

My daughter Mary (later married Lieut. Hunter, U. S. N.) 
recently received a note from Mrs. Mason of that date contain- 
ing a cordial invitation to go with her to a splendid Ball to take 
place at "Belfield" on the 23d inst. ; and the bearer informed us 
of the general good health of all your family. Now nothing in 
the world would give Mary so much delight as to carry into effect 
a darling, and long cherished, scheme of hers of visiting Mrs. 



iThis letter was a rough copy of the original sent to Mason who 
was then a member of the House of Representatives. It is without 
date, hut was evidently written not long after Andrew Jackson's Proc- 
lamation against South Carolina. It is especially interesting for its 
comments on the course to be pursued to render nullification harmless, 
and the probable course taken by the other Southern States had 
coercion been attempted. 

Mr. Blow, who was a prominent citizen of Southampton Co., Va, 
was son of Richard Blow, who distinguished himself in the American 
Revolution. 



Nullification and "War 



277 



Mason. But alas ! the old "Battlebox" (the remnant of what was 
once a carriage) is her only vehicle, for traveling; — and woman's 
pride cannot go that (far) ; so that, in truth, I must not only bear 
the blame; — but deserve to have it showered on me, by the 
""Women-kind" in pouting, sober earnestness ! Bless my soul ! 
how have I been able to withstand so long such a formidable bat- 
tering train of artillery? — Indeed I begin to think seriously of 
capitulating at discretion; and then, I am sure that I may promise 
on the part of Daughters, that they will not be long kept from dis- 
playing the "Trophies of their Triumph" to Mrs. Mason, amongst 
the very first of their visits; and if the "Old Lady" is not too 
"unwieldly," I am sure she will cordially join them. — I mean fat; 
nothing else ! I assure you ! 

That part of yours relating to your own concerns, I will delay 
answering for the present; — that I may have a good excuse; — I 
will not say for "troubling you;" but, of "affording myself the 
pleasure" of again writing to you. 

My son, the Doctor (Bichard Blow), met his disappointment 
like a Philosopher; — although he had set his Heart on getting 
into the Navy; — and we all greatly wished his success. If you 
think there is no chance of his succeeding the next winter, he 
had better know his fate at once; — withdraw his application; — 
and settle himself down for life in sober earnestness. A state of 
suspense is, I think, adverse, not only to his happiness, but to 
his success in his profession, and his future prospects. Did I not 
feel confident that he is well qualified for the appointment, I 
should never have made the application! 

And, the Grandson of a man who was eminently serviceable 
in the Bevolution — who, as the owner of many successful priva- 
teers, annoyed the commerce of the Enemy, and supplied the 
Southern Army with Clothing, etc., at time of great privation and 
suffering; who, as a Militia Officer at the time, rendered some im- 
portant services to the "Committee of Safety" of Virginia ! and 
in after times, was a respectable merchant in Norfolk, the presi- 
dent of a State Bank, and the President for many years of the 
Dismal Swamp Canal, — a work of National importance patron- 
ized by the Government; — a man, too, who never asked a favor 



. - — — _ 



278 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

of the Government; — always a warm friend of Gen'l Jackson; 
always a true Eepublican: — I repeat it: the Grandson of such 
a man should not be treated with cold neglect, and see others se- 
lected, not for their superior endowments or qualifications — but 
merely from political motives ! Put it upon the ground of su- 
perior merit, and I would be satisfied; but upon any other grounds 
and I cannot but feel that we are improperly overlooked, and 
neglected; — as others have met with success at the Department, 
whose claims were certainly no better than ours. 

I am much gratified to see, by the last papers, that your( ?) 
House has gone seriously to work — not to debate, but to act upon 
the Eeduction of the Tariff, — If the measure, as reported by the 
Com. of W. L. M., can be got through both Houses, — there will 
be an end to the disaffection of South Carolina: — and her Ordi- 
nance^ — and warlike measures — will be repealed at once; or die 
a natural death ! — If not, then I think that the Mediation of Vir- 
binia will induce her to postpone any hostile act until after the 
meeting of the next Congress. 

I do not believe that the People of South Carolina are ripe 
for "Secession"; or willing to resist, with arms, the Gen'l Gov- 
ernment, backed by the Moral and Physical force of all the other 
States; — unless after events should madden her into hostilities. 
The people of that state have been deluded and misled. They 
have been made to believe that "Nullification" was a peaceful 
measure; not a violation of the Constitution. They now find 
that it leads to "Secession" from the Union; — Civil War with the 
other states, and probably amongst their own citizens; — arbitrary 
and intolerable oppression towards the Unionists of their own 
State; — in a word; — to all the evils of Anarchy and Confusion; — 
endangering the Peace, the Happiness, and the Liberties, of South 
Carolina herself ; — My life on it ! if left alone by the Gen'l Gov- 
ernment, they will soon nullify their "Nullification Ordinance"! 
But, if the General Government should madly raise her arm to 
coerce South Carolina whilst the passions of the people are in- 
flamed, all the Powers on Earth will never bring her back again 
into the Union ; — and Virginia — North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 
Tennessee, Alabama, and probably Mississippi and Louisiana will, 



Nullification and Wab 



279 



and must, go with her! for her principles are theirs; her inter- 
ests, theirs ; her cause — theirs. And if war be kindled, — the South 
— the whole Slave holding South — will go with her ! Is it to be be- 
lieved that those States will join the "Black Cockade Federalists," 
of the elder Adams stamp, in a war in favour of protective Duties, 
and Consolidated National Government; — against a southern State 
contending for her Sovereignty, Equal Taxation, and a Federal 
Government ? It cannot be ! Away then will go our Union as 
soon as the General Government raises her arm to coerce South 
Carolina; and who can foresee the consequences? 

Possibly Virginia herself may be split in twain; — the West- 
ern part joining a Northern Empire, and the Eastern part unit- 
ing with a Southern Confederation or Eepublic. Possibly we may 
all be swallowed up in one Grand Empire, with a Czar at our 
head, to trample our Liberties under his imperial Feet. — 

For God's sake! Let all the friends of the President I Urge! 
Implore ! — Importune ! him not to hazard, any hostile movement 
whatever, of the Government, against South Carolina ! — now act- 
ing in the capacity of a Sovereign State, — under the Sanction of 
a Solemn Convention of the People ! But first to consult the 
Eepresentatives of the Whole "People in Congress assembled" 
before he acts at all. And in the meantime, to take no precau- 
tionary steps calculated to inflame or madden the people of that 
excited State ! I would even wish him to withdraw all his Troops 
from that State, leaving barely enough to preserve the public 
works. And not to send any additional Eevenue Cutters, there; 
or make any demonstration of a Naval force off their harbour, or 
in their port. 

Only let them alone, and they will soon get over their pas- 
sion ! — their merchants will not, without being provoked into the 
measure by the indiscretion of the General Government, think 
of availing themselves of their Eeplevin Law; — and, if they do 
not, then the whole Nullification affair will turn out a mere inno- 
cent farce. For, if one year is gained, — the Tariff will be brought 
down to the "Eevenue Standard" by the next Congress; — and then 
the Ordinance, and its appendages, will be rescinded. — This is my 
view of the subject; and I really think more now depends on the 



280 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

General Government, (particularly the Executive) than on South 
Carolina — whether we are to continue "United" — or to be severed; 
embroiled in a civil war; — and our liberties swallowed up by a 
Monarchy or a Despotism. 

Your views on this subject, as presented in your letter, cor- 
respond exactly with mine. The President, after his admirable 
Message, had the game entirely in his own hands. — The Friends 
of the Tariff System — of Internal Improvements — of the Bank — 
the Federalists — the Adamsites, the Clayites; — all, — all were pros- 
trate 1 He had completely put them down; and they would have 
given up the contest in utter despair. And, as to the South Caro- 
lina affair, he had said just enough in his message on that head: — 
not one word too much, or too little. South Carolina was even 
satisfied with him; and lauded the spirit and temper of the mes- 
sage. She would have soon got into a good humour; and, at the 
instance of Virginia, and the other Southern States, — postponed 
the period of giving action to her Ordinance until after the ad- 
journment of the next session of Congress. — Everything, in fact, 
was going on swimmingly, when the very demon of Mischief in- 
spired him to issue his Marplot Proclamation which threw every- 
thing into confusion: — inspired his Enemies with recuperative en- 
ergies : — withered the hopes of his friends : — and turned every- 
thing topsyturvy: — Besides it exasperating South Carolina against 
him and the Government, to such a degree, that, if violence had 
occurred on the spur of the Occasion, and all the Southern states 
had come with her, it would not have excited surprise in any one. — 
I do hope he has, by this time, seen his error, if not his folly; — 
and will be more slow in exposing himself again to the censure of 
his friends ; and to the hozannas of his Enemies. To do this, he has 
only to adopt the motto of the Merchants to the French Minister; 
— "Let us alone"; — Let the whole affair alone! — to be managed 
by Congress, if any action whatever be necessary ! 

I have written so much more now on the subject than I in- 
tended, — that I nearly omitted to make an inquiry whether our 

recommendation of , to the Post Master General, had 

reached you; and whether it was likely to be attended to: — or 
whether he wants more pointed and definite cause to induce him to 



Nullification and Was 



281 



displace the present incumbent and appoint a Successor? If so, 
we are, I believe, all to a man ready and willing to say explicitly 
to the Post Master General that Bilber is constantly Drunk: — 
drunk, in the most disgusting and literal sense of the term. That 
he is too much so, generally, to open or close his mail: — that he 
suffers that to be done by any straggler who chances to be at his 
shop on the opening of the mail; — that a pedlar (mark that), 
who makes Mop's his home, frequently opens it; — that the letters 
and papers are scattered about the sadler shop, and the dwelling 
House, without care or attention; — that papers, certainly: and, 
(I believe) letters, are missent. I will mention, as an example, 
that I have had sent to me from the Post Office Dr. Owen Brown's, 
and Mr. McAffrie's newspapers; and that I do not get my Herald 
sometimes for a whole week. And I believe that my letters (to and 
from me) frequently miscarry, — in what manner I cannot say, 
unless the letters sent by me are neglect to be mailed, — and those 
for me are kept in the office and not delivered: — or are in some 
manner or other way made way with. 

I believe those facts can be substantiated by all who signed 
the memorial, if necessary; for I have conversed with them all; 
and they fully concur with me on the truth of the above statement. 
— You may read this, if you think proper, to the Post Master 
General — in fact the Post Master at Littletown must be changed, 
and that speedily, — or no person will make use of that office. 

(Signed) Geo. Blow." 



282 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

KIEBY (KEEBY) FAMILY. 

(See William and Mary College Quarterly, Vol. XIV, 154-158.) 

Copied from the Bible of Lucy T. Kirby, wife of Samuel Tompkins 
Kirby, of Dinwiddie County, Va., and communicated, with his memo- 
randa iu parentheses, by Judge S. B. Kirby, of Louisville, Kentucky. 

Births. 

Bebecca E. M. Vaughan, born June 21, 1807 (I know nothing of 

her) 
Lucy M. Vaughan June 2, 1801 (same comment as above) 
fm. Warwick Nov. 24, 1816 (same comment) 
Minerva W. Bonner, 1802 (daughter of Jesse Bonner and wife of 

J. l). Kirby.) 
Martha Bonner, March 21, 1800 (another daughter of Jesse Bonner 

and wife of J. D. Kirby). 
Samuel T. Kirby, June 3, 1824 (son of John D. Kirby and Martha 

W. Bonner; father of Judge S. B. Kirby) 
Mary Kirby, June 16, 1826 ") 

William Kirby, Feb. 4, 1829 / (Children of John D. Kirby; 
William E. Kirby, Feb. 5, 1832 f left no descendants.) 
John A. Kirby, Feb. 9, 1834 J 

Martha E. F. Walker, (wife of William Kirby), born Oct. 29, 1816 
John Munford Walker Kirby, April 19, 1836) (Children of Wm. 
Lucy W Kirby, March 11th, 1838 I Kirby, brother 

f of John D. 

Lula P. E3rby, Jan. 9th, 1842 J Kirby.) 

Eliza Ann Bonner, Aug. 23, 1813 
Azuleka Eice, daughter of Eobert Eice and Mary A. Shirley, his 

wife, Mch 26, 1837 
Clay S. Eice, June 17, 1819 
Paul Eice 

Lucy Kirby Eice, August 28, 1842 
Mary S. Eice 



Kjrby (Keebt) Family 283 

Robert E. Bice 

Lucy McGruder Eice, dau. of S. T. Eice & Adelinoa Wyatt Eice 

Deaths. 

Bennett Kirby, Nov. 17, 1770. 

Martha Kirby, June 13, 1779. 

Tho' Kirby, Jan. 7, 1794. 

Bennett Kirby, Jan. 17, 1795. 

William Kirby, April 28, 1795. 

Samuel T. Kirby, March 16, 1803 (father of John Dunn Kirby). 

Bennett T. Kirby, Sept. 3, 1803. 

Wm. Kirby, son of John, Sept. 20, 1805. 

Dorothy Kirby, Nov. 7, 1805. 

Capt. John Kirby, Sept. 9, 1806. 

Mary D. Oliver, July, 1809 

Charlott Kirby, Oct. 2, 1798 

Elizabeth C. Watts, April 1, 1804. 

Frances Kirby, wife of Saml T. Kirby, Sept. 23, 1796. 

Charlott Kirby, Oct. 2, 1798 

Minerva W. Bonner, July 21, 1824. 

John B. Eice, Aug. 10, 1822, aged 43 years, 7 months and 27 days. 

James W. Eice, Oct 8, 1814, aged 3 years, 8 months, 7 days. 

William Eice, April 21, 1827, aged 39 years, 2 mos and 14 days. 

Minerva W. Kirby, April 4th, 1827. 

Martha Kirby, April 6th, 1834. 

(My grandmother. Wife of John D. Kirby) 
Mary Kirby 1826 

William Kirby 1829 ( (Children of John D. Kirby.) 

John Kirby Nov. 20, 1837. 
John Kirby June 1827. 
Eliza Ann Kirby, June 27, 1837. (J. D. Kirby's 3rd wife.) 
John Munford Walker Kirby June 13, 1839."] 

aged 3 yrs 1 mo 25 days. ( (Children of Wm. 

Lucy Walker Kirby, June 21, 1839 aged 15 f Kirby.) 
mos 10 days. ) 



284 



Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



Lucy T. Kirby Eice, July 9, 1840, aged 67 years, 1 mo. 15 d. (Wife 
of Saml T. Kirby and mother of J. D. Kirby.) 

Eobert Kichie Eice, Dec. 23, 1852. 

Mary J. Eice, wife of S. T. K. Eice, June 12, 1860. 

S. T. K. Eice, Thursday, Dec. 15, 1870. (Son of Lucy T. K. Eice 
& half-brother of J. D. Kirby.) 



Historical and Genealogical Notes 285 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 

Lewis Family. — The will of James Miller, dated March 29, 
1678, and proved in York Connty, settles the long mooted question 
as to the name of the first wife of Major John Lewis. She has 
been sometimes represented as Isabella Warner. This will names 
his "loving brother Major John Lewis," "sister Mrs. Isabella Lewis, 
wife to Major John Lewis," to whom he leaves his whole estate dur- 
ing her life, and after her death to "my two nephews, Edward and 
John Lewis, the younger." In 1648 James Miller patented 150 
acres on Rowlston Creek. He appears to have been son of a James 
Miller, who in his will dated Jany. 24, 1657, names "sons James, 
Edward and Augustine, daughter Mary Strachey, son William 
Strachey, daughter Elizabeth Miller, wife Mary Miller." 

Edward Lewis, son of Major John Lewis, was a justice of Bang 
and Queen County in 1692. Thus in the York Eecords there is 
an entry with this caption: "At a Cort held for King & Queen 
County August ye 12, 1692 Present. Major William Wyatt, Capt. 
John Lane, Capt William Leigh, Capt Edward Lewis, Mr Wil- 
liam Gough. Eobert Beverley, CI. Cur. 

William Strachey mentioned above was, according to a record 
in York County, 34 in 1660. Could he have been the son of Lord 
Delaware's Secretary? He is represented as coming to Virginia 
and dying in 1686, leaving a daughter Arabella, who married John 
Cox. (See Quarterly, IV., 194.) 

A Planter's Home. — The following advertisement in the rec- 
ord books of York Co. gives a very good idea of the home of an in- 
dependent planter in the last part of the 17th century: 

I 
These are to give notice to all psons whome it may toncerne yx 
on the northwest side of King's Creeke in York County there is a 
plantacon to be sould containing 200 acres of Land, bounding on ye 
said Creek one mile, with a good pasture well fenced of 100 acres of 
ye said land bounded on ye said Creek & Marsh. There is a 36 English 
framed dwelling house, with a good Cellar under itt, and a 15 foot 
kitchen, about 200 yards from a good landing a thirty foot tobacco 



286 Tylee's Quaeteely Magazine 

house, a good peach orchard of about 300 trees, & about as many apple 
trees Young & ould And is exceedingly convenient for stock. Any pson 
yt is aminded to buy itt they may have itt Reasonable. And many 
other necessaryes for ye manageing of ye said plantacon 

3P me Robert Hide 
York County, November ye 12th 1694, Published att Cort and is 
Recorded. Teste Wm Sedgwick CI. Cur. 



Gummey, Eichard (Gummy, Gumey, Gomey, Gomie, Gumby, 
&c.) carat to Virginia in 1635 at the age of 21 (See Hotten's 
"Original Lists, p. 95). Descendants, collateral relatives, and 
other persons possessing information concerning him, please com- 
municate with Miss E. A. Gummey, 104 Cliveden Ave., German- 
town, Phila., Pa. 

The Beginnings of Public Education in Virginia, 1776- 
1860. — Under this title Dr. A. J. Morrison, of Prince Edward 
County, gave to the public in 1918, through a report of the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, an excellent review of the 
Educational status of Virginia for the period mentioned. By the 
American Revolution the educational system which prevailed be- 
fore it passed out of existence, and for many years affairs were 
in a chaotic condition. The parsons' schools taught often by emi- 
nent scholars from the English universities were followed by "the 
Old Field Schools," whose teachers were often poorly educated. 
Dr. Morrison's valuable work shows, through extracts taken from 
many sources, the efforts made in Virginia for better things. The 
early years were marked by the establishment of the Literary Fund, 
the University of Virginia, Randolph-Macon College, Richmond 
College, Emory and Henry College, the Virginia Military Insti- 
tute, and many academies. "From 1846 to 1860 education in 
Virginia was carried forward creditably. The University, the 
Military Institute and the colleges grew in numbers and were 
strengthened in every way. Schools for girls became well estab- 
lishd. Good academies were everywhere." The great need which 
had been often recognized was a system of public education through 
all grades. "This lacking, it cannot be questioned that the vol- 
untary enterprise of the State had given a good account of itself 
and particularly in the item of secondary schooling." Dr. Morri- 



Historical and Genealogical Notes 287 

son's work sustains his reputation as that of an eminent scholar and 
careful and tireless investigator. 

The Stith Family (Wm. and Mary College Quarterly, Vol. 
XXII). — The following corrections were made by Bev. Eobert 
Brent Drane, D. D., Edenton, K C. : Page 46-10, i; page 48-10, 
'"'Col. John Dawson, of Williamsburg, married Mary Johnston, dau. 
of Gov. Gabriel Johnston, of Edenton, N. C." On Mr. T. L. 
Skinner's chart, Penelope is the name of Gov. G. Johnston's daugh- 
ter who married John Dawson. Page 48-13, ii, Penelope Dawson 
married Tristrim, not "Tristram Lowther." Major Tristrim 
Lowther was killed at Mechanicsville (instead of Sharpsburg). 
Page 51-53, ii, Maria Louisa Lowther married Joseph Blount 
(not "Blair") Skinner. 

Query. — The will of Sarah Turberville in Orange Co., 1761, 
names sons John and William Willis, daughter Sarah Hawkins, 
son Henry Wood, sons David, Joshua & Bessie Hudson. What was 
the maiden name of Sarah Turberville and the given name of her 
Willis husband; also the given name of Sarah Hawkins' husband, 
and was Sarah Hawkins a Willis ? 



The Virginia State Library received early in May as a 
gift an exceptionally interesting and valuable collection of books — 
twenty-one volumes in all. Among these are reprints of the ear- 
liest editions of the Book of Common Prayer, namely, the editions 
of 1549 (Edward 6th), 1552 (Edward 6th), 1559 (Elizabeth), 
1604 (James 1st), and 1637 (Charles 1st). These are exact re- 
productions and were printed by William Pickering in London in 
1844. 

Other unusually interesting volumes in the collection are Eob- 
ert's "Sketches of the Holy Land" (2 volumes) and also his 
"Sketches of Egypt and Nubia" (2 volumes). 

They were presented to the State Library by Misses Eliza and 
Caroline White, of 609 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The 
Misses White are relatives of Mrs. James Alston Cabell, of Eich- 
mond. 



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SUBJECT INDEX 



VOLUME I. 



Mr. Anderson's Uncle, hi. 

Anderson, Robert, 213. 

Adams, Richard, Mourning Breastpin 

OF 69. 

Alexandria, Retrocession of, To Vir- 
ginia, 73-86. 

Alliterations, 142. 

Armistead, Hannah, 212. 

Aylett, William, Corresponence of, 
87-111 ; 145-161. 

Bacon's Rebellion, 248-254. 

Beck, James M., 220. 

Bell field, 233, 234. 

Belfield, 276. 

Black Beard, the Pirate, 36. 

Bland, Sarah, Her Petition, 40, 41. 

Bowling Family, 168-170. 

The Blue Coat Boys, 43-45. 

Book Reviews : The Carys of Virginia, 
214. 215. 

Botetourt's Statue, 143. 

Campbell Family, 70, 71. 

Cary Family, 71, 214, 215. 

Catesby, 142. 

Charles II., Restoration of, in York 
County, 246, 247. 

The Chesapeake, Attack on, 6. 

Chiskiack (Cheescake), 231, 238. 

The College Company, 143. 

Daniel Family, 164-168. 

Davies, Samuel, Journal of, 11 1. 

Doran, Joseph I., A Tribute to, By 
Robt. M. Hughes, 112-115. 

Drinking at Burials, 212. 

Edwards Digges' Plantation, 213. 

Farley, James Parke, 70. 

Fort James, 257. 

The Forest, 214. 

The French Ordinary, 255, 260. 

Goddin Family, 172-174. 

Godwin Family, 214. 

Gummey, Query Concerning, 286. 

Hanover, Anderson Family of, III. 

The Hansford House, 254. 

Harvey's Deposition, 241-243. 

Haynes, Thomas, Will of, 68. 

Henry, Patrick, 121. 

Historical and Genealogical Notes, 
68-71, 142-143, 212-214, 285-287. 

Howard, William, the Pirate, 36-40. 

Hurst, 170, 171. 

Innes, Attorney General, 28. 



Instructions, Doctrine of, 46, 47. 

Jamestown, 218, 221, 224. 

Jones, Gabriel, 44. 

Judicial District of Western Vir- 
ginia, 31-36. 

Kent Island, 68. 

Kerby Family, 282-284. 

King's Creek Plantation, 234. 

La Fayette, Visit of in 1824, 13. 

Letters : John Tyler to Hugh Blair 
Grigsby, 46-49 ; Thomas L. Boyd to 
Thomas W. Gilmer, 49, 50; J. L. 
Edwards to William L. Goggin, 50- 
51 ; Francis Preston to Senators 
Barbour and Eppes, 32-34; Corre- 
spondence of William Aylett, 87-110; 
145-162 ; Henry Pecke to Tom Pecke, 
270; Charles Pecke to Tom Pecke, 
271 ; Richard Longman to Richard 
Jones, 272 ; Letters of old attorneys, 
273-275 ; George Blow to John Y. 
Mason, 276-282. 

Lewis Family, 285. 

Lincoln Propaganda, 223-230. 

Liquor, Sales Prohibited, 212. 

Loyall Company, 49. 

Martiau, By Judge John L. Thomas, 

52-57- 

Massachusetts, Civil War in, 30. 

Middlesex Co., 142. 

Mills and Ships, 142. 

Needier Family, 69, 70. 

Negro Insurrections, 5, 15. 

New Kent Co., Tombstones in, 58, 59. 

Northampton Co., Marriage Bonds, 
192-212. 

Northern Neck Families, 162-171. 

Notes from Barton's Colonial Decis- 
ions, 60-67; 1I 5- l2 7- 

Nullification in 1832, 278-280. 

Palisades of Queen's Creek, 232, 238. 

Petition of Sarah Bland, 40, 41. 

A Planter's Home, 285. 

Pirates and Piracy, 36-39. 

Plymouth Rock, 218. 

Powder during the Revolution, no. 

Presbyterian Periodicals of Richmond, 
174-176. 

Propaganda in History, 217-230. 

Quakers in York County, 265. 

Ranger General, 143. 

Reade, George, 247, 248. 



^ 



INDEX 



Reminicences of Kentucky, Etc., 26- 

3i- 

Republican Blues, 4, 8. 

Richmond Light Infantry Blues, 1-17. 

Rum, Price of, 91. 

Rumsey's Steamboat', 28. 

Sales of Tobacco, 35. 

Servant Freed, 213; Rebellion of Serv- 
ants, 266. 

Sims, Admiral, 220. 

Skins and Furs, 42. 

Smith, Granville, 214. 

Stith Family, 287. 

Strachey, William, 285. 

Tayloe's John, Estate, 212. 

Temple Farm, 236. 

Tobacco, Sales of, 35. 

Tombstones in New Kent Co., 58, 59. 

Vaulx Hall, 117. 



Virginia State Library, 71, 287. 

Walloons, 53. 

Washington, George, Drawing of, by 

Alexander Campbell, 71 ; Southern 

Tour, 143. 
Washington, John, Will of, 130. 
Wayles, John, 214. 

Wright, Some Descendants of Rich- 
ard, 127-141 ; 177-191. 

York, 235-239. 

York County, History of, in the Sev- 
enteenth Century, 231-276. 

York County, Record Books of, 259 ; 
Parishes in, 239 ; Conditions in, 263- 
270. 

Yorktown, The Well at, 213 ; Beginnings 
of, 230-270. 

Yorktown Creek, Bridge over, 235. 



GENERAL INDEX 



Aberdeen, in. 

Abingdon, 49. 

Abingdon Parish, 68, 71, 168. 

Accomack, 52, 232, 236. 

Accotink Run (creek), 163, 164, 165, 170. 

Acworth, 55. 

Adams, 4, 69, 97, 222, 223, 226, 229. 

Adventure, the, 42. 

Airhill, 165. 

Alderson, 62. 

Aldrey, 274. 

Alexander, 49. 

Alexandria, 73-87, 95, 97, 105. 

Alice, the, 42. 

Allaman, 66, 125, 126. 

Allen, 16, 45, 126. 

Allerton, 62. 

Allison, 165. 

Alsop, 183. 

Ambler MSS., ill. 

"Ampthill," 215. 

Amsterdam, 53. 

Anderson, 42, ill, 118, 145, 213, 214, 225, 

228. 
Andersonville, 225. 
Andrews, 118, 222. 
Antigua, 70. 

Archer's Hope Creek, 238, 239. 
Argall, 218. 
Arlington, 249. 

Armistead, 64, 91, 92, 118, 122, 212. 
Arnold, 184, 185. 
Ash, 179. 

Ashburton Treaty, 86. 
Asbury, 188. 
Ashby's Gap, 162. 
Ashton, 137. 
Awborne, 238. 
Aylett, 87, no, 145, 162. 
Aylmer, 275. 
Back Creek, 239. 
Back River, 239. 
Bacon, 234, 240, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252. 

253, 254. 
Bacon's Rebellion, 234, 235, 248, 257. 
Bailey, 147. 
Baker, 233, 236, 241. 
Baldrey (Baldry), 237, 257. 
Baldwin, 228. 
Ball. 2, 64, 65, 106, 107. 
Ballard, 238, 241, 257, 258, 259, 260, 268, 

269. 
Baltimore, 102, 159. 
Baltimore, Lord, 68, 241, 260, 264. 



Banister, 70. 

Banks, 125. 

Barbee, 147. 

Barber, 124, 125, 213, 241, 260, 264. 

Barbour, 31, 32, 34, 50. 

"Barn Elms," 142. 

Barradall, 66. 

Barradall's Reports, 65. 

Barraud, 71, 109. 

Barron, 6. 

Barrows, 122, 123. 

Barton, 45, 60. 

Barton's Colonial Decisions, 115-126. 

Baskerville, (Baskervylle, Baskervyle), 

238, 241. 
Basse's Choice, 55. 
Bates, 265. 
Batson, 63. 

Bayne (Baynes), 149, 158, 159. 
Beale, 261. 
Beck, 219, 221, 222. 
Bellfield (Belfield), 120, 121, 122, 124, 

129, 1/4, 213, 233, 234, 276. 
Belvoir, 162. 
Bell Tavern, 6, n, 174. 
Berkeley, 56, 57, 61, 122, 142, 243, 246, 

248, 249, 250, 253, 254, 267. 
Bernard, 119, 123. 
Berryman, 62, 63, 67. 
Beverley, 122, 249, 251, 285. 
Betty, the, 37. 
Bigger, 14, 15, 16. 
Bilber, 281. 
Bismarck, 226. 
Bixby, 129. 
Black Prince, the, 42. 
Black, 58. 
Blackbeard, 36. 
Blackstone, 237. 
Blain, 59. 
Blair, 10, 59, 162. 
Bland, 40, 41, 58, 59, 93, 98. 
Blow, 276-281. 
Blue Coat Boys, 43-45. 
"Blues, Richmond Light Infantry," 1-17. 
"Blues, Republic," 4, 8. 
Blundell, 187. 

Bobby, 67, 121, 122, 125, 133. 
Bohemia, 129. 
Boiling, 168. 
Boling, 166. 
Boly, 89. 
Booker, 174. 
Boogher, 163, 165. 



INDEX 



Bonner, 282, '283. 

Booth, 60, 67, 125, 133, 238. 

Botetourt, Lord, 143. 

Boucher, 95. 

Boush, 116. 

Bowler, 88, 102, 109. 

Bowling, 162, 163, 165, 168, 169, 170, i& 

Boyd, 49. 

Boyse, 273. 

Bradford, 218, 222. 

Brakeley, 165. 

Brandon, 142. 

Brannin, 183. 

Braxton, 90, 94. 

Bray, 253, 268, 269, 274. 

Brent, 47, 68, 143, 167. 

"Brick House," the, 252. 

Bristol, the, 254. 

Brocas, 241. 

Brock, 116. 

Brockett, 86. 

Brodhurst, 131. 

Brodnax, 241, 242, 243. 

Brooke, 92. 

Brooking, 123. 

Brown, 49, 53, 54, 123, 223, 281. 

Browne, 213. 

Browning, 225. 

Buchanan, 226, 227. 

Bruce, 129, 266, 270. 

Bristol Parish, 127, 239, 254, 262. 

Buchan, 42. 

Buckner, 61, 116, 235, 240, 260. 

Buford, the, 219. 

Bulger, 188, 189. 

Bull Run, 140, 162. 

Bullock, 264, 275. 

Burr, 9, 12. 

Burgess, 60, 61, 120. 

Burgoyne, 156. 

Burk, 166, 170, 174. 

Burke, History of Virginia, 262. 

Burlen Hall, 238. 

Burton, 7, 17. 

Burwell; 60, 64, 67, 119, 122, 180, 234, 235. 

Bushrod, 62, 134, 241, 250, 265, 268, 269. 

Butler, 66. 

Byrd, 70. 

Cabell, 33, 287. 

Calhoun, 48. 

Calthorpe, 240, 261. 

Calvert, 63. 

Calverwell, 69. 

Calendar of Virginia State Papers, the, 

36. 
Cambridge, 43, 212. 
Campbell, 50, 51, 70, 71, 163, 171, 227. 
Canada, 95. 

Canterbury, Prerogative Court, of, 128. 
Cape Charles, 37. 



Cape Francois (Francis), 158, 159. 

Cape Henry, 98. 

Cappahosic, 240. 

Carleton, 95. 

Carlisle, the, 42. 

Carnaby, 42. 

Carpenter, 188. 

Carrington, 8, 28. 

Carroll, 104, 105, 183. 

Cary, 17, 68, 71, 212, 214, 215, 260. 

Carter, 70, 90, 119, 170, 187, 212. 

Carter's Creek, 240. 

Carter's Grove, 235. 

Catesby, 142. 

Caton, 159. 

Caton, 159. 

Cecil Co., Md., 129. 

Ceeleys, 215. 

Centerville, 165. 

Central Presbyterian, 176. 

Chambers, 271. 

Chapel Hill, N. C, 143. 

Chapline, 31, 34. 

Charles I., 239, 242, 243, 248. 

Charles II., 245, 248. 

Charles City Co., 40, 142, 214, 239, 251. 

Charles Parish, 213. 

Charles, Ye, 271. 

Char'es River, 231, 232. 

Charles River Co., 239, 241. 

Charlestown, 100, 150. 

Charlottesville, 50. 

Charmont-Victoire, La., 150. 

Charming Sukey, the, 42. 

Chase, 225. 

Chatiller, 150. 

Cheescake Church, 262. 

Cheescake Parish, 68, 273. 

Cheesman, 240, 273. 

Chesapeake Bay, 68, 142, 238, 251, 254. 

Chesapeake, the, 6. 

Chesley, 240. 

Chesser, no. 

Chew, 116, 237, 240. 

Chichester, 60, 61. 

Chicheley, 143. 

Chicacoan, 127. 

Chickahominy River, 142, 231, 237, 253. 

Childers, 89, 91. 

Chilton, 119. 

Chinn, 61. 

Chiskiack, 231, 232, 234, 238, 239, 241,. 

242. 
Chisman, 240, 248, 249, 250, 255. 
Chisman's Creek, 240. 
Choate, 112. 
Christ Church, 143. 
Christ Church Hospital, 43-45. 
Christian Monitor, 174. 
Christian Observer, the, 174, 175, 176- 



INDEX 



Churchill, 142. 

Claiborne, 68, 69, 232, 238. 

Clarke, 112, 241, 271, 272. 

Clark-Kimball, 112. 

Clarkson, 262. 

Clay, 48. 

Clement, 190. 

Clopton, 255. 

Clymer, 89. 

Cobbs, 126. 

Cochran, the, 42. 

Codd, 128, 129. 

Coffer, 167. 

Cook, 42, 116. 

Cookson, 254. 

Coleman, 169. 

Coleridge, 44. 

Collier, 123. 

Cologne, 129. 

"Colonial Papers," 40. 

Colston, 153, 159, 160. 

Colville, 163. 

Comins, 245. 

Commonwealth, the, 26. 

Condon, 256. 

Congers, 165. 

Congress, the, 151, 155, 156. 

Connaught Club, 127. 

Connor, 63, 64. 

Converse, 174, 175. 

Conway, 162, 163, 164, 167. 

Cooper, 62, 271, 272. 

Coppage, 180. 

Cople Parish, 132, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140, 

179, 189, 190. 
Corbin, 69, 70, 142, 191. 
"Cobbin Hall," 142. 
Corker, 124. 
Cornwallis, 236, 242. 
Cotton, 234. 
Council of Safety, 94. 
Coutanceau, 64, 65. 
Cowan, 49. 
Cox, 65, 135, 285. 
Crewes, 254. 
Cringan, 13. 
Cromwell, 243, 244. 
Crowley, 2. 

Croshaw, 124, 240, 243, 244, 262, 267, 274. 
Crosland, 41. 
Crouch, 184. 
Crozier, 166. 
Crump, 273, 274. 
Crutchfield, 173, 273, 274. 
Culford Parish, 236. 
Culpeper, 189, 190. 
Culpeper, Lord, 40. 
Cumberland, the, 92, 93. 
Cunningham, the, 42. 
Curie, 64, 65. 



Curtis, 241. 

Custis, 114, 249. 

Dade, 119, 235. 

Dale, 232. 

Dalton, 55, 96, 98. 

Dames, no. 

Danforth, 17. 

Dandridge, 65. 

Daniel, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 169, 171. 

Darnall, 178. 

Dansie, 121. 

Darracott, 173. 

Davies, in, 161. 

Davis, 62, 95, 97, 134, 135, 186, 189, 225, 

227, 228. 
Dawson, 287. 
Delaware Bay 253. 
Delaware, Lord, 233. 
Denbigh, 232. 
Dean, 62. 
Dent, 213. 

Dettingen Vestry Book, 181. 
Dewberry, 62. 
Difficult Run, 163, 167. 
Digby, 254. 
Digges, 213, 234, 258. 
Dinwiddie Co., 282. 
Discovery, the, 221, 222. 
Dishman, 123. 

District of Columbia, 73-86. 
Diver, 55. 
Dixon, 4, 107, 223. 
Dixson, 100, 101, 102. 
D'Ocier, 37. 
Doe, 118, 119. 
Donnill, 142. 
Don Piatt, 224, 225. 
Doran, 112-114. 
Dorrine, 167. 
Dowsey, (Dorsey?), 213. 
Drane, 287. 
Dreadnaught, 134. 
Drew, 252. 
Drinkwater, 223. 
Drummond, 252, 254. 
Dudley, 60, 122, 123, 125. 
Dulin, 170. 
Duget, 152. 

Dumfries, 87, 140, 146. 
Duncan, 182. 
Dunmore, Lord, 228. 
Dunsmore, 2, 4, 9. 
Du Pont, 235. 
DuVal, 174. 
Dyson, 42. 
Earle, 190. 
Eastmost River, 122. 
Edent'on, 149, 287. 
Edmonds, 62. 
Edmondson, 34, 125. 



INDEX 



E. D. Plantation, 233, 234. 

Edward VI., 43. 

Edwards, 51, 56, 57. 

Efford, 241. 

Effingham, Howard, Lord, 143. 

Elizabeth City Co., 52, 212. 

Elizabeth City Co., Records, 118. 

Elliott, 60, 125, 149, 185. 

Ellis, 183. 

Ellyson, 268, 269. 

Elzey, 97, 163. 

Elsberry (Elsbury), 185, 186. 

Emery, 123. 

English, 236, 241. 

Eppes, 31, 32, 34. 

Esten, 35. 

Eustace, 183. 

Evans, 42, 182. 

Ewing, 42. 

Fairfax, 45, 162, 163, 164, 189, 190. 

Fairfax Co., 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 

169, 170. 
"Fairfield," 87. 
Falkland, 215. 
Fallin, 170, 215. 
Family Visitor, The, 175, 176. 
Farley, 70. 
Farlow, 250. 
Farrell, 251. 
Farnill, 251. 
Faulcon, 151. 
Fauquier Co., 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 

185. 
Felgate, 233, 236. 

Felgate's Creek, 233, 234, 255, 262. 
Fendall, 130. 
Fenley, 170. 
Finnie, 89. 

Finney, 10, 11, 12, 89. 
Fisher, 17. 
First Republic, 53. 
Fitch, 213. 
Fitt, 70, 71. 
Fitzgerald, 120. 
Fitzhugh, 65, 67, 119, 143. 
Fitzwilson, 17. 
Fleetwood, 244. 
Florida, 85. 
Floyd, 170. 
Folliott, 241, 275. 
Foote, 165. 
Force's Tracts, 249. 
Ford, 172, 173. 
Forest, the, 214, 232. 
'Forester's," 214. 
Fort James, 257. 
Fort Kent, 68. 
Fort Meigs, 15. 
Fort Sumter, 227, 228. 
Fossaker, 183. 



Fowler, 29. 

Fox, 42, 60, 61, 120, 128, 129, 247, 272. 

Francois, (Francis), 158, 159. 

Franklin, 27. 

Franklin Press, 174. 

Frayser, 212. 

Fredericksburg Gazette, 183. 

French, 120. 

French Ordinary, 255, 256, 259, 260. 

Friend, 266. 

Fulcher, 64. 

Fuller, 247. 

Gallant, 142. 

Gamble, 10. 

Gardner, 262, 263. 

Gates, 218. 

Gaudaloup, 101. 

Geddes, 121, 122. 

Geggotts, 142, 149. 

Georgetown, 150. 

Germany, 90, 129. 

Gerton, no. 

Gibson, 50, 118. 

Gilchrist, 70, 71. 

Gildersleeve, 176. 

Giles, 46, 47, 48, 115. 

Gilmer, 31, 49, 50. 

Gilmour, 146. 

Gilson, 118, 119. 

Gloucester Co., 122, 236, 239, 241, 251, 

256, 266. 
Gloucester Point, 251, 257. 
Gooch, 241, 252, 254, 261. 
Gooch's Ferry, 252, 254. 
Goddard, 174, 175. 
Goodspeed, the, 222. 
Goddin, 64, 65, 172-174. 
Goodall, 119. 
Goff, 137. 

Godwin, 67, 100, 214, 247, 262, 266. 
Goodright, 63. 
Goggin, 50, 51. 
Goodwin, 241, 264, 266. 
Gollahan, 188. 
Goose Creek, 163, 166. 
Gordon, 112, 228. 
Gough, 285. 
Gower, 271. 
Graham, 102. 
Granville, 143. 
Grant, 181, 190, 225. 
Grantham, 251, 252. 
Gratz, 145. 
Graves, 142. 
Grayson, 140. 
Green, 65, 164. 
Greenspring, 252, 254. 
Grenada, 70. 
Grenden, 40. 
Grendon, 70. 



INDEX 



vn 



Grey Friar's Monastery, 43. 

Greyhound, the, 157. 

Griffin, 28, 69. 

Griggs, 129, 266. 

Grigsby, 45, 46, 48. 

Gruel, 151, 152, 155. 

Grymes, 142, 143. 

Gummey, 286. 

Gundenburg, 69. 

Gunnell, 162, 163, 165, 167, 168, 170, 171. 

Gunston Hall, 87, 104. 

Hack, 120, 129. 

Haddon, 42, 241, 268. 

Hadnut't, 191. 

H albert', 136. 

Hallam, 8. 

Hallowell, 173. 

Hallows, 66. 

Hamilton, 27, 31, 32. 

Hamilton Parish, 139, 140, 178, 180, 182. 

Hammett, 191. 

Hampton, 90, 254, 261, 263. 

Hampton Court, 38. 

Hampton Parish, 239, 262. 

Hanbury, the, 35. 

Hanover Co., in. 

Hanover Town, 87. 

Hansford, 241, 247, 249, 250, 254 255, 

258, 272. 
Hanson, 102. 
Harman, 62. 
Harmanson, 118. 
Harris, 251, 253. 
Harrison, 42, 103, 108, 142, 143, 154, 162, 

245, 260, 269. 
Harop Parish, 239. 
Hart, 223, 232, 233, 235, 236, 237. 
Harvey, 42, 52, 54, 232, 233, 235, 237, 241, 

242, 243, 247, 248, 250. 
Harvine, 95. 

Harwood, 70, 250, 258, 260. 
Hatton, 264. 
Haughton, 44. 

Hawkins, 90, 91, 123, 237, 287. 
Hawthorne, 237. 
Hay, 227, 228, 272. 
Hayden, Virginia Genealogies, 164. 
Haynes, 68. 
Hazlerigg, 135. 
Heale, 61. 
Henderson, 143. 
Heitman, 87. 

Hening, 20, 54, 122, 162, 241, 257. 
Henley, 161. 

Henry, 27, 06, 121, 122, 152. 
Henry VIII., 43. 
Henson, 96 
Herbert, 105. 
Herman, 129. 



1 Herndon, 224. 

Hertford, 44. 

Hewick, 142. 

Hickman, 117. 

Higginson, 241, 263. 

Hill, 70, 119, 241. 

Hinson, 70, 71. 

Hipkins, 89, 149. 

Hockaday, 268, 269. 

Hoge, 176. , 

Holdcroft, 60. 

Holland, 53. 

Holman, 244. 

Hotten, 52, 54, 55, 57, 142. 

Hooe, 63. 

Hopkins, 87, 88, 89, 149. 

Hoppin, 127, 177. 

House of Burgesses, 39, 115, 220. 

Howard, 36-39, 143. 251. 

Howe, 156. 

Howe, Historical Collections of Vir- 
ginia, 237. 

Howell, 134, 135, 241. 

Howes, 259. 

Howson, 63. 

Hubard, 241. 

Huddleston, 218. 

Hudson, 53, 287. 

Hughes, 62, 112. 

Humphreys, 6. 

Hunsdon, 215. 

Hunt, 44, 271. 

Hunter, 73, 86, 99, 108, 225, 276. 

Hurle, 167. 

Hurst, 162, 163, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 
171. 

Hurston, 171. 

Husbands, 186. 

Hutchinson, 218. 

Hyde, (Hide), 38, 241, 264, 286. 

Hyland, 2. 

Indian Fields, 231. 

Ingles, 89. 

Ingram, 249, 251, 252. 

Ingrum, 70. 

Innes, 28. 

Ivey, (Ivy), 99, 120. 

Izard, 70. 

Jackson, 48, 115, 166, 169, 276, 278. 

Jamaica, 69. 

James. 182. 

James City Co., 214, 239, 246, 270, 274. 

James, Duke of York, 239. 

James River, 27, 28, 97, 105, 142, 232, 238, 
270, 271. 

Jamestown, 68, 90, 105, 142, 143, 218, 219, 
220, 221, 222, 223 224, 232, 242, 243, 
246, 248, 249, 252. 

Jamison, 158. 



INDEX 



Jefferson, 7, 18, 19, 20, 27, 142, 143, 214. 

Jennings, (Jenings), 100, 101, 142, 238, 
240, 258. 

John and Presley, the, 42. 

Johnson, 56, 186, 237, 240. 

Johnston, 14, 116, 287. 

Jones, 11, 44. 45- 65, 115, 116, 124, 125, 
126, 241, 254, 272, 273. 

Jordan, 63. 

Jordans, 109. 

Judah, 2, 11. 

Jurnew, 240. 

Juxon, 213, 214. 

Justitia, the, 42. 

Kay, 183. 

Keiling, 64. 

Kelley, 71. 

Kemp, 242, 243, 248, 252. 

Kennedy, 134. 

Kent Island, 68, 238. 

Kent Point, 68. 

Kicoughtan, 232, 254. 

Kiggan, 273. 

Kimball, 112. 

Kinchen, 67. 

King, 151, 152, 191. 

King's Creek, 232, 235, 248, 253, 254, 262, 

285. 
King's Creek Plantation, 234, 235. 
Kingsmill, 235. 

King William County, 87, 88, III. 
Kinsey, 254. 
Kippax, 168. 
Kiquotan, 232, 254. 
Kirby, (Kerby), 282-284. 
Kiskiack, 52. 
Kiskyacke, 238. 
Knight, 61. 
LaFayette, 13, 27. 
La Grange, 166, 171. 
Lamb, 44. 
Lambert, 9, 15. 
Lambert's Point, 113, 128. 
Lamon, 224. 
Lancaster Co., 113, 187. 
Lane, 120, 121, 285. 
Laneville, 70. 
Langhorne, 65. 
Lanum, 69. 
Latany (Latane), 62. 
Laurence, 252. 
Lawson, 63, 123. 

Lee, 19, 42, 95, 127, 134, 137, 138, 140, 
155. 157. 177. 183, 212, 241, 268, 269. 
Leeds, the, 42. 
Leffler, 32, 34. 
Legan, 62, 118, 123. 
Leigh, 47, 48, 285. 
Leightenhouse, 258. 
Leopard, the, 6. 



Lejunie, 160. 

Leitchfield, 109. 

Lemert, 183. 

Leesylvania, 137. 

Lewis, 162, 212, 255, 285. 

Library of Congress, in. 

Liberty, the, 106, 151, 153, 155, 158, 159. 

Licking Run, 183. 

Ligan, (Ligon), 118. 

Lightfoot, 64, 67, 70. 

Lincoln, 27, 223-230. 

Lincolnshire, 238. 

Lindsay, 178. 

Linkenholt, 248. 

Literary and Evangelical Magazine, the, 
174, 175- 

Lit'tletown, 281, 282. 

Lockhart, 45. 

Locust Hall, 135. 

Lodge, 268. 

Lloyd, 273. 

London, 166, 244, 264. 

London Company, 53. 

Longman, 272. 

Long Parliament, 244, 245. 

Louisiana, 85. 

Lowe, 109, 166. 

Lowther, 287. 

Loyall Company, 49. 

Lubridge, 120. 

Ludwell, 143, 251. 

Ludlow, 235, 236, 251, 273. 

Luellin, 41. 

Lutwidge, 120. 

Lux, 88, 89, 101, 102, 146, 151. 

Lyme, the, 39. 

Lynx, the, 39. 

Lyne, 116. 

Lyon, the, 272. 

Lyons, 219, 220. 

Lyon's Inn, 44. 

Machodoc River, Lower, 128, 129, 130, 

138. 
"Machotick Dam," 191. 
Mackie, 109, 147. 
Macmurdo, 16. 
Macon, 58, 59, 269, 275. 
Madison, 26, 27, 2,0, 47, JJ, 143. 
Magruder, 262. 
Mallicote, 115. 
Mallory, 118, 247. 
Manly, 66. 
Mann, 244. 
Manassas, 139, 177. 
Mapsico Creek, 183. 
Marlier, (Marleaw), 53, 54, 56, 57. 
Marshall, 26, 27, 28, 29, 137, 170, 183. 
Marston, 61. 

Marston Parish, 239, 262, 275. 
Martin, the, 42. 



INDEX 



IX 



Martin, 183, 253. 

Martain, 185. 

Martian, (Marteau, Martue, Martin, 

Marlier), 52-57, 233, 236, 238, 241, 

247, 253. 
Martian's Creek, 235. 
Martinique, ic6, 154. 
Maryland, 241. 
Mason, 19, 88, 95, 98, 105, 164, 168, 223, 

276, 277. 
Massachusetts, 218, 220, 221, 222. 
Massenburg, 276, 277. 
Massey, 183. 
Massie, 58, 59. 

Mathews, 232, 240, 242, .243, 246. 
Matthews, 8. 
Matty, the, 42. 
May, 165. 

Mayflower, the, 42, 218, 219, 220, 221. 
"Mayflower," the return of the, 220. 
Maynard, 38, 39. 
Mayo, 49. 
McAfferty, 186. 
McAffrie, 281. 
McCarty, 65, 67, 164, 170. 
McCartney, 2. 
McClain, 186. 
McClellan, 224. 
McClurg, 158. 
McCoy, 183. 
McCulloch, 224. 
McFarland, 32, 112, 135. 
Mcllhany, 178. 
McKenzie, 39. 
McKinney, 17. 
Meade, 166, 167, 170. . 
Mechanicsville, 287. 
Meekins, 60. 
Menifie, 235, 236. 
Mercer, 48. 
Meredith, 92. 
Merriton, 128. 
Metcalfe, 122, 123. 
Meuse Family, 54. 
Middle Plantation, 235, 238, 239, 241, 

253. 254, 262. 
Middlesex Co., 115, 142, 251. 
Middletbn, 63. 

Middletown Parish, 239, 262. 
Miller, 186, 285. 
Minnis, 87. 
Mississippi, 78. 
Mochotick, 191. 
Mode, 268. 
Monitor, the, 174. 
Molly, the, 102. 
Monk, 244, 245. 
Monroe, 6. 
Montross, 130. 
Moody, 268. 



Moore, 171, 176, 236, 242. 

Morecroft, 268, 269. 

Morgan, 233. 

Morley, 273. 

Morrill Tariff, 227. 

Morris, 32, 64, 93, 188. 

Morrison, III, 174, 175, 286. 

Morton, 44. 

Moryson, 215. 

Mottrom, 127, 128, 139, 179. 

Moseley, 162, 163, 165, 169, 170. 

Moss, 147, 169. 

Mountfort, 258. 

Mountjoy, 120, 121, 170. 

Mt. Airy, 234. 

Mt. Vernon, 128, 162, 163. 

Moxley, 163, 165, 169, 170. 

Mugmoreshea, 190. 

Munford, 14, 15, 16. 

Murphy, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. 

Muter, 26, 27. 

Myhill, 118. 

Myres, 65. 

Nanzimond, 274. 

Nancy, the, 42. 

Nantes, 151, 152, 155, 157, 159. 

Napier, 268. 

Nation, the, 131. 

Neapsco Creek, 138, 140, 183. 

Needier, 69, 70. 

Neilson, 42. 

Nelson, 52, 53, 54, 55, 90, 143, 165. 

Nelson, the, 42. 

Nettmaker, 273. 

Newell, 274. 

Newgate, London, 43. 

New Kent Co., 58, 239, 241, 252. 

Newport News, 232. 

Newton, 118, 119. 

New Poquosin, 261. 

New Poquosin Parish, 239, 243. 

New Poquosin River, 240. 

New York, 94. 

Nicholas, 64, 65, 67. 

Nicholson, 258, 259. 

Nicholay, 227, 228. 

Nomini, 186, 187. 

Nomini Bay, 128 

Norfolk, 112. 

Norfolk Co., England, 240. 

Norfolk and Western R. R., 113, 114. 

Norvell, 85, 94. 

Norris, 92 

Northwest Territory, 85. 

Northampton Co., 142, 249. 

Northampton Co., Marriage Bonds, 192- 

212. 

(Alphabetically arranged.) 
North Carolina Telegraph, The, 175. 
North Farnham Parish, 187. 



\ 



INDEX 



Northern Neck, 162, 163, 164, 167, 168, 

170, 186, 189, igo, 191, 214. 
Northumberland Co., 127, 146. 
Northwamborough, 69. 
Norwood, 215, 236, 265. 
Nottingham, 191. 
Nutting, 241. 
Ocorock, 149. 
O'Daniel, 164-166. 
Ohio Co., 88. 

Old Mayflower Pioneer, 221. 
"Oldfields," 237. 
Oldham, 119, 159. 
Old Poquosin River, 239. 
Oliver, 283. 
Oraneig, 70. 
Orrill, 116. 
Ottahotin, 231. 
Overton's Mill, 96. 
Overwharton Parish Register, 170. 
Owen, 269. 
Owsley, 164. 

Page, 99, 212, 241, 253, 255, 269, 274. 
Palmer, 124. 

Pamunkey, 231, 232, 252. 
Pannill, 61. 
Panton, 242. 
Parrish, 61. 
Paraclito, 70. 
Parke, 269, 274. 
Parkinson, 186. 
Parlour, 182. 
Parrish, 61. 
Pasquotank, 147. 

Pastures, (Pastuer), 99, 100, 105, 106. 
Pascataway, 88, 128. 
Pate, 213, 251, 258. 
Payne, 96, 104, 163, 169. 
Pearson, 167. 
Peart'ree Hall, 212. 
Pecke, 270, 271, 272. 
Pemberton, 94. 
Pendleton, 15, 19, 90. 
Penet, 151. 
Penn, 62. 

Penniman, 235, 236. 
Perquimones, 147. 
Perrin, 125. 
Perry, 66, 241. 
Peters, 241. 
Pettit, (Petit), 268. 
Petty, 185. 

Philadelphia, 90, 91, 93, 94, 104. 
Philips, 61, 273. 
Pickens, 227. 
Pickering, 287. 
Pierce, 242. 
Pike, 178. 
Piland, 109. 
Pilgrim Fathers, 53. 



Pilgrim, Ye, 271. 

Pinketham, 126. 

Pinimett's Run, 167. 

Piscataway, 88. 

Pliarne, 104, 151. 

Plumer, 175, 176. 

Plymouth, 218, 219, 220, 222, 230. 

"Plymouth Plantation," 218. 

Plymouth Rock, 221. 

Pocahontas, 168. 

Pollard, 174, 175. 

Pope, 63, 122, 130, 131, 136, 179. 

Pope's Creek, 132. 

Poplar Neck, 240, 262. 

Poquosin Parish, 239. 

Poropotank, 239, 251. 

Porter, 115, 116. 

Portsmouth, 103, 109, 147, 153. 

Port Tobacco, 91, 92. 

Potomac River, 27, 28, 30, 73, 74, 78, 79, 

84, 86, 93, 128, 129, 138, 140, 155, 

163, 187. 
Pott, 238, 241, 242. 
Potter, 223. 
Powell, 17, 62, 115. 
Powell's Run, 137, 138, 139, 140, 183. 
Power, 241. 
Powhatan, 231, 232. 
Poythress, 59. 
Poyntz, 56. 
Pratt, 63. 

Preston, 31, 34, 48, 49. 
Price, 240. 
Prince William Co., 134, 137, 138, 139, 

140, 167, 168, 177, 178, 179, 180, 183, 

191. 
Princess Anne, 147. 
Princeton, in. 
Pritchett, 65. 
Prosperous, Ye, 271. 
Prosser, 61. 
Pryor, 233, 237. 
Purton, 232. 
Putnam, 219. 

Pyanketank River, 142, 232. 
Queen's Creek, 117, 234, 235, 238, 239, 

244. 245. 
Queen Elizabeth, 240. 
Quillen, 230. 
Quinton, 58. 
Rachedale, 66. 
Ralls, 107. 
Randolph, 8, 9, 65. 
Randolph's, Sir John, Reports, 60. 
Ransha, 115. 

Ransom, (Ransone), 60, 125. 
Rappahannock River, 42, 104, 105, 142, 
213, 231, 239. 
Ratcliffe, 165, 166, 169, 170. 



INDEX 



Rawls, 10. 

Raymond, 66. 

Reade, (Read), 57, 235, 247, 248, 249, 
253, 256, 257, 258. 

Reader, 255, 260. 

Reagon, 166. 

Reddall, 135. 

Regnault, 17. 

Rehine, 1, 2. 

Reid, 90, 91, 92. 

Reiley, 185. 

Reim, 109, 148. 

Religious Herald, 175. 

Religions Telegraph, 175. 

Revell, 142. 

Rhodes, 228. 

Rials, 166. 

Rice, 65, 174, 175, 191, 225, 282, 283, 284. 

Richards, 17. 

Richardson, 2, 4, 7, 9, no, 120, 126, 152, 
248, 275. 

Richmond, 13, 31, no, 120, 126, 263. 

Richmond Co., 62, 168, 187, 188, 212. 

Richmond Critic, 68 . 

Richmond Hill, 96. 

Richmond News Leader, 219. 

Ricketts, 64. 

Riddick, 91. 

Riddle, 135. 

Ring, 256, 257, 259, 260, 269. 

''Ringfield," 269. 

Ripon Hall, 240. 

Ritchie, 174. 

Roane, 90. 

Roberts, 62, 287. 

Robertson, 109, 112, 113, 115, 168. 

Robins, 132, 137. 

Robinson, 69, 71, 122, 142, 240, 241. 

Rolfe, 168. 

Ronald, 90. 

Ropes 229. 

Rookings, 254. 

Rolls, 99, 100. 

Roosevelt, 221. 

Roscow, 65. 

"Rosegill," 142, 143. 

Rowlston, 238. 

Royston, 236. 

Ruddy & Duval "U. S. Military Maga- 
zine," 1. 

Rumsey, 27, 28. 

Russell, 267. 

Rust, 123. 

Ryder, 126. 

Salisbury, 232. 

Salter, 148. 

Sandy Point, 121. 

Sandys, 218. 

Sands, 173. 

Sarah Constant, 219, 222. 



Sargeant, 42. 

Satchell, 63. 

Saturday Evening Post, 219, 220, 230. 

Saunders, 50, 102. 

Savage, 58. 

Sawyer, 64. 

Scanderburg, 251. 

Scarburgh, 117, 124, 125. 

Scasbrooke, 247, 255, 259, 260. 

Schouler, 226, 227. 

Slader, 264, 268. 

Sclater, 241. 

Sedgwick, (Sedgwicke), 238, 258, 259, 

260, 269, 286, 338. 
Seward, 227, 228, 229. 
Seymour, 43. 
Shales, 70. 
Sharp, 62. 

Sharpsburg, 225, 228, 287. 
Sheilds, 126, 241. 
Shelton, 273. 
Shenandoah Valley, 112. 
Shepherd, 171. 
Sheridan, 225, 226. 
Sherman, 225. 

Sherwood, 252, 268, 274, 275. 
"Sherwood Forest," 46. 
Shields, 240. 
Shipman, 112. 
Shippen, 70. 
Shirley, 171, 282. 
Shore, 4, 9. 
Shooter's Hill, 142. 
Sible, Parish of, 236. 
Sims, 220, 221. 

Simons, (Simmons), 62, 150. 
Sinclair, 42. 
Shiffes Creek, 270, 279. 
Skiffes Creek Mill, 214, 235. 
Skimeno Creek, 239, 265. 
Skimeno Plantation, 240. 
Skinner, 287. 
Slader, 264, 268. 
Sloop Robert, 37. 
Slaughter, 123. ' 

Smith, 10, 49, 56, 62, 86, 87, 119, 142, 143, 

157, 182, 214 231, 234, 236, 251, 257, 
.258, 273. 
Smith's Creek, (Smyth, Smythe), 235, 

256. 
Smithers, 116. 
Solsbury, 271. 
Sorrell, 138. 

Southampton Co., 14, 15, 276. 
Southcomb, 100. 
South Farnham Parish, 62. 
South Quay, 149, 152. 
Spanishtown, 69. 
Sparkes, 105, no. 
Speaks, 178. 



INDEX 



Speedwell, the, 96, 159, 160. 

Spence, 63, 129. 

Spencer, 128. 

Spicer, 122. 

Spilman, 131. 

Spotswood, 36, 236. 

Spotswood, Governor, Letters of, 38, 39. 

Stafford Co., 134, 139, 143, 183, 187. 

Stanard, 87, 168. 

Stanhope, 171. 

Stanton, 227. 

Stammers, 71. 

Standley, 108. 

Stannup, 64. 

Stanton, 227, 229. 

State Archives, 71. 

Stat'ia, in. 

Steele, 66. 

Stevens, 241, 265. 

St. Andrew's Creek, 240. 

St. Croix, 149. 

St. Dunstans-in-the-East Parish, 128. 

St. Eustatius, 99, 105. 

St. Martin's Parish, Westminster, 126. 

St. Marguerite's Parish, 99. 

St. Paul's Register, 128. 

St. Pierre, 154. 

Stingray Point, 142. 

Stith, 168, 287. 

Stone, 61, 122, 123, 220. 

Storke, 119. 

Strarhey, 285. 

Stratton Major Parish, 69. 

Street, 8. 

Stribiing. 177, 178. ■ 

Stringer, 273. 

Strot'her, 44, 212. 

Suffolk, no. 

Suffolk Co., England, 236. 

Stuart, 86. 

Stubbms, 273. 

Sturman, 63. 

Sugarland Run, 163, 170. 

Summerville, 42. 

Sun, the, and New York Herald, 223. 

Surry Co., 180. 

Sussex Co., England, 44. 

Sv/em, 87, 168. 

Swinnerton, 269. 

Swiney, (Sweeney), 64, 65. 

Syme, 121. 

Tabb, 125, 126. 

Talbert, 165. 

Taliaferro, 173. 

Talman, 214. 

Tate, 64, 251, 258. 

Tayloe, 212, 217, 234. 

Taylor, 118. 

Tazewell, 118. 



Teach, (Tach), 36, 38. 

Telegraph, The, 175. 

Temple, 236, 240. 

"Temple Farm," 233, 235, 236, 257, 258. 

("Temple Field"), 236. 

Terrell, 147, 236, 274. 

"Virginia Merchant, The," 244. 

Thomas, 52, 57, 62, 233, 235, 265. 

Thompson, 4, 31, 32, 42, 62. 

Thornton 61, 125. 

Thorpe, 240, 255. 

Thrift, 170. 

Thurmer, 115. 

Thruston, 63, 68. 

Timson, 115, 117, 124, 125, 240, 264. 

Tindall, 257. 

Tindall's Point, 251, 252, 253, 257. 

Todd, 27, 227. 

T. M., 249. 

Tompkins, 16, 17. 

Too's Point, 231, 240. 

Tortugas Island, 240. 

Toten, 213, 268. 

Tot'ero Fort, 121. 

Townsend, 233, 235, 236. 

Townsend's Creek, 235. 

Trask, 109. 

Trent, the, 229. 

Triplett, 120. 

Truehart, 174. 

Trumbull, 55, 56. 

Truro, 163. 

Truro Parish, 86, 164, 165, 167, 168. 

Tubb, 40. 

Tucker, 55, 70, 71, 116. 

Turberville, 287. 

Turk's Island, 158. 

Turnbull, 233. 

Turner, 254. 

Tuscarora Run, 166. 

Tustian 244. 

Tyler, 46, 48, 54, 240. 

Tyler, Cyclopedia of Biography, 45. 

University of Cambridge, 43. 

Upper Machotique, 191. 

Utie, 233, 234, 236, 242. 

Utimaria, 234, 236. 

Vaden, 60. 

Valley of Virginia, 224. 

Van Bibber, 102, 103, 104, 108, 148, 154. 

Vandam, 107, 154. 

Vantromp, the, 106 

Vanse, 62. 

Vaughan, 282. 

Vaulx, 240, 241, 255, 273. 

"Vaulx Hall,'' 117, 240. 

"Vaulx Land," 240. 

Vernon, 160. 

Vicaris, 65. 






INDEX 



Xlll 



Virginia Assembly, 31. 

Virginia Magazine, 87, 214. 

Virginia State Library, 18-26, 40, 287. 

Visitor and Telegraph, the, 175, 176. 

Venture, the, 42. 

Waddy, 63. 

Walker, 60, 116, 187, 188, 273, 282. 

Walklate, 188. 

Walklett, 251. 

Waller, 234 240. 

Walloon, 53, 55. 

Walpole, 143. 

Welthall (Walthall), 118. 

Ward, 225. 

Warden, 2. 

Warner, 168, 248, 285. 

Warner Hall, 162. 

Warren, 241, 242. 

Warrenton, 181, 182, 183. 

Warwock, 174. 

Warsaw, 132, 212. 

Warwick, 282. 

Warwick Co., 119, 212, 214, 256. 

Warwick River, 115. 

Washington, 26, 34, 45, 49, 53, 55, 94. 
128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 
138, 143, 151, 162, 163, 179, 225, 227, 
235, 242. 

Washington Co., 74, 75. 

Washington Parish, 123, 132, 191. 

Watchman of the South, the, J7S- 

Watchman and Observer, the, 176. 

Watkins, 166. 

Watson, 42. 

Watt, 1, 2, 3, 16. 

Watts, 212, 266, 283. 

Waughop, 64. 

Wayles, 214. 

Webb, 70, 93. 

Weeden, 123. 

Weldon, 126. 

Well, 101. 

Welles, 229. 

Wells, 101. 

Wenycott, 157. 

Weems, 163. 

Werowocomoco, 232. 

West', 4, 233, 234, 237, 240, 242, 254. 

Westcombe, 187. 

West Horsham, 44. 

West Indies, 37, 101, 149, 153, 240. 

Western Presbyterian Herald, the, 26. 

Westinger, 148. 

Westminster, 126. 

Westminster Abbey, 43, 262. 

Westmoreland Co., 128, 129, 130, 131, 
132, 134, 135- 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 
170, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191. 

West Point, 93, 232, 240, 252. 

Whale, 123. 



Whaley, 126, 249, 251, 252, 269. 

Wheeler, 244, 245. 

Whiston, 66. 

Whittaker, 255. 

White, 170, 287. 

White Ho'ise, 9. 

Whitlock, 123. 

Wiat, (Wiatt), 232, 238, 241, 242, 243. 

Wiggmton, 135, 185, 190. 

Wiiberforcc, 262. 

Wild, 240. 

Wiles, 236. 

Wilkes, 12, 229. 

Wilford, 249, 250. 

Wilkinson, 1 19. 

William and John, the, 247, 272. 

Williams, 61, 168, 170, 184, 189, 191. 

Williamson, 65. 

Williamsburg, 18, 70, 71, 87, 89, 92, 95, 
'98, 99, 109, no, 126, 142, 143, 147, 
148, 149, 155, 157, 235, 238, 255, 262, 
287. 

William and Mary College Quarterly, 
44, 45, 59, 60, 61, 68, 117, 120, 122, 
123, 126, 128, 143, 174, 227, 234, 236, 
250, 257, 261, 263, 266, 282, 287. 

William and Mary College, 35, 42, 54, 
70, 143, 184, 214, 235, 253,^259. 

Willis, 237, 268, 269, 287. 

Willoughby, 147, 148, 149, 155, 157, 169. 

Wilson, 1, no, 121, 272. 

Winchester, 44. 

Windebank, 248. 

Windsor, 142. 

Wins or, 166. 

Winston, 121, 172, 173. 

Winthrop, 222. 

Wirt, 9. 

Wise, 165, 169. 

Wood, 50, 186, 188, 287. 

Woodbridge, 120. 

Word, 124. 

Wordell, 187. 

World War, 235. 

Worlds Work, 220. 

Woodstock, 143. 

Wormeley, 142, 143, 212, 240. 

Wormeley's Creek, 68, 236, 237, 238, 240, 
261, 273. 

Wormeley's Landing, 237. 

Woronigh Church, 10. 

Worsham, 172. 

Wren, 167. 

Wright, 121, 127-141, 177-191, 269. 

Writt, 132. 

Wrotham in Kent, 241, 247. 

Wyatt, 55. 

Wynn, 68. 

Wythe, 19. 

Wythe Court House, 49. 



/ 



INDEX 



Yeardley, 114. 

Yoacomoco Forest, 186. 

York, 54, 68, 233, 236, 237, 238, 241, 243, 

272. 
York County, Records, 126, 212, 213, 214, 

231-275. 
York Plantation, 235. 
York River, 9, 105, 231, 232, 233, 234, 

235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 250, 257, 273. 



Yorktown, 53, 87, 212, 213, 231, 232, 233, 
238, 241, 242, 243, 255, 256, 259, 260, 
261, 262. 

Yorktown Creek, 233, 235, 237, 239. 

Yorkhampton Parish, 239, 262. 

York Parish, 237, 239, 261, 262. 

Yorkshire, 240, 263. 

Young, 186, 253, 275. 

YuiUe, 2. 





B l N D E R v. i n c ' 

Bound-To-PIease* 

JAN 00 

[N. MANCHESTER, INDIANA 46962 I